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Full text of "The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1: 700 Things for Boys to Do"

Pcoject Gutenbenj's The Boy Hechanic: Volume i, by Populat Mechanics 

This eEoot is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and uith 
almost; no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy ^'^r give it auay oc 
re-use it under the terns of the Project Gutenberg License included 
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Title; The Boy Mechanic; Volume 1 
700 Things For Boys To Do 

Author: Popular Mechanics 

Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBoot #12655] 

Languatje: Encjlish 

Character set encoding: TS0-B859-1 

"■" START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BQY HECHAMTC: VOLUME 1 '■' 



Produced by Don Kostuch 




Ths Boy Mechanic 

Vol 1 

70Q Things for Boys ta Da 

SOO Illustrations Showing How 





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Jack Lbiisfield 

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Ed 

jBn23, 193S 
FiamPvlallier 



THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUliE I 



Tianscnbei'u Notes 

This lezlaccmalelyRproduces llie origmBlbaok except for adherence lo PiDjcclGalenbiJig 
gmdelines Each project title is falla wed by its ordinal pt^e nmiiber Id allow use of tiie 
alphabetical contents (iiide:i) at the ciidof tiiebook The book used very complex typcMtlii^ 
to conaeive space This tiaiiscnpliDJiDses simple one -column biieai layDul 

The lezl only veision L3 of Imiiled usebecansc of the widespread occnnencc of diagiems 
and illnsha lions Use tiie pdf veision foi the complete text 

Many project? aie of contemporary interest — m^ic, kiles and boomerang:^ for example Try 
a "Queil" for staiteia 

Theie are manypojecls of pm'cly histoncalinteiesl, such as chemical photography, 
phonographs, end devices for coal fnniaces 

Ana llier class of projects lUustrale llie cavilei attitude toward eiiv'iromnenl and lie allh m 
1913 These piajects involve items such as gmipoivdei, aceh^ene, hydiogen, lead, nieicmy, 
siilfmic acid, nitnc acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium c^mde, polassinm 
ferroc^^inide, coppei sulfate, and hydrochloric acid Several involve the construe lion of 
liazaidans electncal devices Please view these as snapshots of cnltme and altitude, nol as 
si^gestions for contemporary acll^^ty 

Be careful and have fun or simply le ad and enjoy a liipmlo yesteiday 



Postei"s Note 

The PDF formal of this e-book was geneiated from the RTFby OpenOffice 

Aiiyfntuie levisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way 




How la Make a Glider (See page 171) 



THE 

BOY MECHANIC 

VOLUME 1 

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO 

HOW TO CONSTRUCT 

WIRELE^:^ OUTFITS, BO ATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT. AERIAL 
GLIDERS. KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS. ELECTRICAL 

APPARATUS. CAMERAS 

.M. 

HONDREDS OF OTH ER TH IN G S WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY 

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS 

CGPYEICi-HlED.L9I3.BYH H WIND 50E C HIC AG 

POPULAR MECHANICS CO. 

PUBLISHERS 




A Modtl Sl«3m Engine [1| 

The Rccoinpeiiyii^ iskelch Jliisliafes a h*o-c^iiiuiersiQgle-aclmg, poppef\'iih'e sleem 
engine of lioine cansliucliaii 

The entire engine, ei:ceplii^ the flywlieel, shiifl', vpih-e cpims, pistons andbiacii^ rods 
caruieclir^ tlie upper Emdlowei plates af Ihe frame proper, is of brass, the Dtheiptuts 
nELiLiedbemg af caistiiDnandbar steel 

The c^^indei'^, G, Eue af seamless bid^s lubing, 1-1^2 in oatside diainetei, Ihe pislans, 
H, are ordinary I-IO m pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into Hie cyhnders 
with oil Find emery This aperation also fimsliei; Ihe inside of the cylinders 

The upright lodsbinduig Ihe topandbattam plates Rie af sleel ladabaiit IJ3-m m 
diainetei, llueadedmta the topplale andpaisisu^ tluough hales m HiebDltDm plate with 
heaagonEJ brass nuts beneath 

The vab/es, C, and theij seals, B,baied with a counteisinkbit, are plainly sliown Tlie 
vpilves were made by Hireadir^ a c a ppei washer, 3/S m indiRmetei, and sere wir^ il on 
tlie end of lhe\'aK'e rod, tlienivipir^ aniDuglily b tapeied mass of SDldeiandgimdu^ it 
into the seals B wilh emery and ail 

The valve ladsopeiate in guides^ D, made af IJ'^m bmss Tubing, which passes 
tlirough the tap plRte and mto Ihe lieav-ybrEissbEir cantRinir^ Ihe VBivt seals andsteEini 
pflssE^es at the top, mto wluchthey aie plug -fitted Riid soldered 

The locatianand RiiangementDf tlie valve seats andsleam passages aie shown in the 
sbelch, the flalbMconlainu^ Iheinbeu^ soldered to Ihe top plate 

The steam chest. A, over tlie valve mechanism is conshuctedof 1-ui 




Ei^uie Details 



square brass tubing, aiie side being sawed DutRndthe open ends filled wilh pieces of 

iH5 ia sheet brass and soldered m The steam mlelLS a gasoline pipe coimectiansuch 
as used on automobiles 

The valve- ope lating cams, F, aie niEide of Ihe metal eruls of an old type wntei platen, 
ane being finished to shape and tlienfinuly fastened face to £ice to tlie otiiei. and used 



ag a pattern m filu^ tlie other to fhape AttRchiiieiit la Hie shaft, N, isby ineaiis of 
gelscieivs Lvhichpess thiough tlie sleeves 

The iiiaiiibeani^:3, lA, an the suppDits, O, aiidthe ciaiit-eiid beaiaiigs of the 
caimeclir^ rods, E, are split and held.inpasitioiiby mBchine sciews with provTsianfoi 
tpikir^ them up when worn 

Tlie exhaustu^ of spent steam is occompLshedby mepins of slots, I, sowed into Ihe 
fronts of tlie cyhiideia bI Pibaut l/S in aba^'e the lowest position of the pislon's top at tlie 
end of the stiate, at which posihon of Ihe pLstonthe valve rod drops into Ihe cutant 
poibon of Ihe cam and allows the vpih'e to seat 

All the woik an this ei^me, spve luimi^ Ihe pistons, wliich wets done 
ma npchuie shop far a smEiU sum, Eind niakii^ Ihe flywlieel, Ihisbeii^ taken from pn 
old dLsinaiitied model, wpis accomphshed with a hactsaw, bench diill, caiboiundmn 
wheel, files, taps and dies The bpise, Q, ismEide of b lieavypece of brpiss 

The Bctionis smoolhand the speed h^h I^leEini ls snppliedby ei sliee t brass boilei of 
aboul 3 pt capicily, heotedwith El Bimsen burner — Contiibutedby Haiiy F Lowe, 
Washington, D C 

Mogir ^iriiHiuip] 

The magic hand niEide of wax is given to the audience for eKainination, eiIso aboard 
which IS auspendedbyfo HI pieces of common picture- frame wire The hiind is placed 
upon Ihe boaid and Einswers, by lappu^, Einy question asked by members of Ihe 
audience The hand and the boEiri maybe ezamined at anytime Eindyel Ihe rappir^ ciui 
be conlinued, tliough suiiounded by the audience 

Tlie Magic WEind, London, gives the seciet of tlusspint hand eis follows The liand is 
prepaiedby conceahr^ m the wrist a few soft uan plates, tlie wnstbeii^ afterwards 
bound with black veh/et as shown inF^ I Tlie board is hollow, the top being made of 
tlun veneer (F^ 1) A small magiiel. A, is coruiected to a small ftEilpacket lEimpbatteiy, 
B The board is suspended by four lenglhs of picture -frame wue one of wliich^ E, is 





Weis HEiiid on Boaid and Electrical Connections 

comiected to tlie batleiy andanolhei, D, to the mp^net Tlie otiiei wiies, F and G, Eiie 
only liolding wiies All tlie wires are fEislened- to p small oinpimentpil switch, H, which 
IS fitled with a conneclii^ pli^ at tlie top The pli^ can be taken out oi put mas desired 

The top of the boaidmustbe made to openoi slide off so tliat when the bEifteiy is 
exhausted ei new one can be instnlled Everytlui^ miislbe fiimly fixed to the boaidand 
tlie hollow splice filled ui with \tmx, which will make the boaid sound solid when 
tppped 

In presenting the tnct, the peifoimer gp'es tlie hand and boEud with wires andswilch 
for exEimination, keeping tlie pli^ conceEiled mhis r^htluind Wlien leceivii^ the boEud 
back, Ihe pli^ is secietly pushed into the switcli, which is held ui the i^htlumd The 
liand IS then placed on the board Erh'eithe niEignel When the perfoimei wislies the hEind 
to mo^'e he pushes the plug in, wluch tiuiis on tlie cuiient and causes the magnet to 
athact the uan mtlie wiist, and will, Iheiefore, mEite the liand rap The switch can be 
made similEirto Ein ordinary push button so the lappi^ maybe CEisily coutioUed witliout 
dele ebon by Hie audience 

Mnldng Shis and Tobo^gaiLE [3| 







■' TvlalRing^kis and^Ski 



Duniig Ihe wiiilei monliis e^'eryDiie is tlmilu^ of stating, coeshr^ arsti nuimi^ and 
jiimpir^ Those lao tinudlo iiui down a hill gtaiiding uptight on ski3 musttflke then 
pleaisiiie m coaistmg di :3kE[lii^ 

Tlie orduiarysticRnbe made mla a caaslii^ ski-tobogganbyjoum^ two piuis 
tDgethei wilhbais witlioutinjuiytD tSieiiuse foi numing Eindjiinipii^ Tlie oidinaiy 
factDry-niEide stis castfiani S3 50 peiptui up,butEuiybDycan make an excellent pun 
fat 50 cents 

Intnabing a peu of iskis, iselecttwo istiips of Notwaypuie fiee floTa knots, 1 m Ihict, 
4 in wide and 7 Dt 3 ft iai^ Tiy topiociue a^ fine Riid stiaight el giain as possible Tlie 
pieces aie diessed tlun at boHi etuis leaving aboul 1 ft in the center tlie full Ihicttiess of 
I in, and gradually tlimning la a scani IH in ai Ihe ends Otie end of each pec e is 
tapered to a pointbeginnir^ 12 in &ani tlie etid A giDove is cut an Ihe underside, 
about IMui wide Find l/S m deep, Eindnuumig aliuast Ihe full length of the ski This 
wiUniEite it tract sliaightand lends ta prevent side shppmg Tlie sliape af each piece far 
a ski, as it appeaigbefoiebendir^, is shawiiinF^ I 

Tlie painted end of eachpece w placed in baJii^ walei for at least 1 hour, after 
which llie pieces aie ready foi be iidii^ The bend is made ananandinaiystepladdei 
Tlie pointed ends aie sliick under Ihe back af one step and Ihe olhei end securely lied to 
tlie laddei, as ishDwn inF^ 2 Tliey should remain tied to llie ladder 4S hauis in a 
inoderale tempetaluie, aflei which tliey will lioldtheu sliape permanently 

Tlie two straps. Fig 3, are nailed an a httle fonvaid af tlie center of gmvity so that 
when the foot is hfled, the fiaiit 



A 




FIs.l 



Fia.1 



^ 



Pla ^^PmmLnt fir B^lH 

F^. I, Fig 2^ F^. 3 - Fdiiiiu^ llie Skis 



af [lie p;ki inllbe laised Tack ana piece of islieejKkmai deeihide where Ihe foaliesis. 

Fie 4 

The best finish fbi skis is boiled hnseedoil Aflei two Diliiree 




PIa, 4— Titr Too auift 

F^. 4- The Tae Utiaps 

BEpIicQliDrLS Ihe underside will take a pohshbke gla^sfrom Ihe contact with Ihe isiiow. 

The ski-toboggaii is made byplocii^ Iwd psus of skis togethei side byside 




tJH. 5 — fiki-TvLik<«Ki>ii 

F^. 5 - Ski- Toboggan 

andfEislenmg them with two bars across tlie lop The bais aie held with V-shaped me lal 

chps a:3 shown mF^ 5 -Contiibutedby Frpink Scobie, SleepyE]^, Miim 

HoTncmad* Life Preiervf r [4] 

Procuie an inner tube of a bic^^rle tue, the closed-end kind, and folditmfom 
alteniRle sections, as sliownm F^ I Culoi leai a pece of cloth uito ships Eiboul l/!!in 
wide, and knot tliem together Faslen this long gtnp of cloth to the folded tube Riid 
weave il alternately in and out, hiivii^ each 





Joan Tnb* md Co*cr 
F^.I.Fig 2 ~ Inner Tube aiid Covci 



iiui of tlie clalli about 4 ui apart, mitilit i? bound ai; ahaivii iiiF^ I 

Make b cpise af cam'as tliat will singly fit the folded tube wlien inflated The firaps 
tliatliold Ihe piesei'h'eito the body iiiRybe made of oldsuspeiidei strop; Tliey aie 
gei^edto Ihe cpise hi one end and fastened al the alhei with clasps such eis iisedon avei- 
allshaps Tlie tube can be easily uifla led by blowuig into the valve, bI Ihe same time 
lioldii^ Ihe value steindawn with the teeth The fuushed preserver is sliownui Fig 2. 

How la M^kf Boamcrangs [4] 

When the ice is loo thin for skalii^ and Ihe snow is not light foi skis, pboutthe only 
tlm^ ta do IS ta stay m the house Abooineiang club will help to fillmbetween Find 
also furiuslies goadexeicise foi Ihe muscles of the aim Aboamemr^ can be made 





Dntdini ipd CuttlbK Ih4 Wood 

Bending andCutling the Wood 

af a piece of well seasoned hickaiy plank The plank is well steamed m a washboileioi 

alheilaige kettle and thenbeni la a nice coive^ as shown in F^ I It is heldm this cuive 
until diy, with two pieces muled on Ihe sides as shown 

Aftei the pece is thaiaug lily dried out, leniove the side pieces and cut ilmto sections 
with a sow, as sliown mFig 2 The pieces are then dressed louiid Apece of plEiiik 12 
m wide and 2 ft lor^ will moke sixboomeiangs 

To tluaw a boomerang, gmspitand liold Ihe same as a club, wilh Ihe liollowside 
awayfiom^u Pmclice fustatsome objectabout 25 ft distant, and ma shoittune Ihe 
tlirowei will be able to hittlie mEuk ovei IQD ft away Any worker in wood con luinoul 
a gie fit number of boomerangs cheaply -Conlribntedby J E Noble, Toianto, Ontano 

Hcpw to M*ke an Eskimo Snow House JS] ByGEORGEE WALSH 

Playing in die snow can be raised la a fine nit if boys andguls will bnild die ii 

creations with some attempt at Euclutectiiial skill and not content themselves wilhmeie 
roi^h work Walking m snow and ice opens a wide field for an expiession of lasle Riid 
ui%'eiitioii,buttlie constiucbon of houses and foits out of this plastic luatenEil piovides 



tlie grealeslamomit of pleasure to tlie nannallyheEilliiybDyoi gul 
The siiDiv liouse af the Eskuna is probably tlie unheallhiesl af builEliiigs niRde by Eiiiy 

^avngs to live m^bul it makes an excelieiitpla^iDUPe in wiiitei, and lepieisenlsattlie 
^aine tune h iiio^l ingeniDus employment of Ihe aich s^lem ui buildup The EskuiiDS 
biuldtlieii snow liouses without the aid of any scaffolding di inteiior false wort, and 
while tiiere is a ke^lone at the top of the dome, ilw not essential to the snppDitof the 
walls These aie self-suppoilir^ fiDin the time the fiisl snow blocks aie piil down until 
tlie la^tcDuise is laid 

The snowlioupe is of thebeeluve sliape and Ihe giound plan is IhRlof a cucle The 
circle IS fust laid out on the ground and a space cLeEuedfoiil Tlieoa row of snow 
blocks IS laid on tlie ground and anolhei coiuse of sunilar blacks placed on top Tlie 
snowblocks Eue nDte:iactlysquE[ie insliape.bntabDul 12 m king.flui Iiighand4ni5 
m thick LELigeioismallei blocks canbe used, according to sise of the lioiise ELiid 
tluckness of Ihe walls 

First, Ihe snowblocks mustbe packed and pressed fumlymlo position out of moist 
snoivtliat will pack A veryl^ht, diy snoiv will not pack easily, and it maybe necessary 
to use a httle water If Hie snow is of the r^hl consistency, tliere will be no ttDuble m 
pfLckir^ and working wilhit As most of the blocks Eire to be of Ihe same si/z 
tluoughont, it willpiy to make a mold for tliem by forming Eibox of old boards nailed 
togethei, minus tlie top, Riid with a movable bo Itom, oi mthei no bottom at all Place Ihe 
four sided box on h flat boaid and ram snow m it, forcing it down closely Then by 
liflu^ tlieboi: up and lappuig the box from above, the block will diapout In tins way 
btocks of iinifonnsise are formed, winch niEikes ]lie building smiplei and eEisier 

While one boy makes the blocks Einothei can shave Ihem olTalthe ei^es and two 
otheis can build the liouse, one inside of the ciicle and Hie other outside The Eskmios 
bmldtheu snow liouses mtlus wsy. and the man inside sla]^ there uiibl lie is completely 
walled m Tlien the door and a window aie cut through the wall 




Laying the Snow Bucks 




Three -Room Snow House 

Each layer of snowblocks inustliave a sl^ht slant al the top toward the center so tliat 
tlie walls will constantly curve mward Tins slant at the lopis oblainedbeltei by slicing 
ofTthe lower siufaces of eachbtockbefoie putbr^ it mits course Tlie lop will then 
liave a uiufoim mward slant 

The firslcomse of Ihe snow liouse sliouldbe tlucker than the olheis, and tlie lluckness 
of tlie walls gradually decreases toward the top A wall, however, made of 6-m. btocks 



IhioughDut will lioldup h :3iiow house peifeclly, if its topis na more tliaii if ai 7 ft pbave 
tlie gioiind If a higher house l3 needed tlie wpJli; should be IliickeiatHie base aiid ifeE 
up loward tlie middle 

The bmldei lias no iiiortiu foi binding Ihe blocks logether, and llieiefoie he must 
inake his joints smooth Eiiid even and force in loose snow to till up tlie crevices A httle 
eKpenence will enable one to do this work well, and the constiucliDnof the house will 
proceed rapidly The Eskimos build adEhtions to tlieii housesby addii^ vanoiis dome- 
shaped structures to one side. Find tlie ynuiig Eirclutectcan imitale them Such dome- 
shaped struclures aie shown m one of tlie illusti'ations 

A factnol weEundeistood and appreciated is tliat tlie Eskimo beelirve snow house 
lepiesents Irue aichbiiildii^ It lequiies no scaiToldu^ m building and it ezeits no 
outwaid llinisl In tlie oidinaiy keystone aichusedbybmldeis, a, temporary structure 
must be erecled to hold the walls up until the ke^lone is filtedui position, and the base 
must be buthessedagainsl anouhrard thrust The Eskimo does not liave to consider 
tliese pomls There is no ouhrard thiust, and Ihe top keystone is not necessary lo hold 
tlie stiTictuie up 11 is doubtful ivhether suchanaich could be built of bnck or stone 
witlio lit scaffolding, but witli the snow blocks ilis a simple niatlei 

SecRtDoarLack|6] 

The sketch sliows the constiuclionof a lock 1 have on a dooi wliich is quite a ni^leiy 
to Ihose itflio do not know liow it operates It also keeps lliem out The parts of tlie lock 
on Ihe mside of the dooi are sliownmFig [ These parts can be coveiedso tliatno one 
can see Ihem 

The ordinary latch and catch Aaie attached to Ihe doorm the usual inamier The latch 
IS hfled with a stick of wood B, which is aboul I fl long and 1 m wide, and pivoted 
aboul IwD-lhinls of the wayfiom the top as sliowii 




F40 I f^ft a 

The Lock Parts 

Fig. 1, Fig 2. F^. 3 -The Lock Pflrla 



The latch A is connected to Ihe stick B with a sirong coid run tlirough a staple to secure 
a nght-ai^le pull between the pieces A nail, C, keeps tlie slick B fiom falling ovei to 
tlie left The piece of wood^ D, is 6 oi S m long andatlacliedto aboil thai runs lliroi^h 
tlie door, tlie opposile endbeii^ faslenedto the combination dial Two kinds of dials are 
shownmFig 2 The piece D is fastened on Ihe boll aninchoi two fioin Ihe surface of 
tlie dooi to permit placing a spiral spni^ of medium shei^th mbelweenassliownm 
Fig 3 The opposite eiidof Ihe boll maybe screwedmto the dial, whichcan be made of 
wood, or an old safe dial will do A nail is diiven tlirough Ihe outer end of the piece D 
and Ihe end cut off so thatil will pass ovei the piece B when Ihe dial is turned Wlien Ihe 
dial IS pulled out sl^hlLy and tlien turned toward the right, the nail will catch on the 
piece B andopen the latch -Contiibutedby Geo Goodbrod, Union, Ore. 



A CanvenimtH«l-DisliH4U.tr [T] 



WlienlEitu^ holdisliesfiom the sieve, ilisvery caiivenieiitla have lioldeis liandyfai 
use Foi Ihis puipase I sciei^ed Iwa gcrew e^^smlo the ceihi^, one m fioiilof the islD^'e 
directly above tlie ploce where the holder should hai^, Euidthe olhei back af tlie stove 
aiidoulof the way I next ran a slioiig cord tluough Ihe tita e^:3 To one eiidof the coid 
I EitlELched h weight iimde of a clean Lump of coal The cordis just long enough to lei Ihe 
weight liang a few inches above the floor and puss tliroughbalhisciewe^s I fastened a 
isniali iir^ to Ihe oilier end to keep the coidfram slipping back by Ihe pull of the weight 
I then fastened two peces of istiii^ to the iii^ at the end af the coidandaltached Einiron 
liolder to Ihe end of each string The struts should be ]uslloi^ enough la keep tlie 
lioldersjustovei the stave wlieie Iheyare alifa^ 




Holders m b Coiive me lit Place 

leadyfar use, as Ihe i^eight aliva^ draws them back to ploce — Contiibutedby R S. 
Pvlemll, Syracuse, New Vork 

Mqgk-Bcx Eicapt [7] 

The thirds required la make this tnck are a heavyptictu^baj: wilh caver, ane pmr af 
ispecial Imiges, one arlwo hiis|s forasniEiny pndlocks and a small bultonhook, isays the 
liplmix 

The liii^eg must be tlie kind for Bltachir^ uiside of tliebaz If ordinary butli; are used^ 
tlie cover of tlie box 




llat ^nin Hlnfm and LikIi 

Bas wilh Hinges and Lock 



must be cut as much sliortas Ihe thickness af the endboaid The hinges gliouldhave 
pins tliatwjU shp episily thioi^h tlie paits 

Before enlem^ Ihe bo:i the perfoimer conceals the buttonhook on lu'S peisoii^ and as 
isoona:; the coh'erii; closed and locked^ and the box placed ma cabinet or behind a 
scieen, he pushes tlie pnoi boll of the hinge out fai enai^h to ei^age the knob end 
with Ihe buttonhook wluch is iL'sed to pull tlie pui fiom Ihe lui^e Bothhir^es aie treated 
m llus niannei and the cavei pushed up, allowii^ Ihe |Kifonnei la getouland unlock 
tlie pfldlacki; ivilh a duplicate key The bolls oie replaced in Ihe hii^es, the box locked 



aiid llie peifoniiei slep^ aul mviei* 

A Fb>iir Sifitr [7] 

Wlienisifhiig flaui man aidiiiary siffh'e I liaisleii the praceiss Eind avoid Ihe disa^ieeEible 
iiecei^gityof keepu^ my liaoEla ui Ihe flom by letir^ tlie lap fioiii a small tinlEiiii ceui 
aiidplacu^ it an lap of Ihe flam with its isheip ec^es down Wlien Ihe uieve is shaken, 
tlie can lop will mund up the floui and piess il lluaugli quickly -Contiibuled by L. 
Alberta Nanell, Augusta, Go. 

AJiuiKim 

An automobile liom with the biilb Find leedde lac lied makes a good fminel It must be 
tlioiai^hly cleaned and dnedaflei usu^ a^ a funnel. 

How to MikF Cointr Pi«« for 3 Blolttr Pad [9] 

Ta piDtecl Ihe coineis ofblotlii^ puds such a? will be faund on aIniDsl e\'eiy wnting 
desk, pioceed as follows 

Fust, mpike a des^n af a sise piapoitionEile ta the size af the pad Find make h nght- 
ai^led tiiai^le, as shaivii mF^ I, ondiawmg paper Leave a ismall niEiigm all aromid 
tlie edge and then place same decarative foim theiem Make allowance far flaps an Iwd 
side:3, as ^howii, which may later be turned back Eiiid folded under wlientlie melal is 
woiked llshauldbe naled that the comers of Ihe design are to be chpped sl^hlly Alga 
note the slight D^'emm at the top with the resullii^ V-:3hR|Kd indentEiliDn 

Ta make a design sumlar to the one shown, draw one-lialf of il, then fald along the 
ceiitei hue and lub Ihe back of Ihe paper with a knife handle or same alherhari smoath 
ismface, and the othei half of Ihe design will be tmcedon the isecond :3ide With tlie 
metal sheaii3, cutaiitfom pecei; of coppei ar brass of No 12 gai^e and with carbon 
pepei Irace Ihe sliape and decorative des^n an Ihe metal Then cutout Ihe outline and 
file Ihe ei^es smooth 

Co\'ertlie melal avei with two coal:; of black asplialtum vanusli^ allowii^ each coat 
tune lo diy Cavei the back and all the face except tlie wlute background Immerse ma 
solution of 3 parts water, 1 part lutiic acid and I part sulphmic acid \Vlientlie melal lias 
been etched to the desued depth, about 1-33 of an incli^ lemove it and clean off the 
asphalimn with tuipenline Use a slick wiiha ie^ bed on the end far tins purpose so a^ la 
keep tlie solubonaff the hands andclolhes The four pieces should be worked at die 
same time, one for each comei 

It lemauis tobeiid Ihe flap; Place Ihe piece ina vise, as sliownui Fig 2,andbeiidlhe 
flap sliarply to a i^hl angle Nei:l place a pece of metal of a Ihickness equal to tliat 
af tlie blotter pad at tlie bend and widi Ihe mallet bring the flap down pamllel to Ihe face 
af the comer pece. Fig. 3. If the measuruig has been done properly, the flaps 




Pvfemier of Forming the Elates 

ai^htta lueel snugly at the coniei If they do not, it maybe necessary to bend tliem 
back andeitliei leniave some melal with Ihe shears arto work die metal o\'er fardier All 



Ihe edges slioiildbe leflsmDolli, a inelEJfile aiid emery pa per being used fbi Ihis 
purpose 

If a iDuchof cdIdiis desued, it maybe liadby fillmg Ihe elched peils witheiiEimel 
tinledby Ihe addiliDn of oil colors, such as aie used foreiiaiiieluigbaliiliibs Aftei Ihis 
lias dned, smooth it affwilh pumice stone and w^ler To keep the melal from larmslmig, 
covei it with baiiana-oil lacquer 

Boring Hoks in Cork [8| 

The foUaitfii^ hints will be found useful ivhenbani^ holes m cork Inbonng Ihioi^h 
rubbei coiks, h htlle liousehold ammonia apphed to tlie bit enables one to make a much 
j^moothei hole and one that is iieaiLy the same sise at both openii^s The common cork, 
if rolled under Ihe shoe sole, CRube punctured easily and a liole can be bored shaighler 
The boiu^ is made easier by bailir^ the coik, and this apeiation insures a hale llial will 
he Ihe desired size and lempiin tlie sise af Ihe punch or bil used 

Stlf-L^iingArt Scudil^hi [9] 

ApiRclical and easily conslrucled self-Iightii^ ric seRiclil^hl canbe mnde m the 
foUowii^ mamiei Fiacuie el laige can, about if m m diameter, and cntthiee holes in 
its side about 2 m from the back end. Find in Ihe posilians shown m Ihe sketch Two of 
the holes are catlaige enough lo halda short sechon of a garden liose l^hlly, as 
shown alAA A piece of poicelain tube, B, used for uisulalion, is fitted t^htly m Ihe 
tliud lioLe Tlie liose insulation A sliould hold flie caibonF iigidiy, while the caibonE 
should lest loosely III its uisulation 

The miiei end of the caibonE is supported by el piece of No 25 Gemian-silveiwiie, 
C, which IS aboutfi in long This wire inns tluough Ihe 




. ,. An Ea a Large Tin Can 

Arc m a Laige Can 

porcelain Tube to the buiEling postD The buiElii^ post is fastened to a wood pli^ in 
the end of the tube Tlie tube B is adjusted so that the end of Ihe caibonE is piessir^ 
agEiinsI Ihe carbon F The electric wires aie caimected to the CEiibon Fand Ihe biiidu^ 
post D A lesistance, R, sliouldbe in the line 

The cnrreni, m passu^ thioi^h the lamp, heats Ihe sinpof GeimELii-silvei wiie, 
causir^ itta e:iparLd This e:ipansian lowers the end of The caibonE, separaluig the 
poinls of the Vwa caibons and thus piovidii^ el space between them for the formation 
of an arc When tlie ciuienlLS turned off, the Gennan-sih-ei wire contracts and draws 
the two carbon ends together ready for hghiir^ j^ain The feed canbe adjusted by 
sbduig the CELibon F through its uisulation 

A resistance for Ihe arc mELybe made by runnir^ Ihe cnrreni through a watei 
rheostat ai Ihroi^h 15 ft of No 25 gai^e German-siluer wire 

—Contributed by R H Gatbieatli^ Denver, Colo 

A Tr4tclFr':c Mining Mug [91 

Take an ordinary collapsible diuikii^ cup and place a cake of slia\ii^ soap in Ihe 



boTtani m^ Tlus willpiovide a shavuig mug Eiliffay^ leady for the liavelei and oiie 
tlial will occupy veiy Lille space in Ihe grip 

Honunudc Snowshou [9| 

Secnie foui l^hlbanel slaves aiid sandpaper Ihe oalside ^loootli Take iwa aid 
^haes thai aie extia laige and cut oiTlhe lops and heels so as to lea\'e only the toe 
cavenr^ fastened to Ihe sole Poichase Twa lai^ book stiap;, cut fliem m bwo in the 
middle and fasten the ends an the loe coveiing, as sliownuiF^ I The sliaps are uped 
to attach the snaiwslioe to Ihe legulai slioe Wlien buckling up the stiaps be suie to 
leave them loose enough for the foal to iwork freely. Fig 2 Fasten tlie baiiel staves m 
pans, leavmg a space of 4 m between Iheiu as shown m Fig 3, with Ihinsbipe of 
wood Nail the old 




Hidt Ireu Bttttl SUr« 

Made fiam Banel Sla\'ea 

shae soles fa crosspieces placed one -Ihind of Ihe wayfiom one end as shown. 
— Ca^[tribuledbyDa^^d Biown^ Kansas City, Mo 
Fi«h Signal for Fuhing tliroughlc* [10] 

Watching a fish hue selm a hole culm Ihe ice on a cold day is very 

disagreeable, and Ihe usual inetliod is to 








B^ fend Battvrp In h Bqv 

Bell and Batleiy m a Box 

have soine kind af a device to s^nalthe fisherman wlien a 5shis hooked Tlie "lip iips" 
and Ihe "jumpu^]acks" ser^-e Iheii pnriBse mcely, but a more elaborate device is Ihe 
electiic s^nal A complete elecbic autfilcanbe installed in a box and earned as con- 
vementlyas Tackle 



Anoidinaiyelectnc bell. A, Fig 1, havu^ h gong 2-1^3 m m diainelei, and h pocket 
boHeiy, B aie momiled on the botlaiii af the bo:i Tlie electiic connection to tliebellia 
plainly ^liowii Two :3ti]|s of bmss, C, flie momitedon liie outside of the box Thebra^s 
:3ti]|s ELie jshRped in such h way as la form h cucuil ivhen Ihe ends are pulled logelhei 
Tlie bo:i is opened and se I on the ice neai the fishing liole The fish line is hung over a 
round stick placed elcioss liie hole and Ihen lied la liie uiside stiipof biass \Vlien Hie 
fish IS liDokedtlie line will pull Ihe brass paints into conlact and close tlie electnc 
cuciut. 

Honumade Floor PoUeIict [10] 

A floor poLshei is same thing that one does not use but two di Itiree hmes a year 
Mpinnfactured polishers come intiwo sizes, aiie ipe^lung 15 Ih^ which is the nghl 

weight for family use, and one weiglm^ 25 lb 

Apahsheicanbe niade at lioine IhRl will do Ihe work]iislas well Piocuie a wooden 
box such as cocoel tins ai slarch packages aie sluppedin Find stietchse'h'eml thicknesses 
af flamiel aicaipet o^'ei Ihe bottom, allowing the ei^es ta ei:teiid wellup Ihe sides. Find 
tack smoothly Ivfeke a handle of two stout strips of wood, 36 m loi^, by]ouung then 
uppei enrls to a shoiteicrosspiece and nail it to Ihe box Place tliree paving bncks uiside 
of the boi:, and Ihe polishei will weigh about 16 lb ,]ust Ihe light weight foi a woman to 
use Tlie polisher is used by rubbing with tlie grain of Hie wood -Cnntiibutedby 
Kallianne D ttuse, Syracuse, N Y 

Tying Paper Bag lo Miht a Carrying Handle [10] 

In tyu^ the ordinary paper bag, the stiii^ can be placed m the paper in such a way 

tliatil willfomi h liandle la cany the package, and eJso pie vent any leakage of the 
contents The bag niiislbe long enoi^h for Ihe end to faldover rs shown inF^ 1 The 
folds are inade over Ihe string, as m 




Siaeta In T»lra > Bmg 

Stages ui Tying a Bag 

Fig 2 The stiu^ IS thenhed, F^ 3, to form a hiindle. Fig 4 
— Contributed by James M KEine, Da^estown,Pa 

FqnilSmtoz for Model Aeropluie:« [11] 



On one of my model aeiaplRiies 1 placed an equilibralor to keep it balanced The 
device was attached lo a ciosspiece fasteiied]iislbelow the piapeller between the mam 
frpime uprights A slick wpis made to swing ana bollui Hie center of the crosspiece to 
which was attached a we^htattlie lowei end and two lines conneclu^ the ends of Ihe 
planes Eit Ihe upper end Tliese are sliown m Fig 1 Wlien tlie aeroplane tips, as 




Weipjiig Ihc Aeinpkne Wings 



■WBIDlOi tbe Haati\aae WIdbA 



uhowii in Fig 2, llie weighl diRivi; llie lilies lo waip liie plane so il will nglif ilsetf 
aulamEilicEJly — Coiihibiiledby Loiui; J I3ay. FloieLPait, N. Y. 

Repairing Chri«linatTrft DfcaraCnns [111 

limall gla:3:3 oinameiil;; for Clmsliiias hee decoiefions are very easily bia ken on Ihe line 
shown intlie sketch Tliese can be easily lepaiied by inseiling intlie neck b pece af 
inalcli, loallqack or isplinlei of wood and lying the hRi^ir^ utiii^ to it 




HoinnBad« Sizoll &iw [11] 

A scidU SBitf, if ance used, becomes uidispensEible many lioine carpenlei chest, ye tit 
IS uafe to uay that not one m ten cantEJiis it A sciall saw is much more useful tlian a 
keyiiole saw fai sawing small and inegulM holes, Eind many fane ykmck- knocks, such 
asbmckets, bookracks and shelves can be made with one 

A simple ytt serviceable scroll saw fmnie can be made fiani a pece of cold-ialled 
steel rod, 3/32 ai 1/4 ui m diameter, two l/S -in machine screws, faui washers and four 
square nuts The lod sliouldbe 36 oi 33 m long, bent as shown in F^ 1 Placeone 
washei on each screw and put the screws tlirough llie eyelets, AA, then place other 
washeis on and fpistenm place by sciewing one nut on each screw, clamping Ihe 
washers against tlie frame as tightly as possible The saw, wluch can be puichased at a 
local liardwaie store, is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown m 
Fig 2 




Fic3 
Flam* Hfiilf dI a fiod 

Frame Made of a Rod 



If Iwa vni\% nuli; having Ihe isaiiie number aiidsize of tlueads are pvailable, use lliem 
iiiplBce of Ihe autiside nuls They aie easiei la turn wlienuiseitii^ h j^aivblEide ma hole 
oi when reniDving bioken blades. 
— Contnbutedby W A Scranfon, Delimt, MichigEUL 

Haw ta Make 3 WiHh F*b [12] 

The fiKloies foi the walchfob shown— half size— maybe made af eitheibrflsi;, 
copper, or silver Silver is fhe mosl desuEible but, of caiuse, the most expensiv'e Tlie 
buckle IS lobe purchased Tlie coimectionis to be of leather of a color to Imimooize 
wilhtlml of Ihe fixtiues The body of the fob mnybe of leather of suitable color or of 
silk Of Ihe Leatheis, gieenandbiowiis are the niostpapulfli, tliough alniost any color 
maybe oblnmed 

Mate full size diawir^s of tlie oullme and des^n of Ihe fii:Tiues Wilhcaibon paper 
trace Ihese on Hie melal Pierce Ihe nietnl of the parts that are to be renioved with h 
smEdl hand diiU to make a place for the leather oi silk With a small melal saw culout 
these pflite andsnioDlhuptlie edges, louruiir^ them sightly so they will not cat the 
leRlher oi silt Neat cut oul Ihe ouliiiies with the metal shears File Ihese ei^es, round- 
up andsmoDfliir^ with emery ptiper The best way of handling Ihe decorative design 
IS to etch it Find, if copper orbiass, trealil with coloi 

Foi elchir^, fust cover the melal with black asplmltiuu VRinish, on the bact Find all 
the parts thai aie not to be touched wilhtlie acid In the des^n shown, the unshaded 
paits sliould not be etclied and should, tlieiefoie, be covered Ihe SRiiie as llie bRct 
Apply two coats, allowuig each time lo dry, after which unmeise the metal m a 
solution piepeied as follows 3 parts wnter, I part mine acid, I pait sulphunc acid 
Allow the metal to lemam m Ihis ontilthe acid lias eaten to a deplhof 1/32 in, then 
remove il and clean m a tmpenlme bath, usu^ a swab and an old stifTbnish The 
ainomit of time leqiured to do Ihe etclur^ will depend upon tlie stier^th of tlie hqoid, 
as well as Ihe depth of efchir^ desired 




Wetch Fob 

Foi colonic silvei, es wellasbiass and copper, cover the metal with a solution of 
the foUowir^ ill pi of watei m which dissoh-e, aftei breaking up, five cents worth of 
sulphmeted potassium Pat a teaspoonfulof tins mio a Im w]lh2 ql of water Polish a 
piece of scrap me Tat and dip il in tlie solution If it colors the metal led, ilhas the 
coiiecl stienglh Diyir^ will cause tins to change to puiple Rub off the li^hlighls, 
leaving them tlie natural color of Ihe metal and apply a coal of banana-oil lacqiiei. 

An Aiistiuiii Tap [12] 



All pails of the lop are af Lcoad Eiiid Ihey are simple la make The handle is h piece 

af pine, 5-lMiii lai^, l-IJ4m wide andBMin Ihick A Imiidle, 3/4 m m diamelei, is 
fonued on one end, allowir^ only l-U4m of llie alher end lo leDiainieclar^ijIaim 
shape Bore a 3/4-m hale in Ihis end foi the lop A l/16-m hole isbniedmtlie ec^e 
Id enter tlie large hole as shown The tap can be cul fiDm ahionm handle or a iDund 
stick of hardwDod 




Parts nf the Top 



Td spin Ihe top, take a pece of stoat cord aboul 2 ft long, pass one end through Ihe 

l/lfl-in hole and mod it an Ihe small pflitof the lop in the ilsueJ i*ay. staitii^ al Ihe 
boltani and wmrhi^ upiffaid Wlienthe sliank is covered, set the tapui the 314 -m hole 
Take hold of Ihe liandle with Ihe lefl liand Eindlhe end of tlie cord with the nghl heni 
give El goad quick pull an Ihe coid Euid Ihe tap will juiup clear af the handle and spin 

V^DIDUSly 

--Contributed by J F ThoU. VEBilanti. Mich^an 



Pockets for ^oab of Thn^d [13J 



A 
The 

behig 

iiEcdle 

lobe 



delacliable pockel for lioldii^ llueEid when sewing is ^hown herewith 
dimeiiaians moybe vaned la admit any niimbei ai siae of spools 
Each packet is made to lake a ceitam uise spDol, the end of Ihe Ihiead 
run lluai^h Ihe chilh front for abtmiung llie ler^thfor tlireading a 
This will keep Ihe thread fiam bee ornmg tangled and enable it Edwa^ 
leadily diawn out to the requrred length 

-Canlnbuledby Miss L. Alberta Norrell, Angn'jta, Ga 




Pockets for Thread 



CJtuiing Lt^llier onFuridturt [1J| 

Beat up Ihe whites of lluee eggs carefully arid use a pece af flannel to rub it well into 
tlie lepilhEi wluch will become clean and Instrans For black lealheis, same lampblack 

maybe added and the mixlure applied m the same way 

A Bakmg F^n |13] 

When making cookies, tarls or similai pastry, the housewife often wishes foi 
samelhing by which to lift the baked articles from the pan Tlie baking tray or pan 
sliowninthe sketch not only [Ma lee ts the hands fiambums but allows the baked arbcles 
easily to slip fiom ilasmface Tlie pan is made fiom a pece of sheet uon slightly laigei 
than the bakii^ space desued Each end of Ihe metal m cut so that a peil maybe turned 
up and mto a roll to make handles foi Ihe pan 




B|li]j« PbTl Ivmunt SLd«i 

Baking Pan witliout^rdes 



A wue or small lad is placed between Ihe liandles as shown. This wiie is fastened at 
eachervd and a loop made mtlie centei The pen can be removed fiom the oven by 
placing a stick tlirough Ihe loop and lifting itoul without placing tlie hands uiside the 
liot ov^n The baking suiface, liavuig no sides, peimila the baked articles to be slid off at 

eachside wilha knife or folk —A A HonghtDn, NoitliMlle, P.1ich 



A Bnam Holder [IJ] 



BiDom Haider 

A veiy ismiple and efieclive de\^ce far holdup Eibroam wlieiiil is iial muse is shown 
III llie iskelch It is made of heavy wire aiid fastened lo the wall wilh two :3crew eyes, the 
eyeu foniiing beEiiings foi the wiie Tlie siiipJI turn ontlie end af llie straight pwt is to 
liold the hoot out fai enai^h fioiii Ihe wall to make it easy to place llie hiDoni mite 
lioak The we^hlof the braora keeps it inpasitioii 
— Contnbatedby III Hicta, Centiaha, Mo 

Sninging Wir« [13] 

A 

A stung foi didwing electnc wires mla bent fi:ituies can be easily inserted by loUing it 

intD a small ball and blowing it lluoi^h while holding one end 
A Daiknom LaiilFiii [14] 

Procure on ordinaiy iT-qt glass fi"uil]ar, break oul Ihe poicelam linir^ ui Ihe cover 
and cut a liole thioi^h tlie metal, ] list laige eiioi^h to fit over tlie socket of an incan- 
descent electnc globe, Ihensoldei cover and sockel together, says Sludio L^hl Line tlie 
inside of the ]E[r wilh two thicknesses of good omr^e postofSce pnp^r The best lamp 
foi the pmp]se is an E-candlepower showcase lamp, the same as shown m the 
lUusbation Screw Ihe lampmlo tlie socket and screw Ihe covei onto the jai, and you 
liave a safe hght of excellent iHummaling powei 

When ^u desiie to work by while l^ht, two tmns will lemove the jar 




Daikiaom Lantern 



If developing papers are beii^ worked, oblama second jar and line withbghl arar^e 
paper, sciew mto Uie cover faslened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light 



foi loEidu^ and develapment By Eiltachii^ sufficient cord lo tlie lamp, itcEinbe moved 

Id any perl of Ihe dpukiaoin, aiidyauhave Ihiee lEim|s ola Inflii^ cost 



Frnmling Vtgttibl« from Burning in a Pat [14] 

Many house keepe IS do nottiiow thai Iheie i^ a simple i*ay Id prevent po la toe ^ fiam 
bumii^ and slickii^ la Ihe bDtlom Df tlie pal Anuiveitedpe pen placed mtliebotlam 
af tlie |bI Eivaids scoiclung polalaes The water and empty space beneath Ihe pen saves 
tlie polaloe:3 Tlu:3 also make:; Ihe woik of cleRim^ pels easiei ns no adheru^ paits of 
polRloes aie left Id be scorned out 

A CkihFs R^ch [14] 

A c lollies- dryii^ rack Iliolhas many goad fealores canbe mode as shown in Ihe 

dluslration Wlien the lock is 



' 










^.'. 


- 











-i 
I 






« 


i 


\l 


] 




Foldlae ClothH RAck 



Folding CiDlhes Rack 



closed il will fit miD a very small ispflce end one oi more wii^i; canbe used at a time ns 
the occesian or ispece peimils, end not lip avei The mck ten be made of any hnid wood 
and Ihe melenal list is as follows: 

I Center post I-IM in sqiime by 62 m 
4 Braces l-W4m square by 12 in 
16 Honzonlalbars 1 by l-IMby 24iil 
4 Vethcpilpeces W4by I by 65 in 



Altach Ihe four braces for Ihe feel withfinishu^ nails aflei applying a good coataf 
glue 

The lionzonlel bais Eire fastened to Ihe verbcEilpeces wilhnvels usii^ wasliers an 
bolhsides Tlie holes are boied a hllle lEiige so Eis lo mpike a shghliy loose ]oinl Tlie 
alheiends of llie bai;; ere fastened lo Ihe center post wilhioiind heedsciews Tliey aie 
fastened, essliownin the cioss-sectionskelcli^ so it ten be folded up --Cantiibutedby 
Herman Fasel, Jpinesville, Wis 



Homemqde Allow ft Balh [15] 




A^liDtveiBalhTlifltCosls Le^s Than Oiie DoUm to Male 



\Vlule in Ihe couiilry dunr^ vacation luae, I niL'Ssed mydailybatli aiid devised a 
shaiverbatli that gave camplele satisfaclinn The back poich was enclosed wilh 
sheelu^ foitlie edoiq, and the Eippdrahis consisted of a gah'anized-uaii peil wiiha 
shaitnippte soldeied m the center of Ihe bottom and fatted with a valve and spunkier. 
The whole, after fillir^ the pflii wilh iveter, was raised above one's head with a lope 
run over a pulley fastened to the loaf of the poicli^ and a tub whs used on the floor lo 
catch Ihe watei A knolsliooldbe lied in the rope at the i^hl place, to keep il from 
ruDiung out of llie pulley while Ihe pail is towered to be filled with water, and a loop 
made mtlie eiuL wluchis placed ovei h screw liook turned into the wall If the loop is 
bedal Ihe proper ]:iace, the pail will be idisedta the iighlheighl for the person taking 
the sliowerbalh 

The ivater will run from 10 to 15 minutes The addition of some hoi ivater will 
make a splendid showerbEilh — ConlribuledbyDr C H Rosenllial, Cmcmnah, O. 

How n Make Snun ^r«clfft Wlittls [15] 

AbI needed several small spiockel wheels Find had none on liand, 1 made them 
quickly witliDut other expense tlian Ihe lime leqiured, from scrap mateiial ^eveialold 
hubs with the proper sise bore weie secured These weie put an an aiboi Riid turned lo 
the size of Ihe bolTom of Ihe teelh Hole were drilled Find lapped lo correspond to Ihe 
number of teeth leqiuied Riid old slud boils turned into Ihem The wheels were agEiui 
placed on the aibor Riid Ihe studs lumed lo the required sise Aftei laundii^ Ihe ends 
of Ihe sTuds, Ihe sprockets were ready foi use and gave perfectsehsfRclian — 
Conbibuled by Charles Stem, Plulbpdjuig, New York. 



Fo1-C«v«Cb«tt[16] 



The sides of Ihe co^'ei closet are cutos shown mF^ 1 and shelves ore noiled between 
tliein at a slighl Ri^le 

No dimensions Eire given as Ihe space Pindthe sizes of Ihe covers are not always Ihe 
same Tlie bock is covered wilh tlnn booids placed vertically Tlie fiontcanbe covered 



willia cuitainoi E[ paneled door as sliown -Coiitiibuledby Gilbeit A Wehi, BaltuBore, 
Md 





FIG 1 FIG 1 

Closel for Holdup Pol Covers 

Aid in Mmng &itid DEFuing [16] 

^DLue CDoks fiiidil el very difficult raatler lo prepare salad dresdi^, principally 
ina^niidLse diessii^, as the canstaiitstimi^ and |Biinng af oil aiid liquids Eiie leqiiiied 
III Hie apeiatioii The simple lioinemade device shown ui the accompaiiyii^ sketch 
greRlly Eissisti; 




BoHle inSlELnd 

III llus L^^ik II consists of E[ stand to haldabotlle, the inoutli af^iiich rests ogaiiista 
uinaU gate diiectly m the leai of die attached liii lioi^h The we^htof Hie botlle Eiiidthe 
contents agaiiisl Ihe gate seives a^ a check or^toppei If the gate is laisedsLghdy, it will 
pemiila coiiliiiuaus flowaf liquid of Ihe deisuedamauiil 

Saving Ottrtji^oied. Dntkiping Frinls [16] 

In using developu^ papsrs, eithei for contact piiiitiiig oi enla^eineiils, ^uaie, by all 
lilies of tlie game, enlided to h certain number of ov'ereKposedpnnIs, :3a^ h 
conesponrlent of Cpimera Ciaft But theie n; no leason why^uslioiild loise eithei Ihe 
papei or the time Eind tiauble expended m making these pnnls By using the fbllowii^ 
inetliod, you can tiuntliese 'h'eiy dpuk prints iiita good ones 

First Ihese o^'eie:iposed prints must be fiiilydevelo|Kd Do not try lo isave theniby 
iTislung them oulof the developer mta the shart-^top or fixing bath The lesult^ will be 
pool, ELiid, if ^u try to tone tliemafleru^id, Ihe color will be anuiidesirpible, sickly one 
De^'elop them uilo shai^ piiiit:;, thoiaughly fi^:, and wash uiilil ^u aie suie all hypo is 
lemoved In my oini pmcbce, I carry out tluu pail of the i*ork Ihaiai^lily, then diy the 
pnnts and lay aside tliese daik one:; until theie n; anaccumulFilionof a dozen oi more, 
dou^ tins Ig avoid loo fiequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution Tlie 



bleacliei is iimde upas fDlloivs aiid should be pl^uily meiked "E^oisan " 

Cyfinide of polasaiuiii .. .. 2 dz 
Iodide of polaasimii 2Dgi 

Walei 16 DZ 

Place Ihe diy piinl, witliout pievious wetlu^, in tins ajliition II will bleach islo^y 
aiid ev'enly, but, wlienil slarls lobleacli, ti'aiisferitio a hay of ipaler, wlieie it will 
conlmiie lobleacli When Ihe desuedreduc lion has tpileii place, slop Ihe RcliDnal once 
byuuiBecmg Ihe piiiitiii h lO-pei-cenI isaluliaiiof boiaK The pniits maybe allowed to 
lemaiii intlua k:3t saluhan unlil Ihey Eiie finished A goad final waislmig compleles Ihe 
process Tins waslmig miislbe tlioioi^h and a sponge oi a Juftof coHanu'sed to clean 
tlie surface of Ihe piml 

With a htlle piaclice, tlu:3 melhodaf sa\TQg piinis tliatare too daik becomes easy and 
ceitmn The piuits aie lightened and at Ihe aame hme impiDved mlDne.beir^ inade 
blue-black with a delicate andpleasir^ qiiahly thai will tempi ynn lo piupoisely 
Qveiexpose some of ^lu piinti; m order lo tone tliembytliisnielhDdfbi ceilain effects 
The proceaa is particula[ly\T[|iiable Id Ihe worker in large sizes, ns it provides a means 
of mating quite a savu^ of paper tliat would olherwise be thrown away 

An Imiing-Baud St^nd [17] 

An oidinaiyiia mug board is cut square on the laige end and a slot cut 1-1/3 m wide 

aiid4m long lo admit llie ar^le support The supportis placed E^ainsf the lable and Ihe 
board 




Stand Attached lo Table 

IS pressed down against Ihe oulei notch which ]ains against Ihe table, thus lioldir^ tlie 
board r^id and msuch a posilionas lo give tree access foruomng dresses, elc 
--ConlribuledbyT L Gray, SanFrancisco, Cal 

A D«kBlDtring Pad [17] 

Piocuie fbm sheets ofblottii^ 1*1^^. preferably the colored kind, as it will appear 
clean much loiter thoii the white The size of the pad depends on Ihe size of the blotting 
paper 

Fold four pieces of oidinaiywratpii^ P^F^i. 5 by 15 m in size, tliree limes, lo make 
it 5 by 5 m Fold each one from comei lo comer as shown mF^ 1 and E^amas mF^ 
2 Pasle the lastfold Together and the comei holdeis are complete Puloneoneach 
comer of thebloHuig papei They can be faslened with a small brass paper fastener put 
tliroughthe lop of the holder Theblotlu^ paper can 





Fig 3 Paper Corner? for Blotter Pads 

be easily changed by re iiiDvir^ tlie lialdeig and fasteners Canieis complele are sliown 
iiiF^ 3 —Conhibiitedby J WilsDiiAldied TarantD^ Canada 

SIhvf Haldtn for L^nalarieiE J17| 

A very haiidy article is rii Rlliiclunenl on weisIi basins or lavTilones forholdii^ the 
:3leeve^bE[ct ifflule mashir^ Uie hands It is very EiniiDyir^ to have the sleeves 
cantinuallyshp down and become wet or soiled The simple device sliown herewith can 
be made with beiil wires or hooks ond. attached ui such a way llmlitcoiibe dropped out 



Wire? Attached to a La^'atory 

af the way whennot muse — ContributedbyL J Monahan^ Oshkosh, Wisconsin 

Ronatin«T3riiiTh 117] 

A pencil eraser will remove tlie lamishfiom nickel plate, Eindtlie iiik eraser will leinove 
tlie nislfiam didwmg uistrmnents 

How tc M^kt a Brass BooknurlE [1S| 

Secure a piece ofbrpiss afNo 20 gai^e, havmg a width of 2-H4m aiida lei^thof 5 
m MEite a des^iisuuilar ta tliatshowii^ the heodof whichis J in wide, the shaf^ I in 
wide belawtlie 





FIG. I F^. 2 

The Faltem andUie Fim^ied Bookmark 



head and Ihe e>:lienie length 4-1^3 in Make one-half af the design, as ^liownm Fig I, 
freehand, then trfice Ihe other hEilf in the usual way, aflei folduig eJoi^ the center line 
Trace tlie deisignan Ihe inetal, iisuig carbon paper, ffluch gp'es tiie oulline af tlie design 

Fig :r 

V.'iththe melaLisheEirs, cut out Ihe onlline a^ indicaledbythe drawing With files, 

gmoalli affany loi^hii' 




Flf. S Fla. 4 

DiLllinp and Sd^lfH "IH Meial 

Dnlln^ and dewing the Metal 



and form the edge so that it shall be nicely lonnded 

The purls of Ihe des^n inhepvycaloi maybe tieoled in several way^ 
A verysalisfaclorytiealnientis abtainedby elchii^, Ihen coloring Clean Ihe inelRl 
tlioioi^lilywithpuinice stone and waleroi with alcohol be fare tlie design is applied 
Coverall Ihe metal Ihalis not lobe lowered with a thick coating of asphalluin Allow 
tins to dry, then put an a second coal After this hEis dned, Ihoioughly immerse the melal 
in a solulion composed as follows 3 paits wfllei, 1 parJsulphunc Rcid, 1 pert mine Rcid 

Allow tlie melal lo lemEim m Ihis solulion until Ihe ei:p]sedjHit has been eaten about 
1J33 m deep Ihenremove it Eindcleanoff Ihe a?plialtuin, iisuig luipentine Donotput 
tlie hands in Ihe solution, but use a swab on a stick 

For coloring olive gieeii, use 2 perls water to i jHitpennunRle of iron Apply with a 
small brush 

The hues elI A andB will need lo be cut, usir^ a smEiU melal saw Pierce a hole with a 
small diiU, Fig 3, laige enough to receive the sawandculaloi^ tlie hues as inF^ 4 A 
piece of wood with a V-shaped nolch which is faslened firmly to Ihe bench forms Ihe 
beslplRce m which to do such sawing Tlie teelhof Ihe saw should be so placed tlial the 
sawii^ willbe done on the downward sTroke Tlie melal must be lield fmiily, and the 
saw EiUowed lime lo make its cnl, beu^ heldpeipendiculai lo the woik 

Afleillie sawir^, smooth tlie edges of Ihe melal with a small file and einery paper 
The melal chp maybe bent outwaidto do tins paitof tlie woik 



CheesAtii-CmeT Tea Tray [18] 

The cavei from a chee^ebox CRiibe cane's ried in lo a [eo Iniy Iholw very dmnty for liie 
piazza, oi foi^ervii^ an invEdid'sbieakfEisI 

Fust sandpaper tlie wood until il is smaolh^ Hien ?tiiin ila maliogemy colar The 
iiiahogELiiystaincanbe obtained ready prepared Aflei the stam lias dried, attach brass 
hflndles, ivhichcanbe obtained for h ^iiiaU siun fllanuphalsleiei's shop Aiouiid 
einbiaideied doiiym Ihe bottom adds to the EippeEirance of Ihe tray — Conlribnledby 
Kalhaime D t'loise, SyiRcuse, New Yaik 

Piercing-FimchrarBrqii [19] 

Dnllal/^-in hole throughablock of pine ai otiiei soft iffODd2 m lliick Tacko^'ei 
one end of Ihe hale a pece of pasteboaid in iffluch seven coEiise sewing-machine needle:; 
hEive beenuiseited The needles isliouldbe close lagetlier Find pushed thioi^h the 
paslebDardiuiliI Ihe poinli; show Tlie hale L'S Ihen filled with nielled babbitt me lal 
When llus is cold^ tlie block is isplit Riid the pagteboRiii lemoved ThLS tool makes neat 
pierced wort and mmabir^biass shades, ildaes Ihe work rapidly —Contributed by H 
CmI Cianiei, EEislHartfaid, Caiin 

Kitchen Chopping Board [19] 

Cooks can slice, chop ar mince vegetable:; and various olheifbad lapidly by placing 
tlie little device, as sliown, on a chopper boaid Iili anoidinaryistRple, driven m just 
far enoi^hto allow a ispflce fai the end af an onhnEiiy pointed kitchen knife to fitm il 
The staple isdnv'enui the edge of the chopping baEtid The knife can be raised and 
lowered with one hand, f\s 




Knife Attached to the Boaid 

tlie malenal IS passed under the blade wilhihe other Gieal pressure can be applied and 
tlie knife wtUnotshp --Conliibutedby M M Bumetl, Richmond, Cal. 

C'qzrying Maltr«:«FS [19] 

^ew straps to Ihe sides of nialtiesses and they can be handled much easier 

A CqrpmKr's Gauge [19| 

Tlie lioine workshop can be supphed with a caipenler's gauge withoulanyeipense'by 
tlie use of a large spaol and 




Round ^tick In a ^ pool 

a Eoundshck of waod The stick shauldbe diessed to fit Ihe liole mllie spool snugly and 
a small brad dir-en tluDi^h one end so Ihalthe pomt will protrude abaut Hlfiin 

The adjustment a f the gauge is seemed by dinng the stick in Ihe hole m Ihe direction 
desired Abetter wayandane Uial will make the adjusting easy is to file Ihe pomtendof 
a sc lew eye flalanduse it as a selsciewtluoughahale mtlie side af tlie spool 



AFlalinnRtict [19] 

The UDDRsleod iwall haiiger sliownuLlhe sbelchis made af sheeliiDiL The uptimied 

61^6:3 of Ihe iiietRlaie 




Boaid oi Wall rioii Re^t 

bent Id filtlie sloping sides of Ihe iidii Tlie holder and iioilcelii be moved at tlie SEmie 
time — Conhibuledby W A Jaquylhe, Riclmioiid, Cal 

U»far Fi^tr Bigs [19] 

When giDcene^ are delivered, ?ave the pfiperbags and us them foi slaimg bread aiid 

cakes Tie Ihe neck of Ihe bag with n string fliidil will keep Ihe conlenls fresh and clean 
— Conliibniedby&'hs L H Ahfell, KL'Ssiiimiee, Floiida. 

UjFCh4lk0nFiles[19] 

If El little chalk is nibbed on a filebefaie filmg steel, it will keep Ihe clups fnim 
sticking in the cuts on Ihe file Euidscralclm^ Ihe woik 

A Homfmadf SiMin Tuitine 120] By WILLIAM H. WAEHECKE 

Procoie some brass, aboul 3/lfl m duck and 4 in squme, 53 sleelpens, nalovei 1/4 
in in width at tlie sliank, two enEinieled, ai lin, SRiicers or pans, liaving a diametei on Ihe 
uiside pai+of about 4-1 J2m , Iwo stopcocks mlh IJ3 m lioLes.one aludt, some peces of 




r>B.i 



Jlruili HE Uii TurbLoE 



bmss, IMui duck, andse^'eial 1^3-m maclune screws 

Lfiyoul two circles on Ihe 3/lif-m brass, one having a diameleraf 3-in m and the 
alhei with a diameter of 3- 3f 4 in The outside ciicle is Ihe size of die finished brass 
wheeL while llie inside ciicle irdicales Ihe depth lo which Ihe slots are la be cut Ivlaik 
tlie pami wheie a hole is lobe drilled for the shEdl, also locate tlie diiU hales, as shown 
at A, Fig 1 After tlie shaflhaLe and Ihe lioLes A Eire didledintlie disk, ilcanbe iisedas 
templale for diilhr^ the side pLales C 

Tlie nm af the disk is dndedmlo 53 equal parts and ladial lines drawn froni iiin to 
line B, uidicalir^ tlie deplh af the slols ^lols Eire cului the disk wiiha hacksaw on the 
radiat lines A sniaEvise is conveiuenlfDrliDkhng Ihe disk wlule cutlii^ the slols 

Whencutlii^ the chsk duI af tlie raughbrass, sufficient ma^m should be leflfor 
filing lo the liTie line The slals should be leflin Ihe ir rough stale as Iheyhave a belter 
hold on the pens which are used for Ihe blades The pens are inserted mtlie slols and 
made quite secuieby forcir^ ardinaiy pins an Ihe inside of Ihe pens Eind breaking tliem 
off al Uie imi, as sliown in Fig 4 



Wlieii Hie pens are Eillfasleiiedlivo piece:; of melal aie piovided, eachaboul I m in 
diaiaetei and iy32m lluck, willi el 3^-m liole in the center, foifiUu^ piece:; ifhicli Rie 
fusl placed aioiind the shaft liole belweentlie diPikand :3ide plate:; C, Fig I The side 
plates aie tlien seemed wilhsoiiie of Ihe l^-in iiiaclune sciews, using tiffa 
niitR on eachscceiF The nul? should be on the side opposite Ihe inlel valve:; The shaf^ 
hole iiiay EilsDbe QledsquRie, a sqoaie shnftused, Eindlhe ends filed iDund fbi Ihe 
beern^s 

Tlie casuig fat the disk is niEide of two enanieled-iion saucers, F^ 2, baited logelliei 
with a Ihin piece of Eidiestos between Iheiii la make h light ]ouil A 3^4-111 hole l; cut 
neat Ihe edge of one af the SELiiceis fai the exheu'st if it is desuedto cany Ihe e:iliaust 
beyond Ihe casuig, E[ thin pipe canbe inserled iy4in mio Ihe hale Hales ate dnlled 
tluough the ppe onboth mside and oulside af tlie casuig, Riidpins uiseiled, as sliownin 
F^ 5 Soldeiis iiui aiaiind Ihe onlside pin la keepthe sleainfiom escapmg Altlie 
loivesl paint of Ihe saucei oi casuig a l/E-in hale w dulled to ninofCthe walei A ipood 
plug will aiiswei fai a slopcock 

If inelal dishes, sliaped from lluck material with a goodcoatmg of lui^ can be 
piacured, it will be much easier to caiislruci Ihe casir^ than if enanieled ware is used 
Tlie lioles can be easily diilled and Ihe ptuts filled logelhei closely All seams andsiii- 
faces around Gtluigs can be saldeied 

Nozzles are made of two stopcocks ha\^l^ a l/S-in hale These are connected to a 
3JS-UI supplypipe Tlie nasles shouldbe setatEinangle of 30 deg with the face af tlie 
disk The no^e ai slopcock will give better lesulls if Ihe dischnige end is filed paiallel 
to Ihe face af the disk when elI an angle af 3D deg There shauldbe a space af 1/lfl in 
belweentlie nozzle and Ihe blades to allow fai sufficient play. Fig 3 

Tliebearuigsare made of lyj-in brEiss and baited la tlie casuig, Eis showii^ wilh l/S-m 
inaclime screws Enidnnls Two nuts shauldbe plEiced an each screw The pulley is made 
bysliduig a piece of steel pipe on Ihe engine shaf>and fEislenu^ il wilhinaclune screws 
and nu Is as sliowii ui Fig 6 If the sliaflw squEiie, lead sliouldbe nui mIo the segmenis 

Tlie dir-ensliafl should lia^-e a long bearu^ The pulley on tliis shaft is made af 
pieces of wood nailed lagellier, audits ciKiunfeience cut out with a scroll saw Flai^es 
are screwed to tlie pulley Find faslened to Ihe shRftRS shown mF^ 7 

Tliebearuigsare made of oak blocks hned wilh heffh'y lui oisheeliron foi Ihe nuining 
suiface Motion IS bansmitted from Ihe ei^ine la Ihe iRige pulley by a IhmbuK'eiy 
good leatlier bell. 

Homtmqdt Ttlr^aphKey [Zl] 

A simple and easily canslruc led telegraph keymEiy be made in Ihe foUowu^ mamiei 
Piocuie a piece of sheet brass, abaut IJ32m lluck, and cut ant a sinp 3-iy2 m lai^by 
3/4 m wide Bend as shown m Fig I Find diilla hole for Ihe knob moiie end and a hale 
for E[ screw mtlie oilier Piocuie a siuelH wood knob and fasten it m place with a small 
sciew Cut a sinpaf the SRine brass 2-3/4 in long Riidi/ld m wide and bend rs shown 
inF^ 2 Dull two lioles mtlie feelfaiscrews to faslenitio the base, andane hole m 
tlie tap part for h maclmie sciew, andsoldei a small nul on tlie under side of Ihe metal 
aver Ihe hole 

fVfcnnlbalhiaeces on obase 4- 1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1^4 m, as m Fig 3, and where 




ri*.3 
BiBss Eey ona Wood Base 



tlie scieff of the knab slnkes tliebaise wlienpie^^ed down, pul ma screiffoi brass- 
headed lack fai a contact Fasten the ptiils down with ismall biEiss wood-scieivsand 
:3oldei Ihe coiuiectioiis beneath the base Buidii^ posl^ fioiii an aldbRlteiy cell aie used 
an Ihe end of Ihe base Tlie screw on topaf tlie Euchisused to adjust tlie key for a long 

ai shaitstTDte — Cantiibutedby ^ V Coake, Haniillan, Canada 

Keying Food Cool in Cui^s [21] 

Camps and subuiban homes located iiiie re ice is hnid to get can be provided wilh b 

caoln^ flnangement lierem described IhRt will make a good siibstilute fbi the iceboK A 
bEmel IS sunk m Ihe ground in a shady place, Eillowing plenly of space Eiboul Ihe outside 
to fill in with gmvel A qiiantityof small slo lies and saiidw fust put in wet AboK is 
placed mtlie hole over the lop ofthebRiiel and filled m with clay or eRilii welltnniped 
Tlie porous condition of tlie gra\'eldiauis the surplus water aflei a rRui 

Tlie end of the barrel is fitted ivilh a l^hl cover and a heavy dooi lunged to the bo:i A 
small pjition of damp SRiidis spiinkledon Iheboltoin of Ihebaiiel The covers sliould 
be leflopenoccflsionally lo prevent mold and to leinove any bad au Ihalmoy hove 
collecled from Ihe contents —Contributed by F ^niith. La ^Pille, 111 



Hanunudf WorkBuket [22] 

lieciire a cheese boK Pibout 12 m high and 15 m or more in. diameter It will pay ynu 
to be careful mselecting llusboK Be sure to have the covei licoie the wooddeeply 
witha carpsntei's gELi^e uiside aiidoul3-10 m from Ihe top of the box Withiepeated 
scoring the wood will be almost cut through or m sliape to finish the cut wiiha knife 
Now ]fl)u will have the box m two pieces Tlie lower part, 3-1^ m deep over eJI, we will 
call the basket. Find tlie sniEillei paitwillbe known as the tiay 

Remove the band from the covei and cut the boaruls to fitm Ihe tray flush with the 
lo^veiei^e. To make the boltom Faslen with3f4-iii brads Tlie kiiidof wood used m 
makir^ these boxes cracks easily and le Fives a roi^h surface which should be well 
saiidpe|Kred 

The four legs are eEich3/4-m squEire aiid30-l/lr m long Tlie lops should be beveled 
to keep them Sam sphnlenng at the edges V/itha string or teL|K measure, find the 
circumfeience of the tray or basket ELnd divide tliismto foui equEJpaits, anai^ir^ the 
lap seam on bo Ih to come mid way between two of tlie marks WheiiELSsemblii^, meike 
tliese seams come between the two back legs 

The trayisplPLced 1-lMiii fiani tlie top end Riid tlie basket 6- 3M in fiani tlie bottom 
end of the legs Notch tlie legs at Ihe lower poml about l^m deepEind 1-W4m wide to 
receive the bandaltlie lower eiidof the basket Fasten with3/4-in screws, usu^ fbui lo 
each leg, tliree of which are m the basket liiseil the screws troni the uiside of tlieboK 
into the legs 

Stam Ihe woodbefoie pulting mtlie 




Iming If all Ihe perls Eue weSl^aiidpflpered, tlie wood will lake liie slam nicely Thiee 
yRiEls of cielDniie wtUmake a 'htiy alliacta'e luung Ciiltwo sheels of CEudboEud Id film 
tlieballDiii af tlie hayaiidbaiskel Coveitliem wilhtlie cieloiine, sewir^ an Hie back 
:3ide Cutfoui^liips foi Uie sides fiaiii the width of liie goods H-IO 111 wide Find foui 
sti]|s IQ 111 wide Sewliieiaend Id end Find turn dawn a lie e(^e la a deplh af I in Pind 
gRlheiil fll thRl point, — eJso die lawer ei^e when nee essaiy Sew on to the cov-eied caid- 
boaids Fasten them to Ihe sides of Ihe liay Find basket with Ihe smallest upholsteie is' 
tacks Tlie productDfyDui kbor willbe a\'eiyiieatand useful piece affUmituie ~ 
ConliibuledbySlanleyH Packaid, Boston^ Pvlass 

A Window Dispby P2] 

A iiDveiand Rtliacta'e ReiaplRiie window display can be easily niEide m Ihe following 
inamiei Each aemplane ls cut from folded paper, as shawnm Ihe skelcli^ and Ihe wmgs 
bentautan Ihe dotledlines The fokled ptirl intlie cenleris pesled logelhei Each 
aeiapLane ls faslened with a smEJl Ihiead from die pomi A as shawn A figure af an 
ainnan can be pesledio each aeiapLane One ormoie of Ihe aeiopLanes can be fastened 
m Ihe blast of an electiic fan and kept m fl^hlthe SRine as a iile Tlie fEoicanbe 
cancelled to niEike the display nioie real \Vlien making Ihe display, have die 
background of such 





Pape] Aeroplanes in Draft 

a color as lo canceal Ihe small threads liolding Ihe aeraplanea --Contributed by 
Frederick Heimighausen, Ballmioie, Md 

Htm w M^kf 4 FlinJ AiTOHliead [2 J] 

If yDulrve where flints Piboiind, possess Ihe requisite pabence and Ihe knack of makii^ 
things, you can, with the crudest of loals and a httle paclice, clupoul ps goad ana wheads 
as pny painted savage that ever drew a bow 

IJelecl apiece of sba^hl-grainedflinlaa neai the desired sliape as possible Itnipybe 
bath langei and wider than Ihe finished arrowbutitsliauldnalbe any thicker The side, 
edge and end views of a suitable frngmenlaie sliawiimF^ I Hold Ihe piece withane 
edge ar end resting an a block of wood and strike the upper edge hghlly with a liammer, a 
small boulder oi anylhu^ thai comes liandyunlrl Ihe piece assumes the shape shown in 
Fig 2. 




Fig 2 Fig 3 

Tlie ^lone Chipped into ^hape 



The cliaiaclenstic nolche^ ^dwil m the camplelcd pnow. Fig 3, are clupped DuJby 
staking the piece lightly at the required pD mis with the edge of an oldliatchelai p hepvy 
flint held at I'^lil armies to the edge of Ihc aiioiff TliesE heeids can be niEide so thnlthey 
CEUuiotbe distingnishedfioni the reollndiananDwheads — ContribatedbyB GilaiKki 
To^r, Class Timbers, Ma 

An Opening H^iidk for 4 Stin^ Fad [23] 

A sfanip pad IS a desk necessity and Ihc ckanlmesa of ane depends onkEepuig it closed 
when it IS not muse Tlic apening and closii^ of a pad requires both h^nds and 
CDiisequcnIlythe cbsii^ of a pad is often iieglectEd in order to pvoid soilii^ the fingers 
This trouble CEmbe avoided if the pad is fitledwitha small handle as shown in the skelch 

Tpike the ordinaiypid and work Ihe hu^e niihl it opens freely 




Handle on Cover 

If necessary aptiy El hitle ail and spread the flanges af the cover sightly 

IJawafftlie topaf a common wood clotlie spin just above tlie slat, sffh'ing Pill the solid 
pait Fasten llus to the covei neai llie backside in an upi'^ht position with a screw A tap 
on the froni side of tlie pni will turn it ovei bpickivard unlil llie head rests on Ihe desk thus 
bru^ing the covei 15) in the upright position \Vlien through using the pad, Pi sl^httapon 
the back side of the covei will lum it down in place -ConliibuledbyH L Crockell, Clov- 
ersville.N Y 

Co ncr«l« Kennel [231 



The kemiel shown in the illustration is Ipi^e eEoi^hforlhe usual siae of dog It is 
cleanly, healtlifol Eicdmore oniameatal thanlbe average kennel. 




Fuushe d Ke imel 



v^^-- 



Tlus mission st^ would be in keeping with the now popular nussion and serm-mission 
style home, and, wilh sl^ht modifications, it cooldbe made to conform with the ever 

beautiful colamalhome It is not diff icull to 



^^^^^fl 




Conciele Fanos 



biuldand will keepiii goodsliape foi niEiny years 

The dimensions EindUie niEmnei of mEiku^ the fannsfoiliie coiiciele, and liie 
localioiifai tlieballi; la liold Ihe plate Eind rafleis, are shown iii Ihe diagmiii 

— ConlribiitedbyEdilh E Lane, El Paso, Tesas 

NuBhfllPhologiiphNovvky [24] 

liplif an English walnut m the centei, leinave Ihe cnnlenls, and scraps out Ihe rough 
ptuls PvlEike an oual 




Photograph in the Shell 



apsning by Sling Drgimdir^ If a file is used, il should be new Euid shnip 

After this is done, lake a small half louiid file Riid gmoolh the edges into shape RiidgDod 
form 
The photograph pimlshauldbe quite ^inall— less Ihan. 1^ m acias? the face Trun llie 

print to a sise a little laigei IliRn Ihe apeiung in the shell, and secure it in place with glue 
aipesle Itmaybe well la fill Ihe ishell wilhcotlon PvlDunlthe sliell ona sniEillcaidwith 
glue, oi if de:3iied, a niDuiil of different isliRpe can be made of burnt woadwDik ~ 
ConlribuledbyG.S.Boniiie, La well, Kfess. 

^oonHald«r ona K«[1k J24] 

In making mELiinalEide andjelhes the mgredients must be sliiiedfiani time to time eis 
tlie cookii^ piaceeds Aflei stuni^, some of the mixture always remauis on the spson. 
Cooks often lay Ihe spoon ona plale ai slaiid it agauisl Ihe cookuig utensil with the 
hEuidle dawn Bath af these methods are wasteful Tlie accompanying illustiation sliows 
a device made of sheet cappei ta liold Ihe spoon so Ihal Ihe drippings will return to Ihe 



caokmg iileiisil The copper is ODthaiii lobeiidand it can be fliepeda) IIirI llie de\^ce 
can be U'sed on any pot di keltle -Contiibute d by Edwin iMaisliaU, Oak Park, III 




Ijpoon Haider 

R^airmg Cracktd Gromapliant RtiardiE [24} 

^ome tme e^o I leceiv'ed Iwo gramoplione reconls IhnI were clocked inshipnenlbul 
tlie paits were held logelhei iviJh the ptL|Mi label As Ihese were sir^le-fpiced disk 
recaids, L used llie faUawir^ inetliod to shck Iheni logelhei I covered Ihe back af one 
withsliellac and laid Ihe tu^ back Id back centeni^ liie haleg wilhliie ccack in one 

ruium^ at light angles to the cnick in llie othei These were ploced on a flalsiirfEice Eind 
a weighted an lliem Aftei several houis' dryii^, I clepined the surplus shellac ant of Ihe 
lioles andpla^d Iheiii 

As Ihe needle passed ovei the ciacks llie naise was luiidly audible These lecaids liave 
been played far a yepuand Ihey SDiuidahnaslas goad Eis new — Conliibiiledbyrv'lanan 
P Wheeler, Gieenleaf, Oregon 

N«w Us«ibrq VicuumCltuKr [ZH 

An aniEileiu raechnnic iiiio hpidbeen much anna ^d by Ihe insects which weie 
attracted la Ins electric hghls found a saluhon intlie piemnalic moth Irapdescnbedm a 
lecentLssue of E^opiilm rvleclianics He fiKed a funnel lo Ihe end of Ihe inlEike tube of a 
vacuura cleaner and hur^ it under a globe Tlie insecis carae to Ihe hght, ended over Ihe 
funnel FLiiddisappeared He caplurad several pauiids ma fewhaurs — Conliibuledby 
Geo F TurL Canton, III 

FiUnmgwilhq ^^vudl Fuiuiel [2S| 

In filteni^ a laige ejoduiiI of salulian orte usually desires sarae means other than a 
Iwge funnel and saraelhing lo make the watching of the process unnecessary If a 
consideiable quantily of a SDlntiDube placed ui a large botlle or flask, and a coik with a 
small liole mil mseiledui Ihe moulh, and the apptiiatus suspended manuiveiled 
position over a sraEill funnel sa Ihatlhe opening af the coik LS]uslbelowllie walei level 
in Ihe fuimeL tlie fillenng process goes an conlinuously with no oveiflowof Ihe funnel. 

As soon as tlie solution m Ihe fminel isbelawtlie coik, eui is let into the flask and a 
small qupintily a f new solution is letdown mio Ihe fminel The process woiks well and 
needs na walchu^, and instead of Ihe fillrate being ma laige fillei paper, il is an one 
small piece and can be handled wiUi epise — ConlnbuledbyLoien Waid, Des t'lames, 
Iowa 

AFasi»i4R3ck[2S] 

The illustraliGn shows a lack foi postcaids TTiose having houses 




Fiiu^hed Ruck 

Willi missioii-sl^e fumiliiie CEUimEike such b rack af the spime iiiEileiial as llie desk, lable 
airoaiii fiunisliu^s Eind fuushil intlie seme inaiuiei 

The dimensions aie given in Ihe delail sketch Tlie Iwo eiuls aie culfrom 1/4-m 
iiiatenal, Ihe bottom being 3^m lliick Only Ihiee pieces are lequiied, aiidas they oie 
simple m design, Ein^ne can catliieinoul i^lha 



W 



^ 




Delads nfihe Rack 

sai*, plane Pindpockeltiufe — Conliibuledby Win Rosenberg, Worcester, Mass. 

Subiclilule Shot Horn [25] 



A good subshtule foi h slioe horn is a liaiulkercluef oianypece cloth usedui the 
followii^ way ALowpeil of llie handkerchief oi cloth to enter tlie slioe, place the toe af 
llie fool in the slioe so as to liold dawn tlie clotli^ andby piiUu^ up an Ihe cloth so ns lo 
keep it laiil PinDiuid Ihe heel tlie fool wiUshde uito tlie shae just as easily 
as if B shoe horn iveie used — Conlributedby Thansas E Dabbins, Glenbraok, Conn 

Building 3 ^'maHFliatogr^hii DukRoom [16] 

Inbiiilchng a pliotogiapluc dark rooin, it is necessary to make ilperfectly hghl-l^ht, 
the besi maleiial to use being mate lied boards These boards are tor^ned andgroo^'ed 
and ivhenpul tDgetheieiTecfijeliy prevent the enlmnce of light 

The next impartnni Hung Id be consideiedis lo make it wealher-t^hl, Enidas far as 
the sides are concerned Ihe matched boards will dn this also, bul ilia necessaiy to 
cover Ihe roof wilh fell or water- proof paper 

Thebes) Ihickness for Ihe boards is 1 in, bulfai cheapness 3/4 in will do as well, 
yel Ihe saving is so hitle Ihatlhe 1-m boards aie preferable 

The dark loam sliowii m tlie accompanyii^ skelch measures 3 fl d m by 2 fl dm, 
the lie^hl lo Ihe ea\'es being if fl Form Ihe Iwa sides shown m Fig I, fixing the 
crosspieces which liold Ihe boards togelher in such positions Ihat Ihe battom one will 
act as a beaiei for the flaoi, and the second one for Hie de\'elopu^ bench Bolh sides 
can be put togelher m tlus way, and both e:iaclly alike Keep Ihe ends of tlie 
crosspieces back from the ei^es af Ihe baaids far enough to allow tlie end boards to fit 
in agauist them 

One af Ihe narrow sides can be formed in Ihe same way, fixing Ihe crosspieces onto 
caiiespond, andtlien these tluee peces can be fastened togetlier by screwing llie two 
wide sides on Ihe narrow one 

Lay Ihe floor iiexl, screwii^ or nailing the boards to the ciosspieces, and iiiakir^ Ihe 
last board came even with Ihe ends of the ciosspieces, noleven with Ihe boards 
themselves The su^le baaids can Ihenbe fixed, one on each side of wliat will be Hie 



dDorway, byscieivii^ lo Ihe floor, aiid lo the outside board af tlie sides Al the tap of 
the dooriffay, fix h naiTDW piece belweeii Hie sideboards, thiis teRVTi^ a lectar^ulai 
opemi^ for the doai 

The laofbaELiiis may next be pulon, nailiDg them lo each other al Ihe lu^e, andlo 
the sides of Ihe niom allhe oulsides Eindeave? They should oveihang at the sides and 
saves abaiil 3 in , as sliown in Figs 3 and 4 

One af the sides with the ciosspeces ui place will be as shown mF^ 2 m section, 
all the ciasspieces andbeRiets inteisectii^ Riouiid Ihe iDom 

The doai is made of tlie saioe kind af boards held logelher wilh ciasspieces, one of 
winch IS fastened sa as to fit closely la the floai when the door is hu^ed, andaclas a 
tiapfoilhe l^ht The top ciDsspiece is also fastened witliin 1 m of the top of the door 
for the same reason 

L^hl tiaps are necessary at tlie sides and top of tlie door That at tlie lurked side can 
be as sliown at A, Fig 5, the clasir^ side f\s atB, Riid the lapasalC inthe SRine 
diawir^ These ate all in section and are self-eKplRiialory In lur^ir^ the dooi, Ihree 
bnlthii^es sliouldbe used so as to keep the ]oin1 close 

The fitlu^s af the idoqi are as sliown sectionally in Fig 6, but before fixii^ these il 
IS best ta line the laom with heavy, brown wrappir^ P^F^'. ^s Ein E[dditioiml safegoard 
agEiULst the entrance of l^lit 

The de\'elopi^ bench ls 18 in wide, and in the middle anopenir^, 9 by 11 m, is 
cut.belowwiuchis fixed the suit llis sliDwnmdetailmF^ 7, and should be sine 
lined 

The zinc should not be cutbulfalded as sliown uiF^ E, so Ihatit will fil inside the 
sink The bench at each side af the sink shouldbe fluted (Fig 9}, so that the water will 
diam aff into the suik A slnp sliouldbe fixed along tlie back af Ihe bench Eis shown in 
F^s d and 9, and an aiiELi^einenlof slats (F^ 10), hu^edlo it, so as to diap on Ihe 
suikfisinF^ d, and shown la a laigerscate inF^ II 

A shelf for bottles and Riiotliei for plates, etc , can be fiKed above Ihe developir^ 
benches atD and E (F^ 6} and anolliei rs F m the saioe drawing Tins latter foims 
the boltom of Hie bay rach, which is fixed on as shown 




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fib 14 



DelaikaflheDaikEook 



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inFig 13 Tlie diMPiDiisaf Ihe bay rackarebestfitledlDOMlynigiDCTv'ea foimedbyfizmg 
sinps la Ihe dieh'es aiid mider Uic bench pndsmkaa uiFig 13 

E:ilrabeaiir^ pcces will be wanlcd for Uic shelves menlianed Eiba\'c, Ihese being shown 
inFig 14 Tlie windawis fDmiedbycutlii^ Pill Dpemi^ in Ihe side oppKile Ihc door, and 
fiKU^ uiitpi squaie of wlule glass wilh ships of wood an Ihe inside aiidpuHy on Ihe 
oulside, as inFig 15 Arubyglass is frainedas sliowiialG, Fig 16, andammgedlD shde 
lo and fro in Ihe grooved mnneis H, which mpikes il possible Id ha^'e while l^hl, fls at I, oi 
ledl^htas PilK.Fig Ifl The uiule glass wilhimmers m posilion is shown flIL inihe 
same drawing, bul nollhe red glass Pindfianie Venlilahon is arranged for by bonr^ pi 
senes of lioles iieai Ihe floor, as atPvl, Fig 6, and nepulhe roof psalN in the same drawing, 
and liappng Ihe hghl withoul sloppu^ Ihe jHsspge of air, ;\s shown in Ihe sections. Fig 17 

The finish of Ihe roof at Ihe gables ls sliawnmF^ IS, Ihe strip under the boards holding 
Ihe feh in position when folded uiidei, and Ihe same is true of tlie rail al llie top of Ihe loof 
mFig IP 

The liouse will be miichstiei^lhened ifstiips, as sliawnmFig 2D, aie fastened m Ihe 
corners inside, after liini^ with blown pa psi, sciewir^ llieni epch wayinla Iheboaids 

The doarrapiyhflve a iFilchailocb wilh Pi knob, bat should in addition hp^'e two butlans 
on Ihe uiside, tiwedso as la pull itshult^htly pltopandbotloni A wasle ppe should be 
atlpiched la Ihe suik pndaiiai^ed la dischp^e Ihioughtlie floor A cistern withppe and lap 
CEinbe fastened m Ihe lop of Ihe dark roam, if desired, or Ihe raoni maybe made with p flat 
laof, aiidpi lank stand on it, Ihoi^hthis is hpiidly advisable 

It IS absolutely nee essaiylhpit the loanibe well pamled, four coals at first is notlao 
many and one coat twice Pi ^mwiU keep it m good condition 

AbnckfbundaliDn should be laid so tlial no pert of the room loaches Ihe ground 

ThF VtnadlF Qutrl [28] 

"Querl" IS Ihe Geiniannpine far a kilchennlensil wluchmpybe used pe an egg-be ale r, 
pDlalo-mashei or a lenion-squeezer Farbeahng up an egg ma gipss, miJiing flour Eind 
walei, orstimng cocoa orchocolote, il is belle r than anyllui^ on Ihe maiket. 




Querl Made of Wood 



This utensil ismade afliardwDoi preferablymaple oi ash Acircularpiece about 2 in 
in diameter IS cut from l^-m slack prdsliaped hke a slai as sliawiimFig 1^ piida 3yS-m 
liale bored in the cenlerfara liandle Tlie liandle sliauldbe alleEisI [2 m. in length and 
faslEiiedin Ihe slpiras shown mFig 2 

In use, Ihe slaris plpcedm Ihe dLsh canlammg the mateiial lobe beplenornuKedaiid Ihe 
liandle is mpidly rolled be I ween tlie palms of llie hands -Conliibuledby W KarlHilbnch, 
Ene, Peims^^iuania 

An Emergency dSoldtiing Tool [23] 

Occasionally one finds p piece of soldeni^ to do wluch is impossible to leachwilheven 
Ihe snipUesI of Ihe ardinarysalderu^ irons ar coppers If a length of copper wiie as la^e as 
Ihe jab will pemul prid siifficiEnlly loi^ lo admil being bent plone endio form a roi^h 
liandle, and filed or dressed to a poinlonihe other, is healed and luined exactly ps a regular 



copper shDuldbe, Ihe woik will cause na liDuble on accounl af uiaccessibility — 
ConliibuledbyE G limitli^ Eureka Spimgs, Aik 

Smoothing F^^fz aflez Erasing [29] 

When Euiuil Liie is erased the lai^liened surface af the pupei should be smoalhed or 

polished sa as to prffh'ent Hie succeedii^ hues of ink ftDin. spreadu^ A canuenie lit desk 
accessory for tins purpose can be roEide of b slioit 



_^Q^_ 




Colla] Button Ends In Wood ^tick 

piece af hniditfaodand two bane coUai butlans 

File off Ihe head of one button bI Aand Ihe bpise fioiiianolheiatB Baie a smeJl liole 
D ELiidE ui each end of Ihe wood liandle C and fasten tlie butlan jhiIs m Ihe holes with 
glue oiseahng wa:i The liandle can be leflthe sliape shown or lapeied as desired Tlie 
small end is used for smoalhing small erasures Riidtlie olliei eiidfoi largei surfaces. 

A ChtTTj Stedtr [29] 

An ordinary haiipui is driven pari way into a siuflU lonnd piece of wood, about 3^3 in 
indiEinielerand 2 arli-IOm loi^, foi a liandle, assliownm Ihe skelch The hairpin 
should be a very 



3 



Hau^pin In Stick 

Email siae To opemie, simply insert the wire loop into Ihe clieiry inhere the sleinhas 
beenpulledoffandlifl out Ihe seed. —ConlribuledbyL L Schweiger, Kansas City, 

Mo 

A Dovetail Jaint [29] 

The illusti'alion sliows Pin unusual dovelail]aml, which, i^henpul logetlier propeily is 
a piiszle Tlie lenonoi loi^ue of the jainl is slopuig ontliree surfaces and Ihe marliEe is 
culslapu^ la iitalch Tlie botlom surface af the morlise is the spime width al 




ShEipe of Tenon and Mortise 

both ends, Ihe lopbeii^ lapenng toward Ihe base of die tongue — CanhibnIedbyWm 
D Mitcliell, Yonlers, NewVort 

Buci«r Round-End Boltlu [29] 




Fie. 3 
Base Made-Df Coik? 




The maiiyfoniis of iDDiid-botlamedglEissbDElie? nsed in chemical IpibaiBtDiieB require 
:30iiie special kuidof siippoiloii which llieycaiibe SELfely placed from lune la Irnie when 
llie chemisl does not, faitlie mDmenl, need lliem These ?upporls sliouldnotbe made of 
aiiyhaid iiialenal nor should llieybe good conduclors af heat, as suchquahlies would 
resullui frequent bieEilage 

A French magazine suggest;; maku^ tlie suppoit:; fiom tlie laige caiks af glass jai's in 
which cr^tal chemicEJs are usually :3upplied from the dealeii; Tlie moiuieiof mEitii^ 
lliemiscleEiilysliownm the iskelch Each cort l3 cutos mF^ I Find placed on a wue 
niig (Fig 2) wliose end; are twisledlogelheiaud the lasl section af coik is cuttlirough 
from the iiinei side to the center and llius fitted D\'eitlie wiie cavern^ Ihe twisledend^, 
which binds them together The caiks mii'se aie sliownm F^ 3. 

Ructu Windov Baxn [30] 



Instead of iisu^ an oidinaiy green- painted ffindowbox, why nal moke anartisbc ane 
in wluch Ihe caloi daes not clash with Ihe planis conlamedm ilbulialhei hannomaes 
with Iheni 

Such a window bo:i CRube made by Etnyone hpvu^ usual mechnmcal ability, and will 
furnish more oppoitumlies for artishc andonguial des^n than manyolhei oilicles af 
moie camphcaled construction 

The box pioper should be made a httie sharler llian llie lei^lhof the wuidaw lo allow 
foi Ihe eKlra space lEiken upui lnmming Riid should be neEnly equal ui widlh lo Ihe sill, 
as shown mF^ I If Ihe siRia inclined^ asLS usupJly Ihe cose, the boK wiUrequue a 
gieolei lieighl mfraiit, la make il set level, as shown in F^ 2 

Tlie box slioiildbe well milled or sciewed lagetlier Find should Ihenbe pfimled all o\'ei 
lo mEite il niaie durable A numbeiof iy3-m lioles sliould be drilled in the botlom, to 
allaw Uie excess wnlei lo run out and thus pie veni railing of llie plEinIs aiidbaz 

Hflving completed Ihe bare box, it maybe liDumedta smi llie fEincy af tlie maker The 
des^n sliowniu Fig I is very simple ondeasy lo conshucl, but maybe leplaced wiiha 
panel or alheides^n One form of paneldes^n is shown mFig 3 

Tnnmung liavir^ tao rough a surface will be found unsuilable foilhis wort as it is 
difficull la fasten Eind CEJUiotbe sphi as well as smoolh tiimmii^ It sliould be cut the 
prapei length befbie beii^ spht and shauld be fastened wilhbmds The hELlf-ioimd 
lioa|s of bands will be found'h'eiy useful in Inmniir^, especially foi filling -in puiposes, 
aiidby usuig Iheni llie operRlion of splitting is avoided Afleitliebaz is Inmmed, Ihe 
rustic work sliould be varmshed, m aider to Ihoioughly preserve it, as well as improve 
ilsappearence 




Artishc Flo we I BoKei; 

AntidoK for SquiirtlPtsI [JOJ 

To Ihe owiieiof a garden ma lawn where squiirels are protected by law, Lfe in the 
ismnniei hine is a vexation FusI Ihe squiiieb d^ up the sweelcom and Iwo or three 
leplantu^^ pue necegisary When Ihe coniK wilhintwo oi tluee days ofbeii^ siulable 
for coatu^, the isqimiek come m drcr^'es fiam far Eind near They eat all Ihey canand 
CEirry away Ihe rest When the cam is gone encumbers, cabbages, etc , shaie Ihe same 
fate, being parlLy eaten into Attlie nst of beii^ aiiesled foi kilhi^ tlie squinels I have 
used a sniEill tmget nfle momii^ and mght, but duiing my absence tlie devaslatian went 
ansleadily Last ^ai Ihey deistia^d my enlue comciap Tiaps do no good, can't use 
poison, too dangeious But I have solved tlie difficulty, ifs easy 

Sliake CEL^ime peppei ovei Ihe vana us vegetables ivluch aie being rum, and abserve 
resulls 

Homtmadf Efccttk Sioif [31] ByJ F THOLL 



The construction af an electnc stove is very simple, and it con be made by any home 

mechamc having a vise and liand drill The bodyi; made of slieetoigPilvEinizediron, cul 
out and diiUed as ishowii m F^ 1 

Eachloi^ piajection lepiesent? a leg, which isbeni at r^lit angles on the center line 
byplacii^ Ihe metal m the jaitfi; of el viise and liammenng the me tpJ over flat If juslthe 
nmis gripped m Ihe viise, it will give a lauiulu^ farm ta the lowei pml af tlie legs The 
gmall projeclions arebeni mto farm a suppoil for the bottom 

The bottom consists af a square piece afmelal, a^ shaifii mF^ 2 Holes Eire drilled 
near the ei^ei; far stave bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections Two of Ihe larger 
lioles aie used foi Ihe ends of Ihe coiled rod and Ihe other two foi Ihe heating-wue 
terminals The lalter holes should be welluisulRled with porcelam or mica The top 
consists of a square piece of metpJ dniledas shown mF^ 3 Four small ears aie lunied 
down to hold the top m ploce 

One end of the coiled rod is shoifii inF^ 4 This illustrates how two pus Eire inserted 
inhales, drilled at light aisles, to liold Ihe coil ontheboltom plate The coiled rod is 
3/16 in 




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Pallrrn (or Pirn at the Chclrl* B»V* 

PaHcm foi Paris of flie Ekclnc ^lovc 



h..ft 



iiidiELTiielei and 27 m long The rod is wrapped iprlh^Eeela^eslo^, cnlin 1/2-in sirips 

The length of tlie hepilii^ ffne iiiuslbe deteiiniiiedbya lest Thrs wue can be 
purchnsed fioiiieleclncal stores litovepipe wiie wiL aiisivei Ihe pmp]se when legulai 
heating wue caiuiotbe oblamed The wue is coiled around tlie adieslo:;- covered lad, sa 
lliatiio coil will be mcantacl wilh Eiiiolhei coil If, by Inal, the coil does notheEil 
jSufTicienlly, cut some of iloff aiid liyagaui Aboul 9-1/2 ft of No 2t gai^e healii^ 
wue will be Eibouli^hl Tlie coiinecliDn la an electnc-lamp socket 15 made wilh 
anduiPiry flexible cdieL to winch is atlaclieda screw pli^ foi mEikii^ connecliDns 

GtLii- Cleaning SohitHn [31| 

GIflss tumblei;;, tubing Find fancybattles Rie hpjd to clean by washir^ llieinuillie 
anduiPiry way, as Ihe parts Rie hEinl to reach with Ihe fii^eis or abiush The fallawing 
sclutionmEileg an excellent cleaner tliat will leniave diil andgiease from cievices and 
slipip conieis Ta 9 pdrls of water add 1 pait of strong sulphuric Rcid The acid should be 
added to the ivaler islowlyandnol Ihe water la Ihe acid Add Eis much bichromate af 
polFish Eis the solution will dissolve P.1ore bicliromate of palash should be added a^ Ihe 
precipilale is used in cleEinu^ 

The chemicak can be puichEised cheaply fiom a locEddiug isloie, and made up Find 
kept mlaige botlles The solution can be used □\'erand □\'eragQiD — Contributed by 
Laren WeliiI Des Moinei;, Iowa 



Auto ma lie- Closing KtnntlDo^r [32] 

When Ihe neiglibarlioad cats are leluedfoi the n^htand Iheie n; nalhing maie to 
chase, my foK lemer ueenii; ta leahse tlial his usefulness 



1 




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Diagmm of Closir^ Daai 

foi Ihe day L'S over and begs lobe put in Ins kennel Ihnllie may nalbark al Ihe moan as 
:3onie dogs are opt lo da This necesisilales my piitling Imn oulata bme when it may not 
be conveiuenl Frequently ui slormy ivealhei llus is el dwagieeable duty and I fauiida 
way to obviale itby niRku^ a Irapdoai device foi lu:3 keiuiel Eis ^liownmtlie sketch 
wheieby lie may lack himself m wlienhe crosses tlie lluesliold 



The outer half A af the hii^ed tiepdooi is iiiEide hepviei llian llie miier lialf B bye 
cleat, C, Eind a istiip, D, Id cause llie daoi to swing sbut The tiippei shct E is set 
belweeii deals C and F Id liold llie doaio|Kn Wlientlie dag sleps on Ihe inner half of 
tlie tiapdoDi B, it falls to slapG, leleasii^ tiippei shct E (wluchisheaviei on tlie tap 
eiidH) la couse it to foil clear af the path of Ihe tiapdaor The door llien swirls ishntin 
tlie duecliDnof Ihe aiiow, tlie Latch I ei^Rgii^ a slot in Ihe door as it closes, and the dag 
lias locked himself in for the n^hl Tlie latch 1 is made af an aid- fashioned gale latch 
which L3 morlised intliebaltamjoisl of tlie kennel When leleasu^ Ihe dog in the 
nioniing the dooi is sel for tlie ev'enii^ -Cantiibutedby Vicloi Labadie, Dallas, Texas 

Polishing Claih^ for Sik« [J2| 

Pvliz 1 lb af wluliiig Find 1^ oz of oleic acid with 1 gal of gasoline Shi and niiz 
Iliorai^lJy Soak peces afgiay outing flannel of llie desired sise— 15 by 12 m is a good 
size— m this compauiid V/iiiig Ihe suiplus fluid oul and liang them up to diy, being 
CEneful to keep lliem away fiom the fue or an open flame These cloths will speedily 
clean sih'ei oi plated ware and will not sail llie hands 

In cleami^ silver, il is best ta wash ilfiisl mliol ivaler Eind wlule soap and then use 
the pohslm^ cla Ills The clotlis CEinbe used until they aie worn lo shieds Do not wash 
tlieiit Knives, faiks, spoons andolhei small peces of sih'ei will keepbi^hl Eind free 
from tarnish if tliey aie slipped into cases made fram die gray auting flannel and liealed 
with Ihe compound 

Sepmate bE^s far such peces as tlie teapot, cofTee pot, ha I- water pot, cake basket and 
alheilaige pieces of silveiwaie will keep die in bright and shiiui^ — Contiibuledby 
Katlianne D ^%lr5e, Syracuse, N Y 

AB«ok-HoUer[J2] 

Books liavir^ a flexible back aie difTicull lo hold man upr^lit position when copyir^ 
from them AmatesluflcombinaliDnof papenveighls and other boots is ofVen used, but 
with uiisa hsfac lory re suits 




F^ 2 Box Coiner fvlnkes a Book Holder 

The boak-lialdei sliownm the skelch will hold such books secmely, aLawtlie pages 
to be turned easily and conceal die smallest passible portion af each page 

The holder can be cul oul of a box earner and fitted wilh two scieweyes, which liave 
tlie pait shown by the dotled hues al A (F^ I) leinov'ed Tlie lei^diof Ihe backboard 
delermines Ihe slope for die book rest —Contiibuledby James M Kane, Do^^slown, 
Pa 

Cbn^ingaC«zk[3J] 

Ills aggravating lo conlmually break the cork of Ihe slock mucilage battle because of 
lis sticking la die neck of Ihe botde aflera supply has been poured ant If a stove boll is 
insetled lenglhwise through tlie cork with a washei on each end and the nul screwed up 
t^hlly as shown mtlie sketch, Ihe cark maybe made to lasl longer tlian die supply af 
mucilage and can be placed ma new bottle and used o\'ei and ovei agam 





v> 








1 


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H 





WillidT3wing Poper fnmimdFr an Imerttd Bottb [33] 

Invert Rbotlie ana piece of pnpernear Ihe ei^e af a lable lap and Pisk anyone Id 
remove Ihe pflpei wilhaiif averhuiimg Ihe botlle They willataiice]eik liie paper with 
tlie result thai Ihe bottle will tiunover To remove the pflpei just istiite the lable lap ffilh 
yom i^hlfisl while pulhi^ Ihe paper slowly wilh your left hand A^ yau stake the lable 
tlie battle will jump aod lelease Ihe pepei -Coiibibuledby Pvfeuiice Baudiei, NewOi- 
Ieait3, La 

Emtrgmc)' Tirt Rtpiir [JJ] 

A bone coUai button iiiake^ a good ^iibistitule for a pli^ inrepauir^ a puncture in a 
:3u^le-lijbe bicytrle lire 

Broom. Holder Made af 4 Hingt [33'] 

The broom halder shown in Ihe iskelch is made of anorduiatyhu^e with one wing 
screwed la Ihe wall The loose wing ha? a large hole diiUed mil to receive Uie liatuUe of 
tliebioani The maimer of liolding Ihe biaomis plainly shawnm Ihe sketch 
— ConlribuledbyTheodaie L Fisher, Wave rly. III. 




Making Froofi before Ihe Negatne Drie:« 13)| 

A cone^pondentof Caiueia Craflmatei; piaofs from Ins develaped, bul unfixed, 
negatives, by squeezing a glieetaf we I bromide paper mla contact with Ihe welfihu and 
gluing an exposuie several limes longer Ihan would be required unrlei onlinaiy coit 
ditions, usii^ tlie paper diy If the developer is welliuised out af the film. Hie expoisuie 
to artificial l^lil necessary to make a piml will liav-e no injunaus effect upon Ihe 
negative, niuchis, of cauise, laler fiKed and waslied as usual 

Flower-Pol Stind [33| 

A veiy useful ^tandfoi flowei polg canbe made of a piece afboard supported by four 
clotlie:3 haot:3 Tlie tap maybe of any siEe suitable for the flower pot The hooks which 
iserv'e a? legs aie feslenedto Ihe midei side of lliebaaid mtlie sanie mamiei as faistemi^ 
tlie hook Id a wall --Conbibutedby Ohvei ^ ^piaut, Haindiuig, Pa 




A LineHainwnagraph [34] 




As an appaiatiis capable af ezcitir^ interest, piabablynotlung so easily coiislnicled 
ismptisses Uie haimoiiogiaph VoiuatleiiliDn willbe coinpletelyabsDibedinthe ever 
dialling, giacefiil sweep of Ihe long iKaduliim, Uie gyialiaiis of which are faithfully 
recaidediii Uie resullu^ haimoiiDgraiii 

A caiele:3^ rnipetu; given to the |Knduliiiii may leisultina very beautiful 
hEmnanogiam, bulynn niEiy Iryuinmneiable times to duplicate Uus chEtnce record 
witlioul success No two liamonogmins are eKactlyalite The liaimanogiaph, iffliile ib 
pendiiluni iswiogs maccDidaiice wilii we II known natural la iff^, is exceedinglyenalic 
when ilconie:3 to obeyuig any preconceived calculfiliDns of its aperalai In this 
uiicertaintyhes the cliann If time hai^s heavily oi a psrsonis ?l^hlly nervTius or 
uiieasy, a harmonogiaph is a goodprescnpliDn 

The prime essential in a well working harmonograpli is a piopeily construe ted 
uiuversEd joint Wheie such b joint is made withpivols foritsbeEinngs, one pan of 
pRTils are veryhpble to have more friction than the alhei, which lelaids the 
movement ELiid causes the ImnnonDgmph to undergo a conlinua lis change of axis Ta 
abviate Ihis difficulty, Ihe jomt should be mEide sunilar to tliose used on scales The 
general appearance of such a joint is sliownin Ihe Btslillustialion, Fig I li lumps A Riid 
B aie niEide of 7fSby H4-m metal Holes are dnlledmeachendof these stiiruisand 
filed oul as sliownatC The two lioles shown in the center of tlie shimp A Rie dulled lo 
fasten Ihe apparatus lo the ceiluig Two coiiesponding lioles Rie dulled in B to faslentlie 
long pendulum F to the ]ouil Tlie cross of Ihe joint D has tlie ends shRpedas shown elI 
E Tlie rounded sliouldei on E is lo prevenlthe cross frombecomir^ displaced by a jar 
01 accideni The ends of tlie cross Eire uiserted Ihioughihe lioles C of the atimips, tlien 



islippedbRct so Ihe knife edge:; engage in the V-sliaped lioles of liie stumps The cia^s 
must be so niEide tliRltlie kiufe ei^es will be mtlie same plane Tins can be deteniuned 
byplRcuig IwD of the kiufe edges on the ;aiHS of a\Tse Eiiidtlien kying Iwo nilei; across 
tlie odier hvD ei^es The rules should just touch tlie jaws of tlievise and the Iwd knife 
ei^es of Ihe cioss This makes a uiuveisRljamtEilnioslfiee fiomfiictiDiiaQi niiatis 
most 1111 iBitnnt, prFh'ents flie pendulum from Imsting on its awn ai:is 

The penduiuin F sliouldbe made of ash oiaEik, l-3y4by li m , inlh n ler^th 
depenriii^ on the he^hlof Ihe ceilii^ A length of 7fl is abouli^hlfoi a ID-ft ceiling 

A smaE table or pJatfanii, K, rs shown mthe loivet pari of F^ I, is fastened to Ihe 
lower end of the pendiduni as a support for the cards on which hEirmanogianis are niRde. 
A weight, G, of about 30 oi 40 lb -a box filled inth small we^hls will do— is attncliedto 
tlie peiiduluin]usl above the table Anolher weiglitof about 10 lb is attachedassliown 
atH Apsdestal, J, provides a means of supp]itfoi the st]^us The stilus Eiim should 
hEive pin-pjmtbearuigs, to pre'v'e lit any side motion 

The ler^lhof Ihe short pendulum H, wluchcEinbe regulated, eis shown in Fig 1, 
should beELi a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the niain pendulum, for 
tlie swirling times of pendulunis Eire uiv'ei'selypopoitianate lo tlieu lei^tlis, and unless 
tlie shoiler pendulum is, for instance, exactly one-third, one-fomHi, one-fiflh, etc , as 
long Eis the other, that is, makes respectively 3, 4 or 5 swings to one swii^ of Ihe long 
pendulum, they will not lianuonize Find a perfect lianuonogiEim is not obtained 

A good stalls to conlamfhe ink is eEisily made from a glEiss tube H4m m diainetei 
Heat tlie lube m an alcohol or Bunsen flame emd then, by dmwii^ the Iwo paitions Fipdit 
and twisting ht the same time, tlie tube maybe diawnto n sliarppomt An opemiig of 
anydesued sise IS made m the pointbynibbing itona whetstone Owing to the fiict 
tliat the slyle of univeisal]om]desciibedliEis so httle friction, tlie stylus p^mt must be 
very 




Lines I^^de with Ihe Hannonograph 

fuie, or the lines will overlap and blur A small we^hl, such as a shoe buttoner, ploced 
on the Einnnear Ihe st^us will cause eiioi^h friction to make the pendulum "die" faster 
and thiisremedytlie trouble — ContiibutedbyWm R Ingham, Rosemont, Ansoiia 

Culling Circidax Haleic in Thin Sheel Meiol [15] 

In Bits and crafts work, occasion oflen aiises to cut a perfectly circulai hole m sheel 
capper or brass Ta saw and file it onl takes lime and skill Holes up to 3 m m diameter 
can be cut quickly and accuratelywith an ordinary ex pansivebil 

Fasten tlie slieet metal to a block of wood wilh liaiulscrewsor a vise Punch a hole, 
with a nail setoi punch, m the center of the circle to be cul, laige enough lo receive Ihe 
spur of the expansive bit A few turns of Ihe brace will cul out Ihe circle and leave a 
smooth ei^e —Contiibutedby James T Gaffney, Chicago 

Kty Card ibr Wiiring Unreadablt FosI Cards [}S] 



AkEycardfaiuse iiicoiies|Biideiii:e on postals Ihal makes Ihe iiiatlet imieadEible 
uiile^^ liie recipient lias a duphcale key card is niEide as follows Rule twa canls Ihe size 
af poslaL one far the sendei and one for Ihe leceivei, dividing them into qnatleis Tliese 
qnarlersaie subsequently divided into any convenient nunibei of lectangulaipeils-six m 
tins case 

Tliese [Hits are niuiibeied from one to six in each quaiteibegiiuung attiie oulside 
earners andfollowmg mtlie same oidei meach quaitei Cut out one lectai^le of eRch 
niunbei with a shaip knife, distiibutu^ lliem over the whale caid Then put a piominenl 
f^ure 1 altlie top of one side, IT at the bottom Find 3 and 4 on the alheiside The 
numbeiing and Ihe cutouts are sliownm Fig I Tlie twa key cards aie niEide alite 



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The key card 15 usedbyplacu^ it over a postal with the figure I at the top Eiiid wiilii^ 
in the spaces fiomleftto i^htas usual, F^ 3, Ihenpul 3 atlhe top. Fig 4,andpoceed 
asbefoie, llien 3 asinFig 5,and4asinF^ 6 The lesultwillbe a]unible af wonls Eis 
sho^vii mF^ 2, wluch CEnmolbe read to mEike any sense except by use of el key card — 
Contiibutedby W J &'1arey, Clucago 

Honumade Carpenter's Vse [36] 

The sketch shows an esisily made, quick- woiking ivaod^Tse that lias proved 'v'eiy 
satJsfEicIaiy The usual sciew is lepJacedby an open bar held on one end by a ivet^e- 
shaped black. 





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and the excess takenuponttie otlier endbyaneccenlnc lever Tlie ivei^e 

IS worked by a slang passing tluai^h Ihe top af the bench and sliouldbe weighted on 

tlie other end to facihlate Ihe ELiitamEilic downwnid mavement 

Tlie capacily of tlie\ise, of couise, depenrls on the size and sliape af the wedge-shaped 

btock -CoiitiibiitedbyJ H Cn^ei, Cape l^yCity N J. 



Toning Bhie onBromidt and Fhtinum [36] 
Aflei some expetimenting to secure a blue tone anbiDinide pnnis, a canespondentof 



tlie PliolDgiaphic Tinies produced a veiy pie a:3ii^ bluish green tint by unoieismg the 
prnits 111 h solutian composed of 30 gi of feincyanide of potssli, 30 gi citiate of nan 
aiid aiiimDnia, 1^ oz acetic acid and 4oz of watei Afler secuiuig the tinl desired^ 
remove the pniits, luise litem m clean watei for a fewmmules. Find tlien place tliemma 
diliile galution of hylioclilaiic acid Wash the prmls IhorDuglily emdhEir^ theiiiupwith 
chps to diy 

Culling LaofBrtad [36\ 

Wlienculting h loaf ofbieEidda not slice itfiom the autei enisled end Cul Ihiai^h 
tlie center, tliencutshces from Ihe ceiitei taiffaidtlie ends The twa ciitsiufacescanbe 
placed together, thus excluding the aii aiidkeepu^ the bieEidfieshap; long as there is 
aiiylefttD shce — ContribuledbyL Alberta Nairell, Augusia, Ga 

How to Make^nEfectEk: Toaster [)7] 

The eleclnc lapister sliownin the sketch is iiothaid to make The frameiwork 
campnsuig Uie base and the tivo upr^hls niEiybe made either of haidivoadoi adjestus 
boaid, SE[^ Papular Electncity If constnicled of Ihe foniiei, the porbonof Ihe base 
luidei the coil, Riidthe iiL'Side siufRces of Ihe two upt^hls should be cov-ered with a i^- 
lu sheet af well made asbestos pflp^i, ortlmi asbestos board maybe subsliluted for this 
lining Asbestos board 15 to be preferred, and Ihis luatenaL m almost Einy degree of liard- 
uess maybe purchpised ItcEinbe worked mto sliape and will liold wood screws The 
delad drawing gives eJI dimension's necessRiy to shape Ihe wood or Eisbestos board 

After prepfliJiig Ihe base and npiights, diill 15 lioles, t/4ui deep, mto Ihe inside face 
of each upright to support the No 6 gRi^e wires sliown The wires at Ihe topandbattoni 
for lioldii^ the resislance wiie aie covered wilh asbestos paper Find the haies for these 
wires Eire 3/4m from Ihe top andboltom, lespectively, of the iipights The wires that 
form the cage about the heater coil aiidaie used for h support for the toEistaie 15 peces 
afNo d gauge lion wire eachS m tong Tlie screws Ihal hold the upnghts mpasitioit 
should have tlie heads caimtersiink an the under sirle of the bpise Tlie binding-posts 
should nawbe setmpasilionaiidtheii protectu^ cavenng 



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Detail of Toaster 



cantmning the reuifarced cord Left until tlie otiier parts Eire finished 

To Assemble, secure one upright m position using l-l^ m wood-screws Place Ihe 
athei upright wheie il be tongs without faslening it aiidpul Ihe stretchei ivires foi 
holding the lesistance wire m place Put the adiestos paper on these and with the 
assistance of a helpeibegui winding on the healei cod 




Toapjle r Coniple te 

Use SO fl of IS-per-centNo 22 gpii^e Germpin-siluei wire Wind the successive turns of 



wiie SD Ihey will not touch eacholhei and faisleiiateacli end with a tain oi two of No 
|£j gauge copper ffiie WheiiHus is campiete liav-e the helpei hold Hie slielcliei wiies 
while y]u lip Ihe unfesleiied upi^ht out Enid insit Ihe wires of the CEige, then fostenthe 
upi^htm place 

The wire ftom Ihe bindii^-posts to the c ail iiiaybe whatw tiiDwiiuiideiwiiteis' wire 
ai asbestos-cavered wue No l4gE[i^e, wluchis lieldm place by double-headed lacks 
cantRiiuQg ELiiiiisulatiaiialtlie liead These maybe procuied froinelectncal supply 
houses Connect Ihe reinforced c a id aiidtennuiEils to the binding screws and fasten the 
caver in place This toaster will take four amperes on llQ-volt ciiciul 

Cnbinti for tlie Amqreur'iE Worhshop I37| 

One af the mast convenient adjiuic Is lo an ELiuateiu's workbench is h CEibinelof some 
soitm wluch to keep nails, nvets, screws, etc , uisleEid of leaving Ihein scattered all 
about Ihe bench A very easily niEide cabinelforlhis purpose is shown in the 
accompflnyu^ lUuslrelion The case maybe made of l^-in while pine oi ivlute wood 
af a suitable size to lioldthe requued nuinbei of drawei;; wluch slide on strips af the 
same mateiiEil, cut and dressed lO in square The drawers Rie made af empty cigar 
bo:ies af uiufoim size, wincli, if one is not a sniatei, maybe reEidilyoblained from any 
c^ai dealer, as Ihey are usually tlirown a way when empty 

Small knobs maybe added if deaued,bul these ere not necessary, as llie spaces shown 
between the drawers give ample room to grasp Ihemwitlithe fillers Labels of same kind are 
needed, end one af the nealesi thn^s for Hus pnipose is Ihe embassed aluminum label such 
as IS stamped by the well known penny^ m-the-sia I mechmes to be fannduimanyraihaad 
stations andamnsemenlplaces —Conhibuted by Frederick E Ward, Ampere, N. Y 





191 






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Eniprty CigEir Boxes U?ed for DiaivBrs 



UiicuilingPhafogrqplu [38] 



Phalagrapli prints can be kepi from curling when dry, by giv'ing them the same 
beolment as was once used on films Immerse far 5 minutes mabathmEide by odding 



14 oz of glyceime Id 15 oz of ivaler, 
SoUfring&r iht Amalnir pS] 

Successful soldeiii^ will present no senous diiTicullies la Euiyone who will fallow a 
few simple duecliDns Cerlainnselals Rie easier Id join ffilli solder llianollie is and same 
CELiuiDlbe soldeied al eJI Capper, brass, ziiic, lui^ lead, galvanised iron, gold and silver 
araiiy coinbinalionof Ihese melalscanbe eEisily saldered, while iron and aluiBiniim Eire 
commDn metals thai caruiotbe saldeied 

11 IS necessaiy Id possess a soldermg coppsi, a pece of solder, bnner's Mid, 
sandpepei or steel wool, a small file and a piece af sal aimnoniac If the saldenr^ 
copper IS an old one, or lias become conaded, itniuslbe gioiind or filed to a pouil Heat 
ilunlil liol (not red hoi), melt el little soldei on the sal ainmoiuac, and nib the point of the 
copper on it, liuiiing the copper ovei to thoroughly lin Ihe point on each face Tins 
process is knaivii rs timung the iron and is verynecesspiry to successful i*ork 

Aftei the coppei is tinned ^u may place ilintlie fire Bgaiii, being careful about Ihe 
heat, as loo liot an iron will bum off Ihe Imiiii^ 

The ptirls lobe soldeied must be Ihoroughly cleaned by SEindpapenr^ oi Ihe use of 
steel wool until the melal sliows up blight Then opply Ihe acid only to llie paits to be 
soldered wilha smEill stiifbiush era smEill piece of clolh fastened to a slick, arm Eibenl 
piece af tm la foim a sivab 

Tmnei's acid is made by putlii^ as much zinc m commercial iiiuiiEilic Eicidas wtII 
dissolve Tins piacess IS bestaccomplished manopsneaitlieni^aie dish After tlie acid 
lias ceased to boil and becomes cool it niEiybe pouiedmta a wide-manthed battle winch 
lias h goad lop or stopper, and labeled "E*oisan " 

Place the parts la be soldered in tlieii conect position Eind apply Ihe liol capper to Ihe 
solder, then lo tlie joint lobe soldeied, followuig around wilh the coppei and Eipplyii^ 
soldei as IS necessBiy Injoinir^ Ipiige peces il is best lo "stick" them together m several 
places Id hold the ivoik before Iryuig To gel all Eiiaund Iheni A liltle practice will soon 
teach tlie requisite ELinaiml of soldei and Ihe snioallmessiequiied fai a gaod]ob 

Insoldeiii^ galvanized iron, the pme niiinatic acidsliouldbe used, particularly so 
when the uon has once been used ~C G ^ , Eureka Springs, Aik 

Wishboud HoUer \}9] 

Whenusu^ a iffasliboRiii il will conlmuallyshpdawn m Ihe tub This is considerable 

anna^ffluce, especially if a iRige tub is used Tlie wnsliboard can be kept m place wilh 
small metal liooks. as shown m Ihe sketch Two of Ihese aie fEislenedEa the bnckof 





Clip on tlie Washboard 



tlie wasliboaid mtlie i^hl place lo keep it elI Ihe proper slant —Contributed by W. A. 
Jaquyihe, Riclimond, Cahfamia 

A Minnn Braihtt Shelf [39] 

Tlie slie If consists of six pieces of wood A, B, C, D, E aiidF The material can be of 
any wood I liave one mEide of niEihaganyfimshedm natural color, and one made of 
poplar fuushedblact The dimensians given m Ihe delaildiawings Eire sufficient for 
anyiiie la make this bracket The amount of material required is veiy small and CEinbe 
made from scrap, arpuicliased fiom h mill surfaced and sanded The paits are pul 
togelhei with dowel pins — Conlributedby A Laison, Kenoslia, Wis 




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Deldkaf Ihe Wall Biackct 




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How W Make a Fingfr Ring [39] 

Wlule the ffearu^ of coppei iir^s foi ilieuaiatisni inaybe a foolish naQa ii, yet there is 
certmngah'iinic rcIidii 



:3 



r^i 



Tia.l 



TgdIs for Foniiuig tlie Ru^ 



get up by the caiitaclof the acid m the isysleni of tlie afflxted person wilii Ihe metal af 
tlie ring Apatlfmni tlus, hoiffevei, a nr^ inaybe made fioiii any metal, such as capper, 
bm^:3 and silver, if such inetals are inplale oi sheet fann, by Ihe fallawir^ inetliod 

All the tools necessary are h die and punch wluch are :3iiuple to make and willfnima 
mig Ihol will fit Ihe average finger Take a 3/4-m nut, B, Fig 1, aiiddialloul Ihe 
tlireads Tlu:3 mil leave h clear liole, IIS in uidiELiiieler, ara hale dnlied Ihe desired siae 
in a piece of iranplRle will do a^ well Countersink tlie lap of the liole so tliattlie full 
diainetei of Ihe comilersuik will be 1-1/4 m This complelesthe die The punch A, is 
made of a piece of 5/E in round iroii^ sightly laiinded on Ihe end so thai it will nal cut 
tliioughthe melaldisk The dimenstons shawninF^ 3 canbe cliangedto smtihe size 
af the firmer to be filled 

The luelal used sliouldbe aboul 1/16 m Ihick and 1-lM in in diameter Aiuieal il 
prapeily by he Piling and plunging in walei Lay it on Ihe die so llialil will fit nicely in 
llie countersink anddiive it tlirough the liole by shikii^ Ihe punch wiiha hRmiuei Hold 
llie punch as nearly cenlral as passible when staring ta dn^'e tlie metal thioi^h tlie hale 
The disk will come out pan sliaped, C, and it is anly necessRiy to leniave Ihe botloiu of 
llie pflu to lipive abaiid wluch willleave a hole 5yE in indiEinieler Pind 1-H4in wide 
Place the bEind, D, F^ 2, on a slick so llial Ihe edges canbe filed Pind rounded lo shnpc 
Finish with fine emeryclalh and palish Biass rings canbe plaled when finished — 
ConlribuledbyH W HEinkin, Tiay, N Y 

How to Bind Mq^zines [40] 

A great many readers af E^opuloi rvlecliamcs MagRsine save Iheir copies andluive 
theinbaimd mbaok form and some keep lliem williout binding The bound volumes 
make Pinatti'aclive libraiy and will Edwa^be valunble woiks of lefeience aloi^ 
inechamcal lines Ibind my magazines Rlhame everungs, wiihgood lesults ^ix issues 
make a well piopoitianedbook, which gives Iwobaund volumes each year 

The covers of Ihe magazines Eire lemoved, Ihe wiiebuidei;; pulled out with a pairaf 



pLeK and Ihe advertising pages leiiiovedfiombotli :3ide:3, Eiflei which it will be found 
thatlhe remEmulei is in sections, each sec lion cantEimuig foiii double lepveg oi sixteen 
pages The:3e sections Rie each lemaved ui luni from the atheis, using 
a pocket knife to sepfimte theinif they slick, and each seclionis placed as they were in 
tlie magazine upon eEichpiecedii^ one until allsi:! nuiiibera liave been prepaied If 
:3tiiited with the Januaiyoi Ihe July issue, tlie pages will be numbered consecutively 
tluoughtlie entue pages af the six isisues 

The sections aie Ihenprepflied foi sewing They are evened up an Ihe ei^es by jarring 
ana flot surface They aie Ihen placed be Iween two pieces of boEmi Eiiid all clamped in a 
vise Five cuts, l^in deep, aie made with h :3aw ocross the beet of Ihe isectian;, as 
ishownmFig 1 Hepvy plam papeiis used faitlie fl^eaves Tlie pflper is cutdouble the 
:3anie an the lea\'es compnsii^ Ihe seclions, niRkii^ eithei one aitwo double sections fai 
epichside as desired 

A frame fai sewing will have to be made eis shown mFig 1i before tlie work can be 
contmuedon the book The frame is easilympide of foui peces of wood Thebotlam 
piece A sliouldbe a little lEiigeitliantlie baok The two upr^htpecei; B are nailed to the 
autside ei^e, Eiiid a tlurd piece, C, is nailed aciosi; Ihe top l^mEill nnib aie diivenpait 
way mta the bpise C to coiiespandto the :3aw cuts m the sections A piece of soft fibei 
stiiiig IS stietched from eachnnil to Ihe ciasspiece C Eindtied 

Coarse while tliiead, sise Id ai laigei, is used foi Ihe sewii^ mateiiEd ^tmtwilh Ihe 
front of tliebaok Be sure llialall sechons are intlieu i^hl pliices and tliatHie flylea\'es 
aie piovidedui the tiant and back Take Ihe seclions of the tl^aves on top which 
ishouldbe notcliedtlie same eis the saw culs in tlie book sections, and place them Rgaiiisl 
tlie stiiiig:3 mtlie fiaine PIelcc the leflhandon the inside of the leaves wheie tliey aie 
folded ELiidstait a blunt needle, llueaded double, lluaugh the notch on tlie leftside of the 
istiii^ No I mFig 1 Take hold of tlie needle with the light liand andpasi; it to tlie letl 
aioiind the stiii^ No I, tlienbRck lluough the notch on tlie i^hlside Fasten the tluead 
by lying or making h knal mtlie end andptissmg the needle thioughit After drawii^ 
tlie tluead lightly, pass tlie needle tlirough Ihe notch on the left side of the stiii^ No 2, 
passing il around the sinng and tyii\% m the same mEimiei as for No I Each section is 
fastened to Ihe five strings m Tlie SEinie inamier, tlie llueadbeii^ earned Rciass from 
each lie fromNo 1 to 3 Ihen la 3 aiidso on 



.DO-Aa 




Piauic faw Sewl^ a«liHH 



until all strings Rie hed The string No 5 is tiealed mthe SEinie mamier only IhRl Ihe 
needle isiuii lluai^h on the leflside of tlie sliing a second linie, leaving the needle on 
tlie outside in position far the nextseclion, wluch is fastened the same ns the fusl, the 
needle beii^ ptissed thioi^h the nolch on tlie nght side of llie string No 5, Euidlhento 
stiii^ No 4, pussu^ aromidon the i^hlside Find back on the left Find so on Keep Ihe 
tluead drawn up tightly all Ihe time 

After the sewing is completed cut the slnngs, allawu^ about 3 m of Ihe ends 
e:i1endii^ on each side The fibeis of these eiuls Eue sepflinted and combed out so llmt 
tliey CEinbe glued to the cov-eis ta sen-e as a hir^e A piece af cheeseclolh is culto the 
size of Ihe back and glued lo il Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive la use 

Procure heEivycfliiJboaiii foi Ihe cov-eisand cut two pieces 1/2 m lai^ei and just Ihe 
same width as the magazine puges The coveruig can be of clotli, leatlier oipfipsi 
accoidu^ to the tRste and lesaiucesof Ihe makei Tlie coveting sliouldbe culoul 1 ui 
lEiiger an all ei^es tlianboth cov-eis and space on the bEick PlRce Ihe canlboEini cov-eis 
an Ihe boak, allawir^ a ma^m of H4m on all edges exceplthe back, andmeEisuie tiie 
distance between Ihe back ei^es of the covers across Ihe bEick of Ihe book. 



Place Ihe caiiJboaiii CDveis on the back of liie cov^nog Ihe prapsi diisleiice aparlas 
inea:3iiied fai the back, aiidmRik Riaund eachoiie ^piead Ihin coal of glue ontlie 
ismface of each aiidlay Iheiii oiibytlie marks made Cula nalchautaf the cov'eiir^ aa il 
will faid in. Olid, aflec gLmng 




The Bound Book 

a sinpof papeitD Ihe co\'em^ between the cov'era to sliei^liieii Ihe bock, faki over Ihe 
aulRide edges of Ihe covemig and glue ildawii E[Uarouiid 

Place Ihe covei oiitliebaok m Ihe light poalioii, glue Ihe hinges faatto Ihe made of 
tlie covets, tlienglue the fiKtfl^^af la the uiside of tlie cover a iibalhfiantaiid back 
aiidplRce the ivhole uiidei a ite^hl until diy. — CoiilribuledhyCl^de E Divuie, College 
View, Nebr 

M«tal CtmeringiE for Ltallitr Hinges [41] 

A ineBiod of making h leatliei Imige waik f\s well eis aiiDiduiaiysleelbutlis la cover 
tlie wings with sheet me lal The metal can be fastened with nails di screws aver Ihe parts 
af the leather a Itached to the wood Tinplale, uon 





MelalPaitsScieived on Leather Hu^e 

hoops, zinc or Ihrnbidiss culm neat deisign.'; lfiU make a leathei hinge appear els well as a 
melRlhir^e — CDnliibuledbyTomHulclunsan, Eiicaiilo, Cal. 

R«natin«FlaslFr fnm Skin [4I| 

A liot-waleibatde held agaiiL'St a poroos piaster will assist in c|uickly removing il&om 

tlie stm 

HoH w M^kf 4 Cheap Brukel Haw [42| 



Foi Ihe frame use SfS-m lauiid iron,beiidir^ il eis sliown mtlie diagram Euidlilmg a 

knab on each end^ atapposile sides la eRcholhei, an ivluch lo haok llie blade 
Foi Ihe blade hn old laltii^-mEichine 




Hacksaw Fianie aiid. Blade 

ijpiir^ ore cCack sprii^ will do nicely Heat the spmig enoi^li to lake some of liie 
lerapsi Dul af it, inoidei la dnllliie liole^ iii the eiids, as ishaitfii^ aiidfile m the teeth 
iVtike the blode 12 in kii^, with ID teeth to tlie inch A Riid B show how tlie blade fits 
an Ihe frame -Cantiibutedby WiUaid J Hel^, liiuiimitville, Olua 

Htm » Makf q Cannan [42] 

A caniiDuhbe tlie oiie in the cut may be iiiEide fioiii a pece of l-in hyrliaulic pjK. A, 
with a steel ^lee^'e, B, Pind a long duead plug, C Be sine ta geth^auhc pipe, oi double 
eKlia heBvy, fl? ilis soinelunes CEdled, eis CDmiiiDngas ppe is eiiliiely lao light for llus 
purpose Don't Imve Ihe ppe loa loi^ or the caiman will not make as much 




Toy Cannon 



Tw CaiiiHii 



noise Seven ai eight incliea isabauttlie i^hllei^th far a 1-in boie. Screw the pli^ and 
ppe up hghdy and then diill a !/lfl-in fuse hole atD 

If desiied Ihe coiman maybe mounted on a block of woad, F, by means of a U-baltor 
Iwge slaple, E --Cantiibutedby CaisonBuldie ad, Pvlooihead, Ml3s 

C«nti4lkTibr4 SnudlMolor 142] 



Aneaay way of mpilii^ a contioUii^ and reversing de^^ce for small luolaK is as 
follows 

Cut El piece af wood (A) about 5 m by 4-1^ m , and 1/4 ui tluck, and another piece 

(B) 6 in by I m, Eiiid U4in Ihict Dnv'e a niul Ihroi^htlusneEii Ihe center foi h pivot 

(C) Ta Ihe uiidei side of one end nail a coppsrbiush (D) to extend autaboul Eininch 
On the upper :3ide, al Ihe SEime end, nail Etna the ibiiish (E) ^a dial ilpojec 1:3 albolh sides 
audi; bent down Id the level of Ihe end brush. Then on tlie baard pul 




Reverse for Motor 

a KLUi-cucle of bmss-heEided lacks a^ shawn atF, leaviiig a ^inall space at the middle 
andplacu^ fiv'e lacks on eitlienside, sa Ihal Ihe eiidbnisli will come iii CDiilacI with 
eochoiie Connect tliese lacks on the luuler :3ide of Ihe boaid with coils afGeniian- silver 
wiie, using EibautS m afwiie to each coil Fik these bysoldemig or bending o^'er llie 
ends of Ihe lacks Tlien nail two sIiijk of copper (G) m :3uch position that Ihe :3ide brush 
will remain on Ihe one es loi^ as Ihe endbiiish lemauis on the lacks an llialside 

Put sides about 1-1/2 m lugh Eiiound Ihis oppfiialas, laismg Ihe boaida htlle from Ihe 
bottom lo allow room for llie coil A hd maybe added if de sued Connect up eis shown 
— Conlributedby Clias H Boyd, Philadelphia 

Hov 10 Makf q Simpb Water Rhnsbl J4I| 




yjlRL5 A JO BE RUBBER CO^EB^D 



Wlilrtj FUJI bJ Wjlrl ^iOeiMlfll 



Wiring PLin far Water Eheoslal 

The mRlenals necessaiy aie One 5-poml loood-base switch, 4 jars, some sheelcoppei 

oibmss for plates, about 5 ft of mbbei-cov^ied wue, and some No IE gai^e wue foi 
llie wuing 

The sise of Ihe jars depends on tlie 'h'oltp^e If ^n aie gou^ lo use a cunenlof low 
tension, as fiombatleiies, Ihe jais neednolbe veiy large, but if ^umtendto use Ihe 
electiic light cunenl of I ID voltage il will be necessaiy to use laige jeus oi wooden 
bo:ies made waleil^ht, wluch will hold about d or 7 gal Each jm to be filled with 30 
parts water to I pait sulpliunc acid Jaisaie set ma lowm some convemeni place out of 



Ilie way 

Nexl cutaute^lil copper Dibias^ disks, two foiedch]ei Then siEe pJso depends on 

tlie 'h'oltp^e Tlie disks Ihiil Eue placed intlie Laifei paitof Ihe jars are coiinecled with a 
iTibbei covered wue e:ileiidu^ a Ltlle above Ihe lop of tlie jar 

To wue the Pippaialus, lefei to the sketch and ^u will see IholjarNa. 1 is cannecled 
to pami No 1 oii:3wilch. No 3,DnND 3, aiidso on until all iscoinplete aiid we hpive 
one lemEiiiiii^ point on switch Above the ]Eir3 place a wiie to suspend Ihe other oi top 
disks in Ihe :3olulion Tlu'S wiie is also connected to one tennuial on Ihe motor and to 
lemaiiui^ paiul on switch The annof Ihe switch is coiinecled to one teniunal of 
balteiy, or source of cuireni, and Ihe other lenuinal connecled diiecl to remEimmg 
lenuinal of usoIdi 

Pulanu of swilch onpainl No i and lower one of Ihe lop disks mjai No 1 and make 
conlactwith wiie abcr^'e ]Eirs Tlie cirnenl then will flow Ihiai^h Ihe molor The spieed 
foi each pcmtcanbe delemunedbyloweruig topdisks injais The top disk in jai No 2 
IS lower dowii Ihiin in No I Eind so on for No 3 Find No 4 The coiinec lion between 
pouiiND 5 on switch, duecllo wire across jars, gives fuUcurrenl and full speed 

How 10 BuiHaTobo^an Sfcd [44] By A BOETTE 

The fust object of Ihe bnildeiof b sled should be to have a ■winner" bolhinspieed 
andappeaiance The Mcompienymg mstiuclions for buildup a sled Eue des^ned la 

pnoduce Ihese lesults 

Tlie sled completed should be L5 fl. 3 in. long by 22 m wide, wilhthe cushion Pibout 
15 in above llie ground Fdi llie boseboEiid selecl a pnne board 15 ft loi^, II m wide 
and 1 m lluck, Eind pilane ilon allei^es Fit up the baseboaid with len ook fool-ieats 12 
m long, 3 in wide and 3/4 in Ihick Fpislen Iheni on tlie under side of Ihe baseboaidat 
iighl aisles to its lenglh and 36 m apeit, beguuiii^ at the icm AI llie front 24 or 26 ui. 
will be left wilhoutciossbara forfitling on tlie anto front On Ihe uppei side of the cidss 
bars al Iheiiends on each side aciew a paece of oak I in square by 14 fl toi^ On Ihe 
uppieiside of the boseboEiid al its edge Dnepichside screw Pinoak strip 3 in wide by 3/4 
in thick and Ihe lenglh of Ihe sled from llie back to tlie auto froni These aie lo keep the 
cuahiDnfioin falhi^ out ^ee F^ 1 Foitlie back of Ihe sled use Ihe uppier part of a 
child's liigh chaii, lakii^ out Ihe apnndles and lesetlii^ lliem in Ihe lepuend of llie 
baseboard Co^'eiup Ihe outside of Ihe apmdies with a piece of gah/amzed iion 

The conslruclion of die lunneis 15 sliDwiiby F^s ? and 3 Tlie stock required for 
them is oak, two paeces 30 in by 5 in by l-lJ4in., two pneces 34 in by 5 ui by 1-1/4 
in, two paeces 14m by if in by 2 in, and four peces I4in by 2 m by I in They 
sliouldbe pint together wilhlEiige screws about I m toi^ Use no nails, as Iheyaie not 
substantial enough Inprnapailiomi^ Ihem the pamls A, B aiidC, F^ 2, are unpiorlaul 
Fai Ihe fronI rumieis Ihese niepisuremenls aie A, 30 in , B, 4ui , C, 15-1/2 in, and for 
llie rear iiuineia A, 34 in ,B, 7 in ,C, 16-1/3 in The sciew eyes indicaled must be 
pilacedina sheighl hue and Ihe holes foitlieni carefully centered A vanalionof 1/16 ui 
one wayoi Einolher would cause a gieal deal of tiouble Foi Ihe steel runners use 3/3 in 
cold-iolled sleel flallenedal llie ends for screw holes Use no screws on the rumiing 
surface, however, as Ihey "snatch" the ice 

Tlie mechmusm of Ihe fiani steering geai is sliownatF^ 3 A 3/4-in sleel rod makes 
a good sleem^ rod Flolten Ihe sleenng rodatone end andsink itinto Ihe wood Holdit 
m place by iiieEins of an iianpilate diiLed to receive Ihe rod and screwed lo block Z An 
iron WEisher, Z, is used to reduce fiic lion, bevel btock K to give a rocker motion Equip 
block X with screw eyes, niakii^ Ihem cleai Ihose in the fioni imuier, and boll Ihiaugh 
For Ihe rearnmner pmlabtock with screw eyes on Ihe baseboard Eind imi aboil Ihioi^h. 

CdiisItucI llie auto front(F^ 4) of 3/4-in oakboaids The illuslration shows how to 
sliapie il Bevel it lowaid all sides and keep Ihe ei^es shaip, as sliaip edges Eue besi 
suiled for tlie biass lnmmings which aie to be added When Ihe aulo fronl is inpilace 
enamel the sled either a dork maioonoi a creamy while Firsl sandpepierall the wood, 
llien Eipiply a cool of dun enamel Let slEind foi three doys and apply snolhercoal Three 
coals of eimmel Eind one of Ihinvaniiah will make ei fme- looking sled For Ihe bmss 
trimmings use No 27 B ift li slieel brass 1 in wide on all Ihe front ei^es andpeces 3 
m squEiie on Ihe ciossbaia to rest Ihe feel pianist On Ihe dooi of the auto fronl ptui tlie 



moiiQimm af Hie Diviier aiowiieis of the isled, cntti^ itaul of sheel brass 

For llic ulcem^-iobeel pocuic an old fieighl-CM "biEite" loliecl, biaaa pkled Fasten a 

lioin, such as used on aula mobiles, to Ihe wheel 

Pvlflke the cusluaii of teatliei aiidsluif itwith liaii Tliebesl way is to get same Strang, 

cheap matenal, such osbuilap^ sew up one end andniEike in 




Ei«.2 



CoiL^lniclion a "Wumer" ToboggflnSled 

the form of an oblong bp^ ^toffthis as lightly as possibte wilhlimi Thengetsome 
upliobterybutlona, fasten a CDid thiai^h the loop, bung tlie coid tliiough lo the 
underside of the cushion, and fasten Ihe button by sLppng a nail thioi^hthe knot Then 
put a leather cowni^ oveitlie burlop, sewing it to IhebuilEip on tlie uiidei side t'lake 
tlie cusluon for tlie back in tlie spime way On top of the cusluon suppoits lunabiass 
tube to serve Ihe double puipose of holduig the cushion down and affDidir^ something 
to hold on to 

If desued, bicycle lamps inaybe fastened to the front end, lo improve the appearance, 
and it IS well lo liave a hght of some kind bI Ihe back to pi^'oidtlie dai^eiof leai-end 
colhsions 

The door of the Eiuto fioiit sliould be hii^ed Eind piovided with b lock so that skates, 
parcels, Dver^hoes, lunch, etc maybe stowed within A silk pennant wilh a monogram 
adds lo the appeamnce 

If desued, a biake maybe added lo the sled This can be a wiought-iion lever l-l^f 
in hyi.!2 in by 30 in long, so pivoted that movir^ Ihe liandle will cause the end to 
sciape the ice This sled can be niEide witlioul lamps and horn at a cost of about $15, or 
wiHi Ihese fort35, and tlie pleasure deiiued from il well repa^ Hie buildei If the 
expense is greater llianone can afford, a number of bo^ may shnre in Ihe ownerslup 

Burning liucr^tiDiks on Trfie 



Scrape off the bark just enoi^h to come lo the firslLght under coating, wluch is 
some wliat moist With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscnplion lobe burnt on Ihe 



tree aiidbiii^, Ihe la^ of a laige magnifying glauu iial quile to a fuie focus on Ihe same 
The tree will be buinl along Ihe pencil marks, and if Ihe glaiss is nal held mane spol Iod 
long, Ihe uiscnption i^iUbe buml mas evenly a^ if it hod been ivntten — Canbibutedby 
^teiffartH Lelond, Lesingtan, 111. 



Htm la Makt Small Gnrwlinb Wilboul a Lathr t1A| 

To make small mode k simdiy ismallgeELisaiid racks are required, either cul for Ihe 
place aiby usmg Ihe peits fiomauokickick Wilh ild DUier IodIs Ihan a hacksaw, some 
files, a compass. 




Making Model Wheels 



aiid Willi Ihe e:iercise of b little pnlieiice aiid modemle skill, very gaod tee III maybe cat 
an blank wheels 

FirsI lake Ihe cnse af a small gearivlieel, say I m oulside diEimeler Piiid 1/16 m Ihick, 
with Iwenty^faui leelh Dmwa ciicle anpapei, tlie same diameleia^ the i*heel Divide 
tlie cucumfeieiice mlo Ihe iiiuiibeiof paits desued, by drawing diameters, F^ I Tlie 
distance AB will be appro:iimatelytlie pich Nawdesciibe a siiiRllei cucle fai Ihe baise 
af tlie teeth and lialfway between lliese circles maybe laten as the pich circle 

Now describe a circle Ihe same gize a:3 tlie laigesi circle an b piece of l/ld-m slieet 
metpJ, and liavir^ cul it aut and filed ilup to tins ciicle, festen Ihe marked-autpapei 
circle accuialely D\'ei itwilhglue ^aw-culs can now be made dawn Ihe diameters la Ihe 
smallei circle with Ihe aidof El saw guide, F^ ?, made from 1/lfl-m mildsteeloi non 
Tins guide should have Eibe\'eled ei^e, E, from F lo G, Id lay along Ihe line an wluch 
llie saw-culLS la be meide Tlie slraight-ei^e, CD, shauldbe selbact one-hEilf Ihe 
lluckness of Ihe sow-blEides, sa Ihal Ihe ceiitei of Ihe blade, when flal p^ainsl il, will be 
avei Ihe line FG A small clearance space, FC, must be made lo allow Ihe leelh of Ihe 
saw lo pass 

The guide shauld Ihenbe ploced along one af the diEimelers and held in posihan uiilil 
gnppedui Ihe vise. Fig 3 The fiisl laoth niRynowbe cul, caie being taken lo keepthe 
blade of the saw flal upta Ihe gmdii^ edge The Model Engineer, London, says if tins is 
done and the SRW-guide well niEide, Ihe cul will be centtal an Ihe hue, and if Ihe 
malting -aut IS caned the teelh willbe quite unifami all Ihe wayiound A small ivaid 
file willbe needed lo finish off the teelh Id Iheir propei shape Riidtluckness 

Inmakir^ a worm wlieel Ihe cuts niuslbe taken in a sloping diieclion, Ihe slape and 
ptch depending on tlie slope Eind ptchof Ihe worm tliread, wliich, tlioi^h more 
difficull, may pJsobe cut with a liacksowand file 

A bevel wheel shauld be cul mtlie SEime niannei rs llie spur wlieel, bul the cul slioold 
be deeper on Ihe side wluch lias Ihe larger diamelei To cul el mck Ihe pitch slioiild be 
malted eiIoi^ the side, and Ihe gmde Eind saw used as before (F^ 4} 



How la Makf Four Piinim an OnePbitt [46] 



Secure two exlro slides foi Ihe plale liolders Eind cul one comer out on one 




Fnui PhotDU on One Pkle 



of tliens, a? shown uiF^ I Pvfeke a hole in Ihe olher, eis BliownmFig 2 Willi a lead 
pencil didw on llie giDiuidglauu one line veilicplandone hoiiainlal, each m the cenlei 
This will divide Ihe gioundglaus iiilo foui equal pails 

Focus llie CEmiEia mtlie usual manner, bnl gel llie pctuie desned lo fill only one of Ihe 
paits on Ihe graundglaus PIpce Ihe plpile-haldei ui pouiliDn and diaw Ihe regnlai slide, sub- 
slilale one of Ihe slides pepaied and e:ipDse in the usual way 

If a small picluie is lo be made ui Ihe Idwbi lefl-handcomei of Ihe plale, place Ihe 
prepared shde wiUi Ihe comer cul, Pis shown m F^ I The shde nipybe tmiiedovei for the 
upper lEflliand comer and then cliangedfoi slide shown in F^ 2 foi the upper and lower 
ng hi- hand comers 



Etcirk BliiF-L^hlE:9Fiim«n1 |47] 




Take ajump-sperk coil and conneclitupwithabpitleiy Eindsliiillhe'hTbrafor Then lake 
one outlet wue, R, and coimecl lo one side of a 1-cp eleclnc Ipinip, and Lie olber oullel 
wire, B^ hold UI one liaiid, and press eiII fingeiij of Ihe olheiliandon 

globe at ponit A Abnghl, bine l^htwiU come fiam llie wues in the lampio Ihe surface of 
Ihe globe where tlie fingers louch No shock will be peiceplible 

B. 

lnl«Ftiling EltclricalE:qicTinitnt [47] 

The niEilenals necessaiyfor pedbmung llii^ experiment Eue Telepliane receiver, 
tninsmittei, some wue and uoine cpibons, eithei the pencils for an: lamps, or ones laken 
from olddiybatlenes will do 

Run a line from the mpide of tlie liouse lo Ihe uiside of some other building and fasten it 
lo one lemimidof Ihe recei^'ei To tlie olliei teniiinal fallen PEotheipece of wue and 
gromid lion Ihe water faucet in Ihe house If there is no faucelmtlie lioupe, gromid it with 
a laige pece of sine 

Fasten the olliei end to one lemiiniil of Ihe haiisnu Iter and ftoia tlie other tennmal of Ihe 
same ion a wire into the giaund The ground here should consist eilher of a laige piece of 
CEuboii, or several pieces bound lightly together. 




Crewtf^ 




A Unique Batleiy 

If a peisan speak into tlie tianpnutler, one allhc receiver can hear uiwliu uaid, even 
Ihoughtheie are nobEillenes inlhe circml II is a well known fad tlial Iwa lelephoiie 
leceiuers connected up m llua way will Iransnul words between Iwa persons, for llie voice 
vibrating the dipphiagm causes pnmducti^'e cuirentla flaw and llie allier receiver copies 
diesevibialions But in tins espeiunent, a tran'Jinilter wliich induces iia cunenlisnsed Da 
the caibonand the zinc and llie inout eaith form a battery^ -Contributed by Wra J 
lilEitlery, EmswoiUi, Pp 

A Cht^ Fin Alton |4T] 

AneleclncEdde^'ice for thebpintliat will give an Pilann incpise af fue is showninlhe 
acconipanying diagram A is a waodenblack, winch is fastened undei the loftpila gable 
end of the bani.B is an iron we ^htattpic lied ta the sliu^ C, and this sliii^ passes up 
thiaugh llie bam to the roof, thenffh'er p hoak orpulleyandacrouu thebani, under the 
gable, andL3 fastened ta the opposite erdaf thebani 

D D Euebuiding pDsts foi electric wiies Theyhn^'e sciewends, as shown, by winch 
niepiis they Pie fpstenedto the wooden block A They also hold the brass piece E piidthe 
stiip of spnr^ brass F in place agpinstthe wooden block G is p leather strap fastened to 
tlie we^htB and the spiii^ F connected lo tlie latteiby a small sink boll. 




Electiic File Ahiiin 



At tlie house an electric bell is placed wheievei convement Several battery cells, of 
course, aie also needed Drybatlenes aie mostcom'ement Tlie batteiy cells and bell pra 
connected in the usurI mannei, pnd one wue from the bell and one fiom llie battery aie 
stiur^ to Ihe barn and connected to tlie buiding posts D D 

If a file occuis in Ihe liay-mow the biaze will generally slioo I toward Ihe gable soon 
afteiit staits, and will then burn the siring C, which allows the we^litB lo fall and pull 
tlie biass spring against the iron piece E, which closes Ihe cuciutand iii^s Ihe bell mihe 
liouse 

If desued, the sinng maybe siretc lied back and faith uiidei the loaf seveial tunes or 
drawn tlirough any place Ihat IS mdpi^ei of file --Contributed by Geo B Wienn, 
Ashland, Oluo 



Htm » Make a SiullElFclrii Furuce 148] 



Tpke a block of waod and shape into a coie One like p loaf of biead, pndaboul thai 
size, sei'h'es admirably V/rapa layer of a^estos around it and caver this widia thm 
Ipyei of plaster-of-ptins Wlien the plaslei is nearly diywinda codof No 36 wiie 
around it, laking caie tliat the wue does nal louch ilself anywheie Put anothei 
couise of plastei-of-paiis on this, and E^am wind die wue aiaund it Conlinue tlie 
piocess of alleiuiile layers af plaslei and wiie uiihl 500 ft oi nioie af tlie lattei lias been 
used, leaving about ID m at each eiidfoi terminals Then set tlie whole core pway to 
diy 

Foiabpse use a pine boaid ID m by 13 m by I in Boie foui lioles alone end for 
biuEhng-posts, as uidicaEedbyE E. Comiectthe holes m pfiirs by oidinaiy house fuse 



wue Atoiie ade weenie two leceptacles, B B, aiidoiie single pasi swilch, C Place 
aiioliier swilchatl and aiiolhei buidii^-posl at F The oven is iiow leady la be 
coniiecled 

Wilhrlniitf the iflaodeii core from Ihe cdiIs of wue and weenie Ihe lotler by bands af tin 
to Ihe boaid Connect Ihe ends of Ihe wiie ta buidu^-pasls E aiidF, a:3 slioiiTi From the 
alheisetafbindmg-posls, E, iiui a Ko IIT oi Na 14 wiie, coiineclii^ lampreceplacles, 
B B, and switch, C, mptiiaUel Connect tliese tluee to switch, D, ui Irenes wilhbuiding- 
po:3t, F, Ihe lerminal of the coil Place ! if -cp l^ht^ ui the receplacles Eindcoimecl Ihe 
fuses with El IIO-vdU l^hting circuit The apparatus w now ready foi opeialiDn Tiimon 
:3witcli, D, ELiidtlie lamps, wliile C is open The coil willconmience to become WTinn, 
goondiying out liie phister-of-pens Ta abtEiinmoie heot 




Electnc Furnace 

open one lamp, and la abtnui still more open the other ondchise switch C — CDntributed 
by Eugene Tutlles, Jr , Newait, Oluo 

How W Makf in AmnwRr [49] 

Every ELiuatem mechanic wha perfoims electrical eKpeiimenli; will find use for an 

ammeter, and foi Ihe benefilof thase who wish to cansliiict such an mstiiuuenl Ihe 
followii^ description is given The opemtrve principle 




Complete Amnielei and Details 



af this instrument is Ihe same as that of a gPiluEinameter, e:icept that lis warkii^ position 
IS not canfuied la Ihe magnetic mendmn Thisisaccamphsliedby niakii^ Ihe needle 
iCh'olve ma veitical instead of el lionzontal plane The only ad]uslmEnl necessaiyis tliat 
af leveling, whichisaccamplisliedby Imiung the thumbsciew sliownal A, Fig 1, until 
tlie hmidpamls to zera an the scole 

Fust make a suppait. Fig 2, bybendir^ a piece of slieetbiass to the shRpe uidicaled 
and lappir^ foi the scie^vs CC These sliould have hallawenEls, as shawii^ for the 



pmp]se af receivii^ llie pvoledazle ivhich gupp]ite Ihe hnnd The caie, F^ 3, is made 
af uaii It IS I III long, H4m wide and i/S in lluck Al a ibuiI a little abcr^'e tlie center, 
dnll a hole as ahaivii at H, and Ihioi^li this hole dnve a piece of knilting-needle about 
l^m long, Di long enoi^li to leachbelween Ihe twD screws sliownm Fig 2 The ends 
of tins stueiU a:ile should be ground pomled and should Imii eosily in Ihe CEivities, as Ihe 
sensitiveness of tlie uislmment depends on the ease with ivhichtlus a:ile turns 

Aflei assembhi^ tlie coie as shown ui Fig 4, it sliouldbe filed a liltle atone end until 
it assumes the position uuhc Bled The pointei oi liand. Fig i, is made of ifue, almmnuiu 
beu^ preferable foi this puipose, allhoughcoppei or steel ^nll do Fvlake the wire 4-1^3 
m loi^ and make a loop, D, 1^ in fiom Ihe lower end bolder lo the short end a piece 
ofbmss, E, of such weight tliat it will e:iactly balance Ihe we^htof Ihe liand This is 
slipped on the pi^'ol, and tlie ivliole thir^ is again placed in position mtlie suppoit If Ihe 
pointei IS coiiectlybalanced it should lake the position shown m F^ I, but if it is not 
eKactlyr^hta httle filii^ wiUbm^ ilnepir enough so Ihatit maybe coiiecledbythe 
adjustii^-screw 

Next moke abiass frame eis shown mF^ 6 This maybe made of wood, altlioi^h 
brass isbettei, as the eddy cuiients set up m a conductoi sunonnding a magnet tend lo 
stop oscillation of the mp^nel (The core is magnetised when a current flows thioi^h the 
inshiuiienl) The brass frame is wound withmagnel wiie, Ihe size depending on tlie 
nuinbei of amperes to be measured r^line is wound with two layers of No 14 wire, 10 
turns lo each layer, and is about right for ordinaiy expeiuiientalpuiposes The ends of 
tlie wire aie S^slened lo die binding posis B and C, Fig I 

A wooden box, D, is then made and provided with a glass front A piece of paper is 
pasled on a piece of wood, which is tlienfaslenedm Ihe box m such a position that the 
hand or pointer will lie close to Ihe papei scale Tlie box is 5-1^ m liigli, 4 in wide and 
l-3/4m deep, uiside measuieinenis After eveiytliing ls assembled pula diopof solder 
on Ihe loop at D, F^ 5, to pieventil luming on the axle 

To calibiate the insliuinentcomiectas shown inF^ 7, where A is the homemade 
aimnetei, B, a slandardammetei, C, available lesistance, and D, a battery, consisting of 
tliree or nioie cells connected m midtiple Tlirowm enoi^h lesistance to make tlie 
standaid instiiunenlread 1 olim [sic ampere] and Ihenput a niait on the peperscale of 
tlie instrument to be calibrated Contmue mtlus way with 1i ainpeies, 3 amperes, 4 
ainpeies, etc , until Ihe scale is full To mate a voltmeter out of tins uistnmient, wind 
withplenty of No 36 magnet wire instead of No 14, or if it is desuedto make an 
instrument for ineasuiii^ both volls and amperes, use bolh windii^s and comiectto 
two pens of binduig posts — ContribnIedbyJE Dnssault, Ivlbntreal 

HoH 10 Mikt a ThzH-Wa; Cocktbi Snull Mad«L-Wark [50] 




In making models of machines it is oflen necessary lo contrive some method for a 3- or 
4-way valve or cock To make one, secure a pel cock and drill and lap liole Ihioi^li, as 
shown in the cut If foi 3-way, diiUm only lo die operur^ aire adylhrough, but if for a 4- 
way dnll lluoi^h the enlue case and vatve Be sure lo have valve B turned so as lo drill 
at light aisles lo the opening tliroi^hit After diiUii^, remove the valve, lake off the 
burr with a piece of einery paper and replace ready for woik 

Easy Ei^trimtnls'willi ElNlxic-Light Circuil [50] 

Aiieleclnc-hghtcucuil willbe found much less expensive thanbatlenes for 



peifoniiiiig eleclncal expemiieiilg The skelchishaws hoff a smEillaic lighl Eind iiiolor 
inaybe connected la Ihe l^hl socket, A Tlie Lghtis leinovedanda pli^ ivilhwiie 
caniiec lions is piilm ite piece One iviie runs la the swilcli^ B, and the a Ihe i connects 
with Ihe i*atei dieostat, wlucli is iisedfbr reducu^ the cuiieiit 



i 

• ■■ 


1^ 




lai 


fe 


1 
1 


— ji— ■ 

LP 


\JU 






r~ 


C 




r" ^ 


1 



Aic-Light Motor and Watei Rlieoslal 



A tincan^ C is filled neatly to the top with saltwaler, Riida melal lod, D, is 
tliiougha piece of woad faslened at tlie lap of the can When the inetaliodLS layered 
tlie cmient increases, and as it is ivithdiaivn the cunent grains iffeaker In tins way Ihe 
desired amount afciuient can be obtained 

By canneclu^ the niolai, E, and the aic l^hl, F, as sliown, either one maybe 
aperatedby tiinung switch B to the corresponding pDint Tlie aic l^hlis easily made by 
fasteimig Iwo eleclnc l^ht carbons ma waodenfmine iite tlialshawn To staitthe l^ht, 
turn Ihe cunenlon stror^ and bring llie pomts af Hie caibons togethei, then sepeiale 
sl^hllybytwLstnig Ihe upper caiban and al Ihe same time drawing il lluai^h the hole 



How la M^kf inLntem^tcT {51] 

The Wenuitmlen'aptei is an uistiument much need on laige coils and is far more 
efficient Ihan the usual 




Details of Intemipter 



form of vibrators It can also be usedinth success on small coils as well as k^e. 
Allhoi^hitis a cosily mstiuinent ta puicliase, it can be made wilh practically no 
e:ipense and Ihe coiistiiictionts veiy simple 

Fust procure a ivide-mouthed bottle about 4 m h^h, provided wiiha mbber 
stopper This stopper sliouldbe pierced^ making two lioles aboul 1/4 m mdiametei 

From a sheet of lead IHfi m m Ihickness 




Tlie Compleled Iiistnmieiil 

cul h piece ^hflped like A, Fig 1 Commaii lee leEid folded several time? will ?erue liie 
piiipose When ui Ihe botlle Ihis lead shaiUdbe of such a size Ihatit wiiloidy leach 
Imlf way around, as shown uiB To uiseil the lead piate, loLI ilupso il will pass 
duai^htlie neck of the batlLe, IhensoiDothil an! widi h shielU slick until ilfils EigaiDsl 
the side, Icelvji^ the smEillsliip elI the lopprojeclmg Ihiough Ihe neck of the botlle 
Bend Itiis sinp to one side andfil m Ihe sloppsi, as shawn iqC A smEillbmdir^-pDsl 
IS fastened at Ihe end of the sinp 

Havir^ fued Ihe leadplale in position, next gel h pece af glass tube havir^ a hoie 
of aboul 1132 of Ein inch iiLdiame lei A piece of an old flieimonieler tube wall seive 
tlos purpose Inseittlus tube inthe hole in Ihe sloppsrfiuthesl fiani Ihe leadplale Get 
a pece of wiie that will fit the tube and about 6 in long, and fasten h small binding- 
posl on one end and stick the other into die tube Tlus wue should fit the hole m the 
tube so il can be eRsUy moved In Ihe hole nearest tlie Lead plate insert h sitlelII glass 
funnel 

The inteiruptei as it is when cample le is shown elI D, F^ I He[\ti^ finislied the 
miemipler, coniiecl il with the electnc-lighl circuit as shomi in Fig 3 Fill the botlle 
wilh water lo about Ihe line as sliownui D, F^ I Adjust Ihe wiie in Ihe small glass 
tube so that it poj eels aboul 1^3 in Addsulpliunc acid until Ihe watei level rises 
about 1/16 in Tiiiiionthe current and press Ilie bulton, B If all Eidjuslmenls are 
collect, there will be h loud cracklii^ noise from tlie mierrupler, el violet flame will 
appear at the end of Ihe wiie and a liotspaik will ptiss between die secondary 
teinunals If the interrupler does not work elI first, add more sulphuric acid Ihrough Ihe 
funnel Eiiid press Ihe wiie down a liltle mote mio the hqmd A piece of wood. A, Fig 2, 
should be uisertedm vibrato i lo prevent it from woiking - -Contributed by Haia Id L 
Jones, Carthage, N Y 

A Minntim "Paper's Ghost" llusian [52] 

Probably many re Fide IS lia\'e seen el "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement 
place As tliere sliown, Ihe audience is gene lally sealed m a dEirk laom elI Ihe end of 
which lliere is a slp^e with black liai^u^s One of Ihe Fiudience is invited onto tlie stage, 
wheie he is placed manupr^lito|Kn 




coffin A labile ^luaudis tliiowii D\'ei his body, aiidhis clolliei; and flesh gradually fade 
ai*ay lill iiollur^ but his ^kelelou lemaiiis, wlucliimmedialelybeguis Id dance h lioinble 
ratlLi^]^ The skeleton then fedes awEiyand the inanis le^taied p^ain 

A simple eKplannlianisEiveu in Ihe Model Engineer Beti^een the audience and Ihe 
coffin IS El sheet of lidiispdienl gla:3:3, inchnedatan ai^le sa eis to leflec lab] eels locEited 
behind tlie scenes, bul so clear as lobe invisible ta the audience and the man in Ihe 
coffim At the begmiung Ihe stage is l^hled only from be lund Ihe gla:3:3 Hence Ihe coffin 
and lis occupant Rie iseen thioi^h tlie glass very plainly Tlie lighls infiantof the glass 
(belmid Ihe :3cene:3) aie nowiaiised verygiadiiallyas Ihose beluiid the glass Eiie turned 
down, until it isdaik llieie The perfeclly black surface behind tlie glass now acli; like 
tlie silver backing far a mmai, and the ob]eclupon wluch Ihe l^hlt; noiv turned— mtlua 
CEise the skeleton— IS reflecledin Ihe glass, Rppearmg to Ihe Riidience eis if really oc- 
cupying Ihe slp^e 

The model, which requires no spec laL skill e:icepl Ihalof CEupenliy, is cansliiicleda^ 
sho^vii m tlie drawings 

TlieboK conlaimi^ Ihe stage should be 14 in by 7 in by 7-10 in , inside dimensions 
The boK need not be made of particularly good wood^ as the entire mtenoi, with Ihe 
eKceplionof Ihe gla^s, figuiesand l^hls, sliouldbe colored ei dull black This can well 
be done by ptiinlu^ wilha solution of lEiiii|iilack m tuipentine If eveiylhing is not 
black, especiEilly lhe]ouilsandbackgromidneEii A, Ihe illiision will be spoiled 

The glEiss should be the cleaiest possible, and niuslbe llioroughlycleEinsed lis ec^es 
should nowhere be visible, and it should be fiee from sciatches and impeifec tons The 
figure A should be a doll about 4 m lugh, dressed m bnlliant, l^hl-colored garments 
Tlie skeleton is made of papieiinaclie, EmdcELnbebai^hlat Japtinese stores llsliould 
pieferablybe one wilhaims siispeiiiledbysniE[llspiiEd springs, givir^ a Imip, loose- 
jomled effect The metliod of causing Ihe skeleton lo dance is shown m Ihe front view 
The figuie is hiu^ frDm Ihe neck by a blackened stiff wire Rttached lo the hammer wire 
of an electiic belL fioni which the goi^ has been removed V-lien Ihe bell works he will 
kick againsl Ihe leai wall, and wave lusanus up anddown^ lliu'3 givii^ as reeJislic a 
dEuice as an^fljiie, could expect tram h skeleton 

Tlie lights. Land M, should be miniature electiic lamp^, which can be run by three 
diy cells They need to grve a fairly slioiig l^ht, especially L, wluch sliouldhave a 
corneal tm reflector to mciease ilsbnlliRiicyandprevenlilsbeu^ reflected m the glEiss 

liiiice Ihe stage should be some dislance from the Rudience, to aid Hie illusion, tlie 
angle of tlie glEiss and the mclinalionaf the doll. A, lias been so designed lliatif tlie 
stE^e IS placed ana niantie or other h^h shel£ Hie uiiage of A will appeal upiightlo an 
abservei silluig m a chEjr some dislRiice away, wilhmtlie limils of an ordinary room If 
iIls desiied lo place tlieboi: lower down, other angles foi Ihe miRge and glass maybe 
found necessary, but Ihe pioper till can be found leadily by expenmeni 

Tlie electric coiinec lions are so smiple lliattlieyare nol shown m Ihe drawii^s All 



tliatis necessary 13 a lwD-poiiit3wilcli,byHiiiclieitliei L ai Mean be placed m cucuil 
with Ihe baHeiy, and a press button m cue uit with Ihe bell Find its cell 

If a gradual liniisfDnnalian L'S desued, a double -pDinled iheoslal could be used, 3a that 
a3 one light dims Ihe other intieoses mbiiliiBncy, by Ihe uiserttDii and removal of 
resLstimce coils 

WiHia cleEii glass Euida dnrk room Hus model ha^ proved Id be fhllyasbewildeimg pS 
ilspiDfotyiK 

E:i9triinFnl willi Cabr«d Eltctrir Lan^s [?J] 

Td many the folio wir^ e i:pe nine n1 maybe much more episily perfonned than 
e:iplE[ined Place Hie hniidoi otliei Db]ectm Ihe l^htcomuig from two incfliide scent 
lELiLips, one red and 




Two-Coloied Hand 

one ifflule, placed Eibonta footopurl, Eind allow Ihe shadow to fall on a irfule screen such 

a3 a table-cloth E^orliDrw of Ihe sliadowinll then flppeeii to be abr^hlgieen A similar 
e :ipe rune nl consists m fii^t tiinung on Hie red l^hl for about a imnute Find then tumii^ it 
off fll Hie SELine tune IhnI Ihe while one is toinedon The enhie screen will then appear Id 
be E[ vrvidgieen foi about one second, after which it assumes its nonnal color 

T»E:9kid«FVnvd«withElFcJTiril7 J? J] 

A l-in hole was bored m the cenlerof el 2-m square block Two finisliiiig nails iffere 

driven in, f\s shown in tlie sketch Tliese weie connecled to teiminals of anuiduclion 
coil After everyllung wasreEidy the powder was pouied in the hole and aboard 
we^hted wilh rocks placed over the block When Hie bultonis piessed 




01 the ciicuil closed m some olher wiiythe dLscharge occurs The distance between Ihe 
UELil pomis— which must be br^liland clean--shDuldbe}iisler[Oi^h to gR-e a good, fel 
sptirk — ConlribuledbyGeD W Fry, ^an Jose, Cal 

fUrnpk Wireluic Syittm [S4] 

The tUuslmliDns will make plum a simple and ir[e:i|Knsi%'e appuratus for 



Hfita flu&ecff "livifTBft. 



^"OWM ULI 



CDPPfiR tlAIL S- 9C 



HgF^ 



Cnc ACCUMUUTW 



»V|] AUBSEl? iri3UE>iTH 








TEfRvmc facoiifp 



:0 



OWtR i°X--Te6 AflO («fiui*TOnB 



Sunple Wireless S^lein 

wiieless lelegiaphyby iffliichl have liadiiD difScuHy mseiuliiig messE^e^ across 1-1/2 
iiules of iHBlei suifRce Itis so ample tliRltlie culs scarcelyneed explanaliDii In Fig I is 
seen Ihe sendii^ appurRlus, consisting of a 40-cellbalteiy coiuiected with tiffo copper 
plates 36 by 36 by ilS in Tlie pliites are separated 6 m by q piece of hard rubbei Pileach 
end 

In Fig 2 ELie seen duplicfltes of these insulated plates, coiuiected wilhan anluiEiiy 
telephone receiver With this leceiverl can liear distinctly the electiic s^uals made by 
closu^ and opemi^ the Kibrse key in F^ 1, Riid I believe tlialina slioittinie I shall be 
able to perfect Ihiss^lemso as to send wiieless messages o\'ei lai^ dislances — 
ContiibatedbyDudleyH Cohen, Net* York. 

i^p Czawliiig Wqler Cokirs [54| 

To prevent iffateicoloig fioni crawhng, Eidda Ceivdiapsof ammoiua oi hme water, or a 

solution of sal soda 



SnullEleilriralHydiogen Genmtaz [54| 

A small hyiiagen generator maybe made fiani a fnut]E[i, A (see sketch), wilhtwo 
tubes, B and C, soldeied in Ihe top The plates E CEinbe made of tin or galvaiuzed uon, 
and should be separated about 1^ m by sniEill pieces of wood One of these plates is 
camiecled to metal lop, and Ihe wue fiani tlie other passes throi^h the tube B, iffluch is 
filled with melted losin 01 WRX, to make itauiight Tlus wiie canneclsto one side of a 
bRlteiy of two cells, Ihe olhei wire being soldered to Ihe metal lopof the ]eii, as sliown 
Tlie jar is partly filled witha\'eiy dilnle solution of sulphimc acid, pbonl I pert of acid 
to 30 of waler 

Wlientlie cunentafeleclncily passes between Ihe plales E, hydmsen gas is 
generated, which rises and passes throi^hthe rubbei liose D, uito the receiver G. This is 
a wide -month bottle, winch is filled with waler and inveiledovet a pemof waler, F 




Hydrogen Generator 



Tlie gasbubbhi^ up displaces Ihe water and fills the boltle 

If the leceiveria renia\'ed when lialf full of gns, the remaining apiice will be filled 
wilhaii, which will niiz wilhthe gas and form ane:iplDsive miKture If a hghted match 



IS Iheii held iieai Ihe luoulli of llie bottle a uharp lepoit will be lieaid 

If the bottle is fitted with a cork coiilaimr^ two wuea iieaily touchir^, Eind the 
appflcatup connected with EiiimducliDiicoil, inanch a manner thiita uperk will be 
produced uiaide the bottle, the e:iploaian will blowout Ihe coit oi possibly break the 
botlle Caution should be used to a'h'oid being almckbypeces of flyii^ glaaa if tlua 
eKpenmeiittJ tiied, Pind under no condition uhould a lighted match or uppirkbe bioi^hl 
iieai the end of the rubbei liose D, au Ihe presence of b htlle eiii in Uie generatai will 
make Ein explasi^'e mixture wluch would probpibly break the jar. 

Guoliiu Burner for ModtlW^rh [55] 

WhenmEitir^ a snipJI model traction enguie or a locomotive the question anses, "Wliat 
sliall the fuel be"" If ^u hpve decided lo use gasoline, then a suilable burner is 
necessaiy Apece of brpiss tubing abaul 3 ui m diamelei aiidfl m long wilhcaps 
screwed on both ends and fitted with a fiUu^ plug Eiiid a bicycle valve makes a good 
gasoline supply lank, soys Ihe P.Iodel Ermine er, London The bic^le VEilve is used to 
give the tank an air ]iessure which forces the gosoline lo the biiniei 

The burner is made fioni a jmece ofbiass tube. A, as is shown in the illustration, 1/2 
in in diameter and 3-iy2 in loi^, wluch is pli^ged up at both ends, one endbeii^ 
drilled and leanied outlo 5/16 in Tliree laws of lioles iH5 in ui diameter aie drilled in 
tlie biass lube One row is drilled to come direclly on lop, and the othei two oi about 45 
degiees fioni the vertical It is then fitted lo a sheel sleelbase, B,by lueEins of the chps, 
C C, Fig 1 A piece of 1/S-in copper ppe, P, is then coiled around Ihe brpiss tube. A, 
which forms the vapoiizing coil This coil sliouldhnve a diomeler 



1 


M 


W 


Y 


B-A'iS 


"Lxi. " 


\tl 


^rC )) ^tl rJ^ 


s? ; 


V^-^ -^tL_L 


1= — 


It' 


1 U Cipjrci — tj — ™ 

t\i 2 



□omljor BorDtr 

Gasohne Burner 

of only I in One end of the co^^Kr tube is bent around so it will point directly into the 

reanied-outliole in Ihe end of Ihe brpiss tube, A Ampple, N, is made by drilling ai.12- 
in hole halfway Ihrougha pece of brass and tappi^ lo sciew on the end of the IfS-m 
copper ppe A H64-in hole is Ihen diiUed tliroughthe remaining pwl of tlie mpple The 
olherendof the copper lube is connected to Ihe supply tank The dislance between the 
lupple, N, and the ends of the tube. A, should be only 5/16 of an inch F^ 3 shows Ihe 
end view 

A Homfmadf Ttltpbant RfCFBcr |5S| 



A teleplione leceivei that will do good work maybe built very cheaply eis follows Foi 
tlie case use an oruhnary iy3-lb bakuig-powdei boK with a pece of heavy wire soldered 
on Ihe inside, l-5yifl ui from the boltom Foi the magnet use a pece of round haidened 
steel about 3/3 in mdiametei eind 1-1/4 in loi^ If desued, a pece of Pinoldround file 
maybe used foi the magnet core, wluch sliouldbe magnelized pevious lo assemblii^, 
either by passii^ a current of electric ilypiround il, oi by diiect contact with Pinolher 
magnet The steel core should be wound wilh aboul ?5C ft of No 36 insulated wire, tlie 
ends of wluch should be soldered to a piece of 




lELiLipcord, pa:3sed HuDughd hale m Ihe boHoni of liie can aiid biiotled inscde la prevent 
piilluig oul 

A diskof Ihinsheel-JiDn, nuchas is usedbyjiiolDgiaplieis fai liiitypeg (Feiiotype), 
ishDuldbe cul la liie diamelerof Ihe caii^ tEitii^ caie nal la bendlhe iron The niagnel 
ishDuldtlienbe placed in the botlam of Hie caninELnupiightiBBiliaiiandeiioi^haf a 
ine Lied imx line afbeesivax and resin poured in lo hold itm poisiluin 

Wlule the wax is sliU in h pLaslic candiliDnllie ni^nelsliouldbe loc Bled centrally and 
adjusted ?o liiattlie end will be Wtd in or less belaw the le\'elof the topof Ihe copper 

Aflei tlie wax lias liardenedthe di^k is islippedm Find faslenedt^hltybya ring of 
:3oldei ffhenthe uistnmient is ready for use 

How n Bind Magazines [S6] 



An easy way la bind Populat Mechanic:; m volumes of six months each is to aimi^e 
tlie magazines in order and tie them seciirelyboth ways with a sliong coid It is well to 
put two ai tliiee sheels of lai^h while pflpsi, cul la liie size af the pages, at liie fiantand 
back for flyleaves 

Clamp Ihe niiole in a\Tse or clamp inth Iwo stnps of wood even ifilh Hie back edges 
af the magasines With a shaipsaw cut a shim liie magazines and wood stii|s about 111 
in deepandslanlu^ as shownatA andB, F^ 1 Tate two slii|s of stoul clolh, aboiitS 
ai ID in loi^ and as wide as Ihe dislance between Ihe botloins of Hie ^awedshls Lay 
tliese over Ihe back edge of the pack and lie secuielytluai^h Ihe shts inth a stiii^ 
tlnead-wrappmg and tyii^ se'h'eial Tiines (C, Fig 2) 

If ^u liave access lo a prmlei's papei knife, tiiinbalh end; and Ihe fiantei^e, Ihis 
inabes a much mceibook.bul if Ihe "gapsi kmfe cannalbe used, clamp Ihe whale 
belween two board; and saw off the edges, board; and all, snioolhly, wiiha fine sew 

Cutfaiir pieces af cardboard, ]y4m longer and 1/4 m nanawei tlianthe magasuies 
aftei they have been Inmnied Lay one pece of Ihebaaid on the boob and under Hie 
cloth sinps Use oidinaiyflaur pesle and paste Ihe strips lo the canlbaaidand Ihen nib 
pasle all over Ihe lop of tlie sTnps and Ihe boaid Rub paste aver one side of anolhei 
piece af board and put il on top a f Hie fust board and slnps, pressing down firmly so tliat 
tlie sInps aie held securely between Ihe two boaids Turn the boab over and da Ihe same 
with Ihe olher two boards 

Aflei the paste lias dneda fewmmutes take apece of slrar^ clotli, duck or linen, 
fold and ciitil I in laigei all around Ihan Ihe boak, leaving the folded ei^e uncut Rub 
pasle overane of Ihe boairi backs and lay one end af the clalhan it, smoothing and 
cieasir^ as shawnal A, Fig 3 Turn Ihe book aver and pasle Ihe otiier side Theback 
edges should liave a good coat af pasle and a stiipofpapei 




Process of Home made Biiidiiig 

llie width of Ihe tliickiie:;:; of Ihe peck ptisledaiibefoie pasting Ihe clofli lo tlie secaiid 
board back 

Cul ofTthe comers and foki over the edges of tlie ckitli, pflsluig Iheni down {Fig 4) 
Riib pflsle on one side of a flyleaf aiid press Hie back down oml Turn the book over 
aiidpa:3le n fly leaf to tlie otiierback aftei the ei^es of the clalhhEive been folded dawn 
Tlie backs must not be opened until Lie flyleaves Eue tlioroi^lilydiy Tnm and tuck in 
tlie enrls of liie slnp at Ihe bRct edge 

Wlien fixed llus way ^lu niE^azines make one of Ihe ma st valuable valnine a ynucan 
possibly add la ^ui libiaiy of meclianicalbooks —Conliibuled by Joseph N PRikei, 
Bedford City Va 

A Honumade Acttybne-Gas G«iKr3tor |?7] 

A simple acel^ne-gas geneiatot iisedby myself fa i seveial yeais when 




ant on campii^ tiips ivasniEide of a galvanized nan lank, without a heEid, 13 m in 
diainetei and 30 m deep, B, f\s ishowii in tlie sketch Anolliei lank. A, is made llie same 
depth as B,bulils diainelei is a lillle smallei, so IhRlinveiled it will jU'St islip eaisily mta 
tlie tank B In Ihe bollom, airallieitlie lop naif, of lank A is cut a hole, and h htlle caii^ 
D, IS fitted m it and soldered On lop and over CEinD n; soldered a laige tin CEinscieiff A 
rubber waaheiis fitted an Ihis so that when Ihe sciew top, E, is liuiied on il, Ihe ]oml will 
be gas tight Anolhercan, C, which will just islip uiside Ihe hide caii^ is perforated williEi 
niimbei of lioles This canC is filled about lialf full of bioken pieces of caibide and then 
placed mtlie httle canD A geis cock, H, l3 sokleredonto lank A, a:3 shawii, tiam which 
tlie gas maybe taken Ihioi^h a rubber tube Fill lank B wilh watei and set lank A iiifa it. 
This wilicELiise some Eiir tobe enclased, which can be ielea:3edbyleE[\ii^ the cock open 
until tank A isetlles down to tlie pomi wheie the water wiUbegui to nmm the perfora- 
tions of tlie httle lank The water then comes mcantacl with die caibide and faimsgas, 
which expands Riidstais Ihe loweiing of tank A Then the cock must be clasedand 
tubing Eitlaclied 11 is dangerous to attempt to sinke a match la l^hla jetai Ihe end af 
tlie cock while an is escaping and just as the fast gas isbeu^ made Wait untd the lank 
15 well laisedup before doii^ this -Conbibutedby James E Noble, Toronto, Ont. 



Honumade AimuncLitar [51] 

When one electnc bell is DpeialedSam two piish-butlans it is impog^ible to lell 
which of Ihe two push-biiltoos is being Dpeialedmile:3:3 an aimmicialoi di :3iiiiilar device 
IS used Aveiysunple anmmciatDi fai uidicRlu^ two Qiuribeis CEmbe inede fiDm h 
ismallbai:. Fig 1, wilhaii eleclnc-bell magnet. A, faisteiiedin Ihe bottom The annEitiiie, 
B, 1:3 pivoted III Ihe centei by means of a ^mall piece of wiie Emi lias rii iodic el lor or 
liELTui, C, which moves lo eilhei i^lilorlefl, depending on wlucli liatf of Ihe magiief is 
magnetised If the back Emiiature, D, af the magnet is lemavedlhe moving Eiimatiire will 
work be tier, Fis this will pceveiil Ihe magiielisin from acting on bath ends of Ihe 
anna line 

Tlie wuir^ diagmm. Fig 2, ishDiinj hoivthe caiinecliansaie lobe made Iflhe 
piishbutlon Aisclased, llie bell will iiiig and Ihe pomler willpotnlat 1, 




Aimocialoi and Wuing Diagram 

while tlie closing of tlie push-butlon B willruig Ihe bell and move Ihe poinler lo 2 
ConliibuledbyH S Boll. Be\'eily, N J 



Hov laM^kf^BoxKile [58] 

As some of the readers of Amaleui MechFinics may desire lobmlda boK kite, a 
simple melhod of constmclii^ one of llie modem type is given ui delail as fallows The 
sticks should be made of sliaighl grained wood, wluch maybe eilliei spruce, basswood 
ai wlule pile Tlie lai^itudinal earner spines, A A, should be 3/Em squaie by 43 m 
long, and Ihe faui diagonal shuts, B, sliouldbe iy4m by lOm , andaboul 26 ui long. 
Two cloth bands sliouldbe made lo Ihe ezaci dimensians given m the stelch and 
fastened lo Ihe fam longitiidinpil slicks with 1 oz tacts It is well lo mark the positions 
of tlie slicks on the clolhbFinds, eilher ualha softie Fid- pencil or crayon, in order lo have 
llie foui sides of each band exactly equpJ Tlie ends of Ihe baiuls sliouldbe lapped over 
al least 1^ m and sewed double to give ezti'a sliei^lli, and Ihe edges should be caiefiilly 
henuoed, niakii^ Ihe widllv wlienfuushed, exactly 12 m Piobably Ihe best cloth foi 
llus purpose is iminsook, although lonsdale cambric orLghlwe^htpeicaline willanswei 
iieaily as well 

Tlie diF^onal struts, B, shonldbe cat a litlle too long, so that they will be sLghlly 
bowed when putm posilion, Ihus lioldii^ tlie clolh out taut and flat They sliouldbe tied 
logelher al tlie pouils of inteiseclionand the ends sliouldbe wound wilh coarse harness 
makei's Ihread, as shown al C, lo pevent sphtlu^ Tlie sraall giiaids, D, aie nailed or 
glued lo llie longitudinal sticks to prev'ent Ihe slnits shpping out of position Of course 
Ihe ends of llie sliuls could be faslened lo the longitudinal stiips if desiied^bul if made 
as described the kile maybe readily lakenapait and rolled up foiconv'emence in 
caiiying 

Tlie biidle knots, E, aie shown m detail alH and J. H is a square knol, which maybe 
easily loosened and shifted lo a difTeienl posilion on Ihe bndle, tlins adjnsting the 



lenglhs af F aiidG Abowliiie knol sliaiildbc liedal J, a:3 ahaivii, la peveiitslippuig If 
llie kite IS used ma l^lil wiiid, loDseii tlie a^ueie kiiol Eind ahifl iieaiei lo G, lliua 
:3lioilemii| G and kngtliemr^ F, aiidif fl utiar^ wiiidis blowing, shifl lowaidF, Iheieby 
lenglhenii^ G and making F slioiter In a veiy stiang wind do not use llie biidle, bul 
fallen a slnng secmely Id llie slick alE -Conlnbuled by Edw E Harbeit, Chicagn. 




Detail of BoK Kile 

Lubrualingq Camm Shutlcr [581 

Ane:ipeneiiced plialagiapher uaesblEieklead [giaplute] for giDoves aboul a camera ai 
lioldei A uniall qiianbty is lubbed well into llie gioaveu and an Ihe ei^es of shuHeR, 
llial lefuse Id slide easily, with giatifyii^ results Caie must be taken lo aliow no dusl la 

settle mtlie holdeR, liowffh'er 

Simplt C^FJi-Ciriiiil TtlegrqphLinf [S9J 

By usu^ Ihe cncuilsliownm Ihe skelchfor sliort-dislance lelegrapli lines, tlie ezlia 
swilclies and wini^ fomidui many cue nils are done away wilh CIdsii^ either key will 
aperate both somiders, and, as Ihe resistance of 




BIduJe TrLtG^BvJi LtoB 

limiple Telegraph Luie 

llie sounders l3 veiy h^li^ the batlenes do not nm down for a long lime — Cantnbaled 

byA D ^loddaid, ClayCenler,Ean 

How » Makf % Tliermo Batlei? [59] 

A Ihermobatleiy, for pradiicmg eleclncitydiieclfroni heal, can be made af a wooden 



frEinie, A, with h number of iiails, B, diivenm Ihe 'h'eilicEil pece and caniiecled in^iieg 
witliheovycoppei iviies, C The coiinecliaiia isliould all be soldeiedto give good lesulls, 
as tlie voltage is 



4- 



TllfJIElQ HlIlE?, 

Theimn Batleiy 

veiy loi^and liie leastance of anuiisDldered jainl icaiild islop the cunent The heal may 
be supphedby an alcaliol lampoi otlier de^'ice, ondtlie cuiientniay tlienbe detected by 
means, of a sunple galvanomeler consislii^ of a squme spool of No 14 di No 16 
gii^le-coveied wiie, E, with a pocket campaiss, F, placed on top Turn the spool in a 
noi+h and soulh duection, oi paiellel with the compass needle Tlieii^ wlientlie nail 
heads are liealedaod Ihe cncuil compleled, llie needle will swii^ around lI oli^hl 
aisles to Ihe coils of wiie Applying ice or cold i*aler Id Ihe nail heads will leverse Ihe 
ciinenl — Conhibutedby A C A.Chicp^o 

How W DGihargt a T«y Ciiuionby Eiedricity [59] 

A device for discliaigii^ a toy camion by electric ily can be easilympideby iisuig Ihiee 
oifbui diybEitteiies, a sffilch and a smpJl uiduction coil 




Eleclncal Attacluneiil for Dischargmg ToyCaiinoii 



capable of gruii^ a l/S-m spark Faislena piece of wood. A, to Ihe cannon, by means of 

maclmie :3ciews di, if Iheie aie no tiumuons on Ihe CEmnon, Ihe wood maybe made in 
tlie shape of el iii^ and :3hp|Kd on o\'ei the niuszle The fuse hole of the cannon is 
CDunleiboied els ishD^ni FLnd a small liole is dnlledatone side to receive a small piece of 
copper wire, E The wood screw, C, nearly touches E ELiidii; coimected to one biiidii^ 
po:3tof Ihe induction coil The otlier buulii^ post is connected ifilh the wood sciew, D, 
which coiiduc 1:3 Ihe current uilo tlie camion, aiidako liolds Ihe pieces of w^od^ A aiidB, 
m position 

When the cannon is loFLded, a smELll quanlityof poi^dei is placed m Ihe CDunleibore, 
and Ihe spait between C and E igniles tliis FLnd di3cliaiges the CFLiinon A camion maybe 
fired fmm fl distance ui Ihis way, and fls lliere is no dPLngeiofFLny spark lemaimi^ after 



Ilie cmieni is sliul afT, iIl3 safer tlian tlie oi'duiaiycaimoii lvLucLils fiiedby iiieEins of b 
fuse — Contiibuledby Heiiiy Peck, B^ Rapds, Fvlich 

Simpb EkiizH: Lack[bO] 

The illushfllioii shows eui automahc lock opeialedby eleclncily, lequumg a shor^ 
magnel, biilna iveighls aisbii^:;, i^hichgieally smiplifies Ihe device avsi mpiny olhera 
af tlie kuid 



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BSSfl 




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LocH Or«iBUd by ■ MjaDrt 

Lock OpeiRledbya P.'lE[gr[e[ 

The we^hlof Ihe long aim, L, vi jusla Infle gieatei tliaii tlie combined ive^hls of tlie 
:3hDrlanii:3, A and ^ Tlie fiilcnim of Ihe le^'ei is al C, where Iheie w a slaple Tlie levei 
sinngs on one Einii of Ihe staple ELTui tlie othei RiinLS so placed tliatiiiieii the Level is in 
an iipight position, with Ihe long ann atL', it will not fall because of ilsgreatei we^lit 
but statin tlie position shown The pmpose of tins is to leave the short Euin, A, when in 
positional A', within Ihe leach of the magnet Ann L resis on an L-shaped lioat, H, m 
tins position the dooi is locked 

Ta unlock the dooi, piess the biiltan, B The mamentiim acqiiued fioni Ihe magnet by 
the short anns, A and S, is sufficient to move Ihe long aim. up to Ihe position of L' To 
lock Ihe door, press the button and Ihe momentum acquiied from Ihe magnet by the 
shorlanns, iiowal A' and li', is sufficient to imrh'e tlie lar^ aim downfiam L' to tlie 
position alL -Conliibutedby Ben]animKiibelsky, Clucago 



DirKl-CoiuifclFd Rftvist for Small Motors |dD] 

A simple iBveise foi small motors can be altached direcdy to Ihe motor as shown in 
Fig I F^ 2 shows Ihe constructionaf the leverse btoct A is a stiip of walnut H'S ui 
sqiiaie and3/3m lliick wilhslnps ofbiass or copper(BB) attachedas sliown Holes 
(CC) are drilled for Ihe wue comiections and tliey must be flush with Ihe sui&ce of the 
block A hole fara in ui sciewisboredui Ihe block InF^ 1, D is a thmslnp of 
walnut or othei dense, hard wood fitted to the binding posts of tlie brush holders, to 
leceive the screw ui the cenlei 

Before puttii^ Ihe leverse block on tlie motor, remo\'e all Ihe comiections be Iween the 
lower binding posts and the brush holders and conned both eruls of tlie field coil to the 
lowerposts Bend the stii|s BB {Fig 2) to the proper posilion to make a wipii^ conlacl 
with Ihe nuts holding the stiip of wood D, F^ 1 Pul Ihe sciew mt^ht enoi^h to make 
tlie block turn a httle haid Conned as sliown in tlie illustratian To leverse, turn the 
btock so Ihe strips chaise comiections and the motoi will do the rest 
— Conhibuled by Joseph B Keil, Marion, Ohio. 




Due cl-Ca line c led Reverse 
AHuidyltf Chi?tl[61] 

Fishmg liiioi^htlie ice is gieal spoit, bul cutti^ llie fii;;! Iioles pre pare la ly Id setlmg 
llie line:; t3 nal always an easy laisk The ice chisel lieie de^cnbed willbe found veiy 
liandy, andLoaybe made Rlveiysl^hl expense 

In llie lop af an aid a^:- head drill a PJld-in liole, and then tap it fbi a SfS-m gas-ppe, 
aboul 18 tn long ThieEid the alheiend of Ihe pipe, and screw on 




CDmhuidliDn Ax and Ice Chisel 

an aid snow-sliDvel liandle Wlien leady faiuse, screw tlie two peces together aiidyju 
liave yDiu chisel complete 

A slioilax-hmidle niEiybe uicliided in Ihe oulfil Wlien Ihe lioles Rie fuushed EmdyDui 
lines set, unscrew the ppe from Ihe liead af tlie ax, put intlie handle, and^iir ax is 
leadylo cut Ihe ifloodta keep ^ui fue goii^ — Cantiibuledby C. J Rand, WesI 
IJomeRille, f^^ss 



MortUiEts far F^e Finings [61] 

II wanldseem Ihal Ihe niunbei of useful articles tlialcanbe made fioni ppes and 
fitlu^s IS unhmiled The sketch sliows twa mare tliatmaybe odded to the hsi A Eind B 
aie fiant and side views of a lELiup-scieen, aiidC ls a dumbbell The lamp shiide is 
peiliculaily useful foi sliading the eyes when leadu^ oi writing and, if enameled wlute 
an Ihe concEive side, makes an excellenlieflectDifoi draivii^ at mght, oi far 
miciascopic ifaik 

The standard and base, consislu^ of Pin ordinary pipe flai^e bushed down to receive llie 
iipi^ht nipple, Eue enameled el jet black, and if the device is lobe used on a pohslied 
lable, a piece af fell slioiild be glued Id Ihe botlom Agood way lo liold Ihe fanm Ihe 
lupple IS Id use a small wedge 

The dumbbells aie mEide of slioit pieces of 3/4- in p|K wilh l-2-in couphi^s ^slened 
Id each eiidby |Buiing melted leadm Ihe space beti^een Ihe ppes and Ihe CDuphi^s 
Tlie EippearEince is gieallyimpioved by enamelu^ black, and if desiiedtlie handles may 



be covered wilhleRlhei -Cantiibuledby C E WaiTen, M D , NailhEaslan, Ma:3s 




Lamp ^lidde and DuinbbelL 

Stoling-WuBtnlWhikCold [61] 

If a piece of isealii^-itfaK is supporled ma hanzoiilal poisilioii by one end, as showiL al 
A in the stelch, it will giaduallybeiid to tlie sliape indicated by the dotted liiiei; B To 
attemplbeiidii^ it with the liaiid'S would lei^iillui breakup it unless a isteady piessuie 
weie Eippked foi a lai^ time This pecidiMpiaiKity is also found mice 




Bencbr^ Cold dealing- Wax 
Hanwm.'idFPotlFiy KilB|62] 

A :3mall tiln for baking clay f^iues may be built at a cost of $1 The followii^ shows 
tlie general plan of sue ha kiln which Iirs utood die test of 200 fiiii^:3, Riidivluchis good 
foi Einy woik requiring le:3s Ihnn 1400'^ C 

Get an uon pail about I ft high by I ft across, with a cover. Any old pail which is 

thict enough will do, while a new one will coistaboul SO cents Intlieboltom of tlus cut 
a 2-m loimd liole ELiidclose it with E[ coit oi woodplug. A, F^ i, which shpJl [Maject eiI 
leasts m inside the pml ^^ke a c^dindncalcoie of wood, B, F^ 1, E m lor^ andS m. 
aciass Make a 



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1 

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1 1 

1 I 
1 ■ 

I-— ■ 




^ ■ 1^ 





Homemade Pottery Kiln 



miKluie of cloy, 60%, sond^ 15*/*, Eind giaphile, 25*/*, tiieading Ihoioi^lily in i*alei lo a 
goad maiding consisleiicy Line tlie pail,botlam aiid^idef, with heavy paper and cover 
tlie coie with SRiiie Naif ptick Ihe bottom of Ihe peil Iharauglily wiliia 3-m kyei of the 
clay mix Ime, and anitisel Ihe pnpei wrapped care, caiefiillyceiileiing it The 2 in of 
ispflce between Ihe core and the sides of Ihe pail pJlaiound is lobe tilled with clay, C, as 
IS ishD^vn in llie sketch, iiai^ a htlle ola hine andpachii^ it 'h'ery light In hke niEinner 
inake Ihe cavei of Ihe kiln^ cutlir^ tlie hale a httle smallei, Eiboiit 1 m Altlie ec^e anim 
af tlie coverenciicle E[ 2-m islnpof slieel iran, E, F^ 2, lo hold Ihe clELynuxtiue, C Set 
aside for a few days until welldiied 

While these aie drying ^u maybe mpilii^ a muffle, if tliere is lobe anyglasu^ 
done This IS El clay cylindei {Fig 3) with false lop andbDltDm, in wliich the paltery lo 
be glEizedi:3 piolecledfiom any sniate oi dust 11 n; placed inside Ihe kiln, getlii^ on Eiiiy 
convenient blocks which will place it midway The walls of Ihe muffle shaiildbe abaut 
lOm thick, and Hie dimen'SiDns shaiild allowat least 1 in af space eJl aiaiind foi Ihe 
passage of heal between iland Ihe walls of llie tiln By tlie time Hie cloy of Ihe kiln is 
well dried, il will be found tliat il lia^ all slirunk away from the uan abaut 3/S in Aflei 
lemoving all the pa|Kr, puck llus space -tap, bottom and sides- with monsl grauiid 
asbestas If Ihe cover of Ihe peil lias no nm, il maybe fastened Id Ihe asbestos and clay 
lining bypiinclung a few lioles, ptissing wiie nails Ihioi^h andclinchii^ them Fit all 
llie pflils iDgelhei snugly, take oul Ihe pli^sintlie top and bottom, and yoiu kiln is ready 
foi businesi; Tlie handle of tlie ptiil will be coiiveiiieni far moving il about, and it can be 
:3el antliree bncks oi some more elaborale suppoit, as dictated by fancy and eKpense 

The lempeiatiire leqmied foi baking earlhenwaie is I35Q"-13IQ", C ,, liolel china, 
1 33D",liai(i porcelain, I3P0 -3410 These temperatures can not be oblamedin the above 
kihi by means of the ordinary Biuisenbuniei If will be necessary eillier to buy Ihe 
large:3lsize Bunseii, armake ane yauiself, if you have Ihe malenalg If yju can gel a 
cone wluch can be sciewedinto an inch ppe, file Ihe apening of Hie cone to 1116 m 
diameter, and jackelthe whole with a 2-l^-in pipe Tlie flame eiidof llus buinei tube 
should be about 4-l'2m above the cone opemi^ and sliouldbe co^'ered with gauze to 
prevent flame from snappii^back V/hen hghled, Ihe pomlof Ihe blue flame, wluch is 
llie hollesi pait, sliouldbe jusi m Ihe liole mtliebattom of Ihe kiln ^uch a burner will be 
cheaply made and will furnish a kilntemperaliue of 1400 degiees, but il will bum a 
grealdealof gas 

A plumber's larch of medium size will cast more m llie begmim^,butwillbe cheapei in 
operation \Vhaleverbniiierisnsed, Ihe firing sliouldbe gradual, and wiUi especial caution 
Ihe fust lime ByexpeiimenlyDuwillfmdlhala lughei tempemhire is oblamed by placing a 
l-ui pipe 2-fl loi^ ovei the hdliole as a chimney 11 would be shllmore effecliue la gel 
another iranpail, 2 m wider than Ihe kihi, and gel a down draft by iir^'erlmg il over the kiln 
al ffhalevei height pi(r,'es most suitable -CS L. W 

How n Molvn SmqllMeduallnducliin C*il [dl] 

Tlie coil lobe described is 3-l'3 in, full lenglhof uancore, and3Mm mdiamelei 
Procure abmidle of small uon wire, say 1/4 m m diamelei, and culil 3-1/2 in bng,bind 
neatlywilh coarse llireadandfile Ihe eiidssmoalh(Fig I) Tins done, make two woad ends, 
l-lHby 1-1/4 m and3/Sm thick, and vamish Boie liales in the cenlei af each so Ihe core 
will fil in sm^y and leave about l/4m piojeclmg from each end (F^ 1) 

After finishing Ihe core, shellac two la^rs of thick pepiei over itbelweenthe ends, letlhis 
dry thoroughly. Wuid two layers af bell niagnel wire overlhis, allowing several uic he s of 
fiee wiie la came llirougha hole m the end Cover with paper and sliellac as before. 
Wind about l/Sm of fine wire^ such 



TT/MWiCS WiRl jVO. ^ 70 HOtO^S 



vmz fja3f I ^a^S E 










&\rTrRy 






HEAD 



a^TTWflS* 



r^2 



He4I1cbI rndncIhiD CdP 



Medical Induction Coil 



as nscd on lefcphone geneialois, around Ihe cod, leeviiig Idi^ leimindp IJoak flie whole in 

iiielled jHraiTui aiid le 1 c ool , bind liglilly willi bkc k adk 

The ■v'ibialor IS made of a pece of Ihni bn lo which l3 uoldeied llie lieed of anuonffiiew 
andanlhc allieraide a aiiiall piece of pklmnm, which can be tekenfiDnianoldekcliic bell 
(F^ 2) 

Of comae, a regulalai ninslbe liad for Ihe ■v'ibiBlor, Ihis can be accomphphedbybendu^ a 
ulanl piece of coppei wue as shown The camieclion'3 andihe base for setling up pre uhawn 
m Ihe figures. -Conlnbutedby J T R, Wauhinglan, D C 

MFrliuuialTikhWitliCudMi^}] 

The following mecheiiical card tick is easy la piejHie and simple lo peifoim: 

First, procuie a new deck, end divide it into two piles, one cantamu^ llie I'edcaids and the 

othei the bkck ones, eUcanls facing the same way Take the redcaids, sqoaie them up and 

piece ilia vise Then, with b plane, plane off llie uppei r^hthand earner end lower lefl hand 

corner, au mFig 1, aboul l/lfim 

Then take llie bleck cerds, square lliemap, and plane offabaal \l\6 m on the upper lefl 

liandcomerand lawei nghlhandcomer, Bs uiF^ 2 

Nest restore all the caid? to one pack, taking cere to have the first ceid red, tlie nest black, 

andaa on, every alternate cerdbeu^ the same colai Bendtlie pack so as to gi^'e same 

ijpni^ lo the caids, Eindbylialdii^ one thumb onlhe uppsi lefl- hand camei 




Caid Tuck 

all the cards will appcMiedto llie audience, place tliumb in the cenleiat lop of puck and 

they will appear miKed, red ard black, with thumb Ditapperi^ht-hand earner all CEud? ap- 
pear black Vou can. display either color cpJIed for. --CDnliibuledbyRalpliGmgiich, 
Chicago 

How Id Makf q Rain Gang? [64] 

Anaccniale ram gauge maybe episdy constructed from gpilvaniaed iron, as sliownm llie 
sketch heiewith The funnel. A, oveilEips pnd rests on Ihebody, B, pnddiscliaigES mto llie 
tnbe, C, the piea af which is one-tenth thai a f the tap of the funnel Tlie deplhof the watei 
mC IS llius ten hmes llie aclual lainfall, so lliatby measunr^ it with a stick marked aff in 
tenths of an inch, we Dbtmii Ihe result mhundiedtlis af an inch 

A-goodsize lo mEike Ihe laingai^e is as follows A, S in dumeEei, C, 2 53 in. .lenglhof 



C, abDul20 in llaliouldbc placed in pneKpaMdlacaliDn, ud tlial iio uiaccui'acy will occui 
fraiii windcmieiila Ta findtlie fallaf uiiow, pDui a known quaiitily 




Ram Gei^e 

af iffflim water an Ihe snow canlamedm llie funnel and dcducHlie quanhly pouied in from 
Ihe latel pmamitinlhe tube --ConlribuledbyTliuislQnHendiickaQn, Long Branchy N J 

How 10 Make ui A^uqriiun [64] 

In making anaquanmn, llic fuatlhing Id decide on is Ihe siae If is well iioIId altempt 
building a'h'eiyla^e one, as Ihe diiTicullies incieEiae wilhlhe size A. goad size is 12 by 12 
by 20 in , Pind tins is inexpensive lo bmid 

Firstbuyane tei^lh of 3Mby l^-ni pngle ironfarthe fiaiiie, F, Fig 1 Thiscanbe 
obteined at any steel shop and sliauld cost pbDut2Q cenis All Ihe hDnzontal pieces, B, 
slianldbebe\'eled45" Pilllie enrls and diiUedfai 3yii5 m slave balls The be velu^ maybe 
done bynji^hmg out with a hpcksawand finishing with p file Afleiall the pieces are cat 
and be^'eled they should be diillEd Pilthe ends foi tlie 3/li5-m slave bahs, C. Drill all Ihe 
lianzontel peces, B, first and then maik the liotes an Ihe upnghl pieces. A, through Ihe 
liotes already drilled, thiismaku^ pII the holes coincide Maik Ihe ends of each piece with 
a figure ar letter, so llial wlientheyaie pssembled, the same ends will come logelhei agaui 
Tlie u[H^hl pieces. A, should be countersank as shown ui Ihe detail, and Ihenlhe fiame is 
leady lo assemble 

After tlie frame hps been assembled lake it lo glaziei andliave a botlDia made of sk^^ht 
glass, Pind sides and ends of doubte-lhick window glpiss The bottom glass shouldbe a good 
fit, bulthe sides and eiirls shouldbe made sightly shoiteilo allow Ihe cemeni, E, lo Ibiiaa 
dovelail]omtPS shown V^lien llie glass is put in Ihe fmme a space, D, will be found 
between Ihe glass and Ihe honsonlal peces, B, of Ihe fmme If this were allowed lo reinpiin 
Ihe piessure of Ihe waler would spring Ihe glass and cause a leak at E; so it is filled up wilh 
plaslerof pans 

The cement, E, is made as follows Tpite 1 gill of piaster of paiis, I gill of htliaige, 1 gill 
of fme i*hite sand, prd IG of a gill of finely powdered rosm rvliK well and odd boiled 
Imseedoil Eiud tuipenbne unhl eis thick as putty Let 




[hLoil III AqujuiLLUi Fnuif 

Detail of Aquaniuti Frame 

the cement diy Hue e aifDui da^ before puthi^ any i^atet in Ihe aqumiiiQi. 

Inclioasing istock foi the aquaniuti it should be lemeinbeied Ihala sufficieni quantify 
of vegetable life isieqmied to fuimsli ox^en foi Hie fish In a well balanced aquanum 
tlie walei lequiies leneival only tivo oitluee tune? a ysM It is well to have ane:icess of 
plants and a nniubei of snails, as the :3iiails will devour all Hie decayir^ vegetable matter 
which would otherwise poi^n tlie water and kill tlie fish 




AgiiBinim flnlaJitd 

Aqnarinni Fuu^hed 

If desued, a centerpiece (A, Fig 2) can be made of colored stones lield togelherby 
cement, and Eininverledjar can be suppoited mtlie position shown rIB If the moulh of 
tlie ]ai 1:3 below the isiufELce of the watei it will slay filled and allow the fish to swim up 
inside Eis sliown ^onie WRshed pebble:; oi gravel sliouldbe placed on tlie boltom, and, if 
desued, a feiv Chinese lihes arathei plants maybe placed on Hie cenleipiece 

Hoineiinad* Pntumalif L^ch [S5] 



Pvlounl an old bicycle hand- pump. A, on the dooi by means of a melal plate, B, hiiving 
a swingu^ connectian bIC Fasten Ihe le^'ei, D, to the door knob, and make a hir^e 
comiection with Ihe pumpby ineEJis of a piece of sheel 





E 


1 


A [e] 






^~^eK" * 




1 



PorijniklLC ElDar-Oceiicr 

Piieumadc Dooi-Opeiiei 

bia^s, E, uoldeied lo llie eiidof llie c^indei All lliis eppeiPihis i:3 on Ihe uiside of llie 
doai and is coniiecledby a soidLl lubbei lube, F, lo a secietmoulhpece pkcedatsoiiie 
CDnvenientlDcalioii A small pece of spring biEis, screived lo the door fiaiiie, ^nll open 
tlie dooi Eibout If? in i^lien Ihe apeialor blows intlie mouthpiece, oi if the dooi is within 
leacli of llie mouthpiece, Ihe opemtoi may push the dooi oi Ihe same time Ihat he blows, 
thus doii^ away wilhtlie spmig, which L'S only used la keep tlie door from lelockuig 

One way of makii^ the au connection with the outside is to bend tlie tube F aiound 
and slick itlhioi^h tlie te^Aale Fewbuiglais would ever thiiil la blow m tlie te^Aole 
-ConlribiitedbyOrtDnE Wlute, Buffalo, N Y. 

A Homemade Walfr Molor [W] ByMK^ PAULS WINTER 

Intliese da^ of modern improvements, mosi houses are equipped wilh a washir^ 
maclune, and Ihe question llmt arises in the mind of tlie householder is how to funush 
tlie poivei lo iTui il economically I lefened tins question to my husband^ wilh the resull 
tliat he built a niatar winch proved so veiy solisfactoiy Ihiill prevailed upon lum to gi^'e 
tlie readers of Amateur P.fechiimcs a descnption of it, hoping il niEiysoh^ the same 
question for lliem 

A motor of Ihis type will develop about ill lip with a walei pressure of 7D lb The 
powei de^'elaped is coiiespandingly increased or decreased eis the piessuie exceeds oi 
falls below tins In the latter case the powei maybe increased by using a smallei pulley. 
Fig 1 IS the motor with one side removed, showing the paddle-wheel ui pasilion. Fig 2 
IS an end 'view, F^ 3 sliows one of tlie peddles, and Fig 4 sliows the metliod of shapi^ 
the paddles To make the frame, se'h'eral lengtlis of scantling 3 m wide by 1 m thick 
(piefeiablyof haid wood) are lequired Cut two of Ihem 4fl loi^, lo foim the mam sup- 
poils of the frame, AA, Fig 1 , anolher, 2 ft fl m long, for Ihe top, B, F^ 1, anotlier, 
26 in long, to form Ihe slanting pari, C, Fig 1 , and anothei, D, appro:iunately 1 fl, 
accoiding to the slant gp'en C After nailing these togelheras sliownui the lUuslration^ 
nail two slioit ships an each side of the oullet, as alE, to keep the frame from spieadii^ 

Cut two pieces 3D in loi^ Lay these on tlie sides of the fiaine wilhtlieircenlei hues 
alai^ Ihe line FF, whichis 15 m from Ihe outside top of the frame Theyare sliownui 
Fig 2 at GG Do nol fasten these boards now, butmark their positionon the frame Two 
slioilbaards 1 m wide 




Delflil of Homemade Waleiivlieel 



by 1 III Ihict (HH, F^ 3) and aiioflier I in by I -I/? m (I, F^ 1) fomi a subslEinlial 
base 

Cuttlie wheel fiDraulieel nan Iflflin lhick,?4ir[ indiamelei Thiu canbe done 
loi^lily with liamraer and chisel and Ihen smaolhed upon an enieiy wheel, aflei wluch 
cut 24 ladial ulots 3/4 ui deep on its cucumfeience by luepiip of a hnckuaiff On each 
uide of the wheel al Ihe center faslen a leclanguhiipece of 1^4-111 uon 3 by4in and 
uecuie ilta the wheel by means of foni nvels, Pifler whichdiiUa 5^5 m hale lluaugh Ihe 
eKacI center of Ihe wheel 

Cut 24 pece:3 of l02-m uon, f-f/I* by 2-1^2 m Theise are the ppiddleu IJlinpe lliem 
byplocii^ one end avei a iseclianof l-m pips, Emdhpimmeibaivl uhpped with Ihe psen 
af a hamniei, ap; shown mF^ 4 Tlien cut lliem mlo Ihe shiipe ahawai mF^ 3andbend 
Ihe lapeiedend m alang the hues JJ, aflei wluch place lliein in the slats of the wheel and 
bend Ihe sides Oh'eilo clamp tlie wheel DiiL l^-ui holes Ihioi^hllie wheel and sides of 
Ihe paddles EiEdnvel paddles m pipce Next secure p 5/S-m steel sliafi 12 ui krng lo llie 
wheel pbout3 ui from one endbymepiis of a key This ls done by catling a giDcr^'e ui Ihe 
sliaftanda conespDndu^ groove mlhe wlieelandfitlmg ma piece of nielal m older lo 
secure Ihe wheel from tunung independently of Ihe sliaft Pracuie two collars or round 
pieces of brass (KK, F^ 2) wiiha 5/3-m hale Ihiai^h llieiu, and faslentliese la Ihe sliafi 
by means of set screws to prevent it from moving ler^Uiwise 

h'lake Ihe nozzle by laking a pece of l/2-m gah'Euuzed ppe 3-1/2 m Loi^ and filling il 
wilhbabbitliaelal, UiendiiU a 3H6-m liale Ihiai^hils cenlei Make this liale corneal, 
laperu^ from 3/16 m lo a full 1/2 in Tliis is best done by using a sqnaie lapsi leaniei 
Then place Ihe nazzle m Ihe posihon shown m F^ I, wluch alia ws Ihe sheani of waleilo 
stake Ihe buckets fuUintlie center when they reach Ihe posilion fpilhesl lo the r^ht 
Tpite Ihe side peces, GG, and drill a l-m liole lliioi^h their sides centrpiUy, and a 1/4 -m 
liale fram Ihe laps la Ihe l-m holes Fasten them m then popei posihon^ wilh Ihe wheel 
and shpiflm place, Ihe shpiflpo]Ectin£ Ihiaugh Ihe holes ]UEt mentioned Now block Ihe 
wheel, that IS, fpislenilbymepiis of wedges oi blacks of woodnntil the sliafi is exactly in 
Ihe cenlerof Ihe uich hales in Ihe side pieces Cutfaui disks af cprdboaid lo shp over the 
sliaft and laige enough lo coh'er Ihe uich hales Two af these aie lobe inside prdtwo 
oulside of Ihe fiPimes (ane lo bear p^amsl each side of ench crosspiece) Faslen these lo the 
crosspieces by means of tacks la hold lliein secuiely Pour melted babbitl metal inia the 
1/4-ui hole la faim Ihebeaiings Whenillmscaalei remove Ihe cardboard^ lake down tlie 
ciosspieces, and drill a l/S-ui liale fiam Ihe top of the crosspieces through Ihe bpibbilt foi 
anail-liale 

Secure sufiicieni sheet znic lo caver Ihe sides of Ihe fiame Culthe znic lo Ihe same 
sliape as Ihe fianie and let ilexlenddown la Ihe crosspieces EE Tack one side an (It is 
well to tack sinps of heavy cloth — budap will do — Edaog Ihe edges luideiihe zinc lo form 



a walei-l^litjom.1) Fasten tlie crosupece aveilhe zuic mils poper posiliDii DiiU a liote 
Ihiaugli llic zinc, using llic hate mtlie ciosspiece au a guide TIieii put the iffheelina central 
pasitianuithe fiaiue, tacktlie olliei side piece af zuic in place and put llie olhei ciasspiece 
in place Plnce the two collaia menhoned before on Ihe shafl, and fasten ai eis lo bepu 
agamsltlie crasspieces, uioniei to prevent tlie uiieel and shpfl from nur^'u^ uidewue If 
the bepiiings aie now oiled, Ihe sliaft should toin easily and smoalhly Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 
in indiamelertD the longest Euni of llie sliaft 

Conned the nozzle to a water faucetbymeansof a piece of hose, plpce the Dulletovei a 
drain, and belt the niDtoi direct la the wpislm^-nipchuie, mwii^ machine, ice-ciepim 
freezer, diill piess, dynaina or any other nipchineryiequinng not more than iil Iq) 

This moloi liau been muse maurlioupe foitwo ^aru m all of the above way^, and has 
iievei once failed la grue peifeclsalufacliDn It is obrhions Ihal, had the uiieel and peddles 
been made ofbmss, il would be looie durable, bulau it would ha\'e cost several time u au 
niucli, it IS a question iffhelheiit wouldbe more economical mtlie end If sheet- non is 
used, a caat of hea^y paint would pe\^iil rust and tlieie fare proloi^ the life of llie malor 
The niolDi will soon p^y for ituelfm the savii^ of lanndiybiUp We used to upend 1 1 a 
inonlh la have jusl my husband's avemlls done atlhe laundry, but now 1 pul lliemm llie 
maclune, slarl Ihe malai, and leave Ihem far an hour or so. At the end of lias time they are 
perfectly cleaii^ andl liave noticed Ihal Ihey wear twice as long as wlienl seni Ihem to the 
laiindiy 

HoH *B Mqkt NilhoiKrtt^ [«8] 

Photogiapliy mall blanches is Irulya niosl absoibing occupaUon Each of us who has a 
camem is conptanlly expsmnenling, andevei^ne af us is delighled when somelhuig 
new IS suggested foi suchexpeiuuenls. 




hoiiiuy; ■ gilliaiiellc .-I'l. Hit CnTnrjn 

Iv^kii^ a Silhouette witli tlie Camera 

To DPe a camera m making uilhouetleu selecia window facuig nailh if possible, oi if 
used only at lime u wlien Ihe simiu not an il, any window will do, ua^ Ihe Phalogmphic 

Times Raise Ihe wuidawsliade lialf way, lemove any white cuitams lliere maybe, and 
in Ihe cenler of Ihe lower pane af glass paste by Ihe four comers a sheel of tissue paper 
llial IS perfeclly sinoolh andqmie Ihict:, ns sliownui the stelchal B Daiken Ihe rest of 
llie window, shutlmg out aL l^hlfrom abo^'e and Ihe sides Place a chair so tliat after 
beii^ sealed Ihe head of Ihe subject will come before Ihe cenler of Ihe luuue paper, and 
as near to it as passible, and wlien lookup slra^ht before him las face willbt m clear 
profile to Ihe camera 

Draw die shades of all olliei windows ui the room Focus Ihe camera carefully, 
gettii^ a sliarp outline of Ihe profile on the scieen Do not slop down the lens, as Ihis 
inakeu loi^ exposure necessary, and Ihe subject may move 

Correct exposure depsnds, of course, on Ihe lens, l^htand Ihe plate Butremembei 
llial a black and white negative m wanted wilhas Lttle delail in Ihe featuies as possible 
The bestplale to use is a veiy slow one, or whal is called a pocess plate 




In developing gel all insuible densily in Ihe h^li lighls, wilhoul detail m the face, and 
without fog Pnnting isbe^ldone on contnistydevelDpuent paper with developei not 
too atiang 

The ideal uilhouette piiiitu a perfectly black profile on a wlute gioiind With a piece 
of black papei, Emy ahiipe in utoppu^ off piiiitiaaybe made eis uhownatC m the skelch. 

How W Makf % G^liaiioiEcapf [£8| 

A gatuanoacope for detecting ismall cuiients of elecliicily conbe mEide 
fiani a coil of wire. A, a glass tube, B, full of watei, a core, C, and abase, D, wilh 
buuhi^ pasts eis shown The coie C, iffhichis made of nan and cork, is a tiifle l^htei 
tlian the watei itdisplpices and will Iherefoie norniEilly leraainmtlie lop of the tube, but 
as soon as a cniientofelecliicily passes tliroughthe coil, the coie is diawndown out of 
sight The cniient required IS veiy small, as the core is so nearly balpinced that the leasl 
athaction will cause ilto sink 

Tlie glass tube maybe a test tube, as shownin F^ 2,or Pinemptydevelopei tube If 
one has neitliei a tesi lube noi developer lube, an empty pU bottle maybe used The 
washeis at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber, hard rubber, oi wood, oi can be 
taken fioni an old magnet The base maybe made of wood oi any olheiuisula ling 
matenaL and sliould liav'e four shoit legs on Hieboltom Pvlale tlie coil of sir^le-coveied 
wire about No IS and coiuiec tends to biiidu^ posis as sliownui Fig 2 

The coie is made bypuslmig a small oailtluough a piece of cork It should be made 
so Hiatil willrLse slowly wlien placed under water lionie Sling maybe necessaiyto gel 
tlie we^hl]iisti^ht, but il should be lemembeied that the buo^flincyof the coie can be 
adjusted aflei the purls aie assembled, by pressing the coik mthe botloiu of Ihe tesI 
tube This causes compessionm the walerso Ihalsome ls forced mlo tlie uppsr coik, 
lediicing its displacement and cansiiig itlo sink Tlie lower cork is llien slowly 
witlidrawn, bytwistu^, until the core slowly iises 



If 



Galuaiio scope 



The mstiiuuent will thenbe adjusted ready for use 
Conned Ihe biiuling pasts to a single cellofbattery— any kind will do, as a slight 

cunent willaiiswer Oncompletnig 




lolvniTE VhiV 

Iiilenoi Viei* 

the cucuitttie core will descend; or pul ma swilch or pishbiiltDnonone af [he battery 
wires If liie bultonbe conceEiled where the Dpeialorcanieachit, the c are will obeylus 
caniiiiaiidtD ii^e aifall, according ta Ins coiilrol af the cuiient This is h in^lenous 
lookuig uislniiiieiil, tlie corebeir^ moved witlioul visible CDruiection Id any otliei perl 

Lubrkiting Khetl M«lil [69] 

Ta lubncate sheelmelal miK 1 qt wliate oil, 1 lb while teod, I pf water and 3 az finest 
gmphile Apply with a brush before liie melal enters Ihe dies 

AnOplicolTor [69] 

One of liie laleslopbcaldelusiDos, and one not easy Id explain, is Benliam's color lop 
Cnloulthe black and while dist shown m Ihe figuie, and paste on a piece of sliff 
caiiJboELid Tmn Ihe ei^es of Ihe CRidboEiid Id niRlch Ihe shape of Ihe dask, and make h 
pinliole mtlie cenler Cut Ihe prn m half and push ittlirDughfiom the under side unbl 
tlie heodof the pm touches Ihe caidboaid Spui slowly ma strong lighl and some of Ihe 
lines will Eippearcoloied The colais appsar differenl to different people, Eindaie 
c hanged by leversir^ liie lotalian 




An Oo'iiihI Tdlh 

An Optical Top 

Cud Trick wiik 4 Tinned Dtck rO| 

Another suiiple liick Id perform but one no I easily delected, is eseciitedby osir^ a 
lEipeied deck of caids as sliownui Fig I A cheap deck of caids is evened up square, 
fastened ma vise andplEined aloi^ Ihe ei^e m such a maniiei Ihal all tlie jHck will be 
lEipeied aboul i/lfl m This tapei isezaggeraledintlie illuslmlian wluch sliows 

















A 






A 






♦ 






* 




1 


^ 






« 






Pg.> 






ns-3 





Cudi traai ■ Toidrca TJcck 

Cards fioin a TEipsied Deck 



□ne cdidlhalhns been lumedeiidfai end 

It IS evident lliat any caid reversed m this way CEinbe eaisily separated fiam tlie other 
cords in Ihe peck, u'lucli makes it possible lo peifanit the followu^ tiict The peifamier 
gpeEids Ihe cards out, fan-like, andaisks an abisei'h'ei lo witlidiaw a cpini wluch is then 
replaced in any pait of Ihe peck Aftei Ihoroi^hlyshufilii^ llie cai'ds Ihe perfannei then 
liolds the deck m bolii hands beliind Ins back and piDnauncuig el few magic words, 
produces the card selected in one hand and Ihe reslof Ihe peck m Ihe alhei Tins is 
accomphshedby sun ply turnup Ihe deck end for end wlule Ihe Dbsei\'ei iskioking at lus 
CELid^ thus biii^ii^ the wide end of llie selecled CEiri at Ihe nanowend of tlie pack when 
ills replaced Tlie hmids are plocedbelmid Ihe peck foi a double purpose, as the feat 
llien seems more niEiivelaus Eind tlie observers aie nal allowed la see liow iIls done 

Inpiize games, pla^rs lipivii^ the SEinie score aie frequently called upon lo cut for 
low to delennine wluch sliall be the wiiinei, but a faiiei way is lo cut foi h^h as a 
peison fELiniliai with Ihe Inck shown inF^ 1 can cultlie ceueIs elI Ihe Eice, deuce, oi three 
spot, ne Euly eve ly time, especipJly if tlie deck is b new one Tlus is done by simply 
pressing on Ihe lop of the deck as shown, before cutting, thus causing Ihe incieased ink 
suiface of Ihe lugh cards lo adhere la Ihe adjacenlones A Utile praclice will soon enable 
one la cutlownearly every tune, but the CEiids must be grasped l^htlyand Ihe 
eKpemuenl should be performed wiiha new deck lo obtain successful lesulls 
-Conlnbuledby D B L , Clucago 

A Canstanl-Fif ssiDf Hydrogen Gencralor [70] 

By fitting Ihiee bollles. A, B, C, wilhiubbei sloppeis Find connecting with glass tubes 
as shown in Ihe sketcli, hydiDgen or other gases produced ma similar inannei niEiybe 
geneialediuidei constant pressure InmEikii^ h^ogen, bollle B is patlly filled wilh 
zinc noduies formed by slowly pouruig melted zuic mio water H^ochlonc acid is then 
pouied mthe small fimiiel, Ihiis parlly filing bottles A Eiiid C When Ihe acidnsii^ fioni 
C comes mcontacl with tlie sine, liydiogengEis is generated and fills boltle B The gas 
continues lo generate until Ihe pressure is suiTicienl lo force Ihe Eicidback down Ihe tube 
into bollle C, iiiien the action ceases As fast as llie gas is used Ihe acid rises mtlie lube 
and generates more, thus keepir^ tlie pressure nearly constant, tlie piessuie depending 
on Ihe difference between Ihe levels of tlie acidinbotlle A Eiiid bottle B As Ihis device 
IS easily iip3el, a ring-slEind sliouldbe used lo preveni lis being broken^ orif itis lobe a 
penuELiienl Eippflralus il maybe maunled one substantial wooden bpise Tlus Eipperatus 
may also be used forpiepermg acel^ne gas or almost any gas wluch 



leqime^ a mizluie of a solidaiidliqmdm 11:3 piepELialiaii — CoiilribiiledbyC S J., 
Detioit 

R«loringTonFto a Crqcktd BfJI [Tl| 

Putiny a bell with a deadened lone due Id a cracked run, can be giv'eii ilg oiigmal clear 
iii^ii^ sound by sawing autllie cieck with a camniDnhactsaw Nkike Ihe sai^cutahii^ 
llie bne of Ihe ciack The opeiui^ caused by the saw will allDwthe free 'i'ibration Df the 
inetal -Cantiibuledby F W Benfly, Jt . Huian, ^ Dak , 

How la M^kf a F^FxPluiiogr^hHoTn [71] 

Secure a pece of tubing abaul l-3J4ui long Ihal will fil the coiineclian lo the 
repaducei, and wiapa quantilyaf heavy llueadaiound one end as ishDivii intlie 
eiilaiged sketch A, F^ 1 Foiin a cone af heavy papei, 9 in loi^ and 3 in in diainelet, 
at Ihe laiger end with the smaller end la fit the diameter of Ihe tube A, making ittluee- 
piy tluckand gluing the la^is logelhei Atlach this cone on Ihe tube A ivheie tlie thiead 
lias been wrapped wilhglue, assliownui Fig 2 Fig 1i is also an enlarged iskelch l^^ke 
ten piece:; abaul I ft 10 m mlei^lhand 3 in wide fiani tlie tlimboaids of abKcintai 
cracker box Culanarc of a cucle ui thenton a radiu; of 2 ft (Fig 3) l^^ke a lO-sided 
:3tick, 12 m loi^, Ihal will til loasely m Ihe tube A, Id wliichnail the ID peces as ishown 
inF^ 4, comiecting the botlomby cio:3:3 peces, using care to keep Ihem at equal dt3- 
lances apart and ma cucle whase diaineteiis aboul 2 fl. 




Detail of PhoiLogiaph Horn 



The CDne is [iaced D\'ei Ihe slick eis bIidwh by the dotted lines uiF^ 4 and 
tempomiilyfaslened inposilioii Cutoutpapei secliDns {Fig 5) tliatwill coveieach 
ispiicebetitfeeii the 10 piece:;, allaivii^ 1 in an one side and llie lop, m i^lucli Id cuIsIiIb 
tliat will fDmi pieces ta D^'eilEip the next iseclianand to attach with glue Fasten Ihe sec- 
tions pJl aioiind in like niEinnei The neKtcauise is put an m gtn|s D^'eilEippmg f\s sliown 
at B, Fig 6 Fmishby putluig onisecliansmtlie same i*ay as tlie fiistcDiu'se, niaku^ it 
tluee-ply thick Remove Ihe foim, tiini to suit Riidglue a pece of paper ovei the et^e 
When Ihe glue is Ihaiai^lily liardened, put an Iwo cools of while and one afblue pflint, 
ishndii^ it to soil and slnpi^ it with gold biDice 

How W Makf n Hygromeler [71] 

A lioinentade hy^iamelei, foi deteniumi^ Ihe degree of moistuie ui the atinasplieie, 
IS uhDwnmllie accDinpanyuig sketch and consislsof aboaid. A, with a nail at each end 
Id haldtlie silk Ihiead B A second piece af silk Ihiead, C, n; tied Id Ihe ceiitei of B Eind 
CDiuiects wilh an uieIiceiIu^ haiidoi poinleisuppaitedby Ihe bmckel D The RKle an 
which Ihe pointer le^'alves consisls af a piece of lauiid i^ood, about llie sise of a lead- 
pencil^ with a pindnvenm eochend A pece of tin, E, is cut V-:3hiiped al each end Eind 
bentupattlie enrls lo fann bearings foi Ihe pins The silk llueod C is foslened to tlie 
wooden a^le and is wrapped one or twa turns around il, sa that when 




The Hygro meter 

tlie tlireEidis pulled Ihe poinler will move ontlie scale It will be noticed Ihatlhe tlirepid 
B IS notpeifecdystiaighl, but bends towfliii D Foi llus leRsan a very small slinnkp^e of 
B, such Eis accurs when Ihe Rlmospliere is dry, will cause an incieased mavemenlof C, 
which will be furtlier incieased mtlie niD\'enienlof Ihe pomtei Aninstiiunenlof this 
kind IS veryuilereshr^ andcosls notlmig la make — ConlribuledbyRf Eidei, Denver 



TheProlectnnofq ^riiig Lock [72| 

After shutluig Ihe front doar andheaiu^ the spring lock snapmta lis sockel, niasi 
people ga affwilha cliildhke fRith mtlie SEifetyof Iheir goads and cliatlels But Ihe cold 
fact IS thatlhere is scarcely Riiy locking device which affords less protection liian Ihe 
andinniy s^Hir^ lock II is Ihe smiplestlhii^ m Ihe world foi a sneak Ihief to shpa Ihin 
kiufe between Ihe doai-casu^ and Ihe strip, push back tlie bait, and walk in 

Foitiinalely, ilisequEillyeasy to black tlialtiick Toke a naiiow piece of lin 3 or 4 m 
long, bend il at ng hi angles tluoi^haiitils lenglh, and lack il firmly m Ihe angle belween 
tlie casu^ and sinp, so as lo make ilunpassible lo reach Ihe bait witlioulteEini^ afCihe 



Analhei way is la dnve nRili; tliiDugh Ihe atnpatmlerh'als of half anuicli, enai^li lo 
pialectihe boLt ftom beu^ medrlled iwilii 

A ContnDer uidRnentfor 3 Batltry Motar [72] 

Secure a cigat Di?[aichbo:i Riiduse Id male ihs baae, B. Two iffood-bEise switches, S 
^, aie cul ofTa Litle pastille cenlei EindfesleiiedlD Ihe bEise with a pece of wood 
belweentlieoi Ths iippei switcli, ^, is connected Id diSeieiilequaLpomlsona cail of 
wiie, W, ivhile the iowei switch, S, is connected each point lo abatleiy, as slioiim Tlie 
rev'ei'se swilcli^ R, l3 niEide fiam two biass oi copper sinps fesleiied at tlie lap To tliebase 
wilhscieivsandjomedlDgetheiby E[ piece of haidrubbei di wood with a small liandle 
attached Connect wues A lo Uie Euinatiue Find wues F la Ihe field of Ihe moloi By this 
arrangement ane, two or three and so on up iinlilallthe batlery cells Rie used Find dif- 
ferent pomts of lesislance seemed on Ihe coil af wue Tlie leverse level ffhenmD\'ed 
fiom light lo left, oi leflta light, chEir^es liie duecliDnof the Einnatiiie in tlie maloifiom 
aiie way lo flie ofliei -Conlribntedby J Fiemonl Hilscher, Ji , WeslSl Paul, Mmn 




Mbtoi Reverse andCanticllei 
Htm la BuiU n Grape Aihor [7^] 

A grape aiboi made of while pine, pul logellier as shaifii in Ihe skelcli, will last foi 
several year's The I?by 4-in posts. A, are 7 ft lai^ The feet, B, aie made 2 by4m , 4 
ft lor^, and lestona bnck placed luuler each end 



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Omm-RrVim Tnllla 
Grape - Arbor Tiellia 

How la Makf 4 Toy Sleam Engine [73] 

A loy engine can be easily made fiam aldmipleinenis ifluch can be found m neady 



every house 




Toy S team Ei^uie Assembled 

The c^iindei A, F^ 1, m Pinoldbic^le piuiip, culiuhnlf The sleam chest D, is pent 
af tlie pisloii tube of tlie SEtme pump, llie other peilsbeii^ U'sed foi Ihe beaiiog B, aiid 
llie crank beamig C The flyivheel Q can be aiiysmEJl-siEeduoii i*heel, eilheiaii aid 
isewii^-mEichine wheel, pulley wheel, oi Emylhing available We used a 'niieelfroinan 
aldh^h cliaiifor our ermine If Ihe bore mllie wheel is loo loige far the sliafl, it maybe 
bushed with a piece of liard wood The sliafl is mode of lieavy steel wue, Ihe size of llie 
liole inthebeaiu^ B 

The base is mode of wood, and has twc woodblocks, H andK, 3^ in thick. 




Valve Motion Pind Conslroctiaii of Piston 



to support bearing B, and valve ciank ^, which is made of tm The hose E connects lo 
llie boiler, wliich will be described latei Tlie chpsFF are soldered lo tlie c^dinrlei and 
nailed lo fliebpise, and Ihe beain^ B is fastened by sla pies 

The valve molionis shown mF^s 2 and 3 InF^ ? the sleam is enlermg Ihe 
c]4inder, and mF^ 3 Ihe valve B has closed Ihe sleam inlet and opened liie exliausl, 
thus allowii^ the sleam in tlie cylinrler lo escape 

The psionis made of a slovebolt, E, Fig 2, wilhtwo washeis, FF, and a cylindrical 



pece af haid wood, G Tliis t3 ivauiid wilhisofl'stiii^, asshaivii uiF^ 3, ELiidaaliiiEiled 
with Ihick oil A slalL3 cul in tlie end af the bolt E, Id receive Ihe CDiuiecting lod H The 
valve B is made of oil old bicycle spoke, C, with llie iiul ciitm lialf and filed dowii eis 
shown, liie space beti^een Hie ti*o hpilves being fJled wilhistiii^ and oiled 
The\'alve crank S, Fig 1, is culoulof lui^ ai gEilvamzed uon, and is moved 




BDfiDB In Oprntlmi 

Er^uie in Opeiation 

by a small ciank an Hie sliafi Tlu:3 crank sliouldbe al iighl aisles lo the niEiin crank 

Tliebailei, F^ 4, cpinbe an aid ail caii^ powrlei can, or a syrup can with a tube 
soldeied to il, and is connected to the engine by a piece af rubber tubing The heat&Dm 
a small ga:3 stove will furnish steam fa:3l eiioi^h to run llie engine al lugh speed This 
ei^ine iiTLsbiullby W G lichuhaiidA J Euslice, of Cuba, V/iu 

WrUingwidiElKlrkily [74] 

lioak a pece af wlule paper m a salulian of potassium ladide and water foi Eibouta 
mmute and tlien kyitana pece of sheet me tpJ Comiect the sheet melal with Ihe 
negative arzinc side of abnltery andtlien, usii^ the posihve wire as a pen, write your 
name or a Iher inscription ontlie wet paper 




Electrolytic Wnbr^ 

The result will be brownbnes on El while bactgraiind — ContribuledbyGeo W Fry, 
lian Jose, Cal 

To Phongr^h* hbnma Bonle [74] 



Neilhera huge boltle nai a dwarfed man is necessary for this pracess, as il is merely a 
tiick of pliotDgiapliy, Eind a 'h'eiy amusing tnck, attliat 

First, pliotDgmph Ihe person ta be enclosed m Ihe botlle agauisia daik plain 
backgrDund and inaik tlie exEicI pasilionon the grauiid glEiss Leitlie ezposuiebe jiist 
long enai^h to shaw Ihe figuie dislinctly Tlien place an empty bottle againsl a dait 
backgiDund and focus so eis to have Ihe authnes af tliebaltle enclose lliose of the man 
Let this exposure be about twice Ihe lenglhof Ihe first, and the desued result is Dbtained 



A Miuval WindmiD [74] 

Make Iwa wheels duI of Im They maybe of Euiy^ise, bnl wheel Amiislbe Ipiiger 
lliaii wheel B On i*heel A faisteii two peces of wood, C, to crass in Ihe centei, and place 
abeEan Ihe four end;, as ishDwn The sinallei loheel, B, niuslbe sepamled fiam the 
alheiwitha roiuidpece of waodoranoldspaol Tie fouibultons with isphlni^s to Ihe 
:3maliei ivheei, B The blades ontlie wheels should be be nl opposite an one ^liieelfioin 
tlie others so eis to make the wlieek luni indiiTerenI duections When tuining, Ihe 
buttons wiUslnhe Ihe belli; and make Ihem nng conslanlLy. 




OpdrallUucnns P4] 

Bygivii^ tlie iHge a revolving oi niisii^ motion llie Ihiee ciiculai f^uies piintedon 
llie neKtpage appear lo lotale Tlie best effect will be produced by layii^ Hie boat dawn 
flat ontlie desk ai table andrevah'ing, first 




Uoue TneDfl Piiuin SmbMIt nllli a SLaHaa HdLfrlD 

Move Tliese Figures Rapidly with a Ruisir^ ^■lolion 

mane direclianand llien nillie opp:isile dueclian, in such a way thai any given pjmt an 
Ihe p^e will desciibe a circle of afcoul 1/2 in diamelei F^ I then appeals to lolale m Ihe 
same duecliDn ;\s Ihe levolulion.Fig 2 appears lo revah'e in Hie apposite diredion, and 
Fig I offsais la levolue somelinies m Ihe same diieclianaiid alallier hmes in Ihe appDsile 
diieclion 

A cunouf effect can be piaducedifith F^ I bycoveiii^ upF^s. If and 3 wilh apece of 
plam pflpei and laying a cainoratliei small abjeclonthe papsi If Ihe vision is then 
concenlmledanlhe com aiolhei object while same is being revat'ed^ Fig I will be seentu 
lalale 

B4rr«l-Nl4¥t Hunmock T^] 

A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would lliiiik, 
consideiuig Ihe nature af Ihe material employed m makug il Good snioolh slaves sliould 
be selected foi llus purpose, and if one cares la go lo Litle trouble a tlioroi^hsandpapeni^ 
will make a giealimpravemenl Cullialf circles oul of each slave, as shown al AA, and 
psss rapes aiomid 




Clieap !ind Coiiifoitable 

Ihe erdp au uliowiial B. V^licn fimplied IIie WEighlwilltlieiibe suppoiledbyfoiiiiDps^ al 
eEiclicnd, which allaivs llie um af uiiipU seed ropes, uucliau clotheslines AhEimiiiDckof 
Ihis kind maybe lefl oulmlhe rainffillioal injuiy — ConlribalcdbyH C M^ St Loms, Ma. 

A Singing Tf l^hont [75| 

Thoue who have nolalnady Inedtlie expenmenl maybe mieiesled lo kiiowlhnta 
telephone iiipybe iiiEide la sing by lioldiiig Ihc receiver about 1/16 m from the tnmsmitler, 
as shown in the illoptratian The expenme lit will 




Td tnlake a Teleplioiie Sir^ 

wort well an moat telephones, but iiot on all 

When the receiver is placed in the poaition shown ilaclu like pn oidinarybuszei, and Ihe 
funcbonof the trEmsmitlerwiUtlienbe tliatof pn mteiiupter The shghteut movement of the 
tmnsmittei diaphr^m will CBUse an increased mo^'enient of Ihe receivei diaphr^m This in 
tmn will pct on Ihe tiaiismilter^ thuaaetling upaympnthetic vibrationa between Ihe two, 
wliichaccannts for the sound 



AMifzoicopf WilhontnLfns [Td] By E. W. DAVfS 

Neaily eveiy]iie has heEiid of tlie pii-hole camera, but tlie fBcllhallhe same piiicipLe 
CEinbe U'sed to make a miciascope, havii^ a mRgnifyuig powei of 3 diameteis (64 times) 
will peihR|s be new to some readeii; 

To make tlu:3 leiisle:;:; micioscope, procure a wooden spool, A (a short spool, say lO 
01 3/4 in long, paduces a h^liei inapufying power), Eind eiilaige tlie bore a bitle atone 
end Tlien blacken tlie mside with india ink and eJIdwId dry Fioin a pece of tlun 




DfluL dI L<anLriD Mii.n]n(i7[iB 

Detail of Lensles^ iVlicicscope 

ti'aiispaieiil celluloid aiinicEi, culoul a small disk, B, and fallen to Ihe eiidliavu^ Ihe 
eiilaigedboie, by ineaiis af brads On Ihe alheiend glue el pece of tluiibkct cardboard, 
C, and Ell Ihe center, D, make a stueiII hole with Ihe point of a fine needle llisveiy mi- 
porlanl llial Ihe liote D shaiildbeveiy small, olheiwise Ihe imRge will be bhined 

Ta use Ihis iiuciosca|K, place a entail object an Ihe liaiispaieni dusk, wluch lURybe 
inoislened ta make Ihe object adhere, and lack tlirough Ihe hole D Itis iiece:3:3aiy ta 
liave a slroi^ light to gel goodiesulls and, as in all microscajKi; of Eiiiy power, Ihe abject 
should be ofa lienspaient nnlnre 

The puiciple on wluch tlus uisliTuuent walks IS iliuslraled iiiF^ 2 The appaienl 
diameter af an objecl is inversely prapDitional ta lis distance fiom Ihe e^^, i e , if the 
distance l3 reduced la one-hnlf, the diPimetei will appeal twice as la^e, if llie distance is 
leduced to one-lhiri tlie diPimetei will appeal Ihiee times as Inrge, and so on As llie 
nearesi distance bI wliich Ihe avemge peison cru see an objecl cleaily is about 6 m , it 
fallows thill Ihe diameter ofanabj eel 3/4 m fioni the e^ would appepirS times tlie 
noimeil sise The abjecl wauld Ihenbe mp^nifiedS diameters, oi 64 times (The aiea 
would appeal 64 times Pis large > But an objecl 3/4-m frani tlie eye appeEiii3 so binned 
tliatnone of tlie deteils are discernible, and ilis for Hus reason that Ihe pm-hole is 
emplo^d 

Viewed Ihioi^h this miciascope, a fly's wii^ appeals f\s lEirge as h persan's liand, held 
at Finn's lenglli, and lias Ihe general appeamnce sliownmF^ 3 The mother of vinegar 
e}:anunedui Ihe same xe^yis seen la be swarming with a meiss af wiigghng htlle wonns, 
and may passibly cause the observer to abstem fiom eJI salads forevei Eifler An 
iimoceni- looking diap of water, in which hay lias be en saaking foi seveial dny^, leveala 
hundred; of htlle infu'3onE[, daiting Eicross the field in every duec tan These and 
hundreds of oilier mteie sting objects maybe absei'h'ed mtlus htlle instiiiment, wluch 
cosis htlle or iiollm^ la make 

Hfw lo Make a Tfk^nphKty uid Sounder |7d| 



The soundei. Fig I, is made from Pinold eleclnc-be 11 magnet, D, fastened to a 
woadenbpise The lever. A, can be made of brass and Ihe aimature, C, is mpide of iron 
The pvol, E, IS made fiom a wiie ueuI aiidLS soldeiedta A It should be filed lo a poinl 
at eEichendso ns lo move freely m the beanies, B, which are pieces of hpird woad 

The spring, H, is fastened Bleach eiidby pus, benlas shown, and should not be too 
?tiar^ or Ihe magnet will be unable hi move Ihe annatuie 




SOUNDER-A bm?? B ivood C ^oftuon.DD coiL? ivouiid wiEhNo 26 
wire E nail soldered on A, FF buiding po?l? H spnr^ 

The slop, E, 15 a wiie iiail dnveii deep eiioi^hm Ihe base lo leave aboal 115 in between 
tlie arniEilme and Ihe iitagiiet The buidu^ posls, F, iitaybe lakenfiam olddiyboltenes 
aiidare coiinecled la Ihe ti*o vu.es from Ihe iitagnelby wiies ruii ingiooves cutintlie 
base 

The bose af the tey^ Fig. 2, is also made of wood and lias Iwd iflaDdeiibeaiiiigs, E, 
which are mode lo receive a pivol, gmiilai lo the one iisedin Ihe maunder The lever of 
llie key IS mode of brass and has a haidwaodtnob. A, fpislenedneM Ihe end A switch, 
D, CDnnects wilh Ihe pival rIF and can be eilliei made from she el brass, or lakenfrom a 
small Dne-pointswilch The biiidii^ fasis Eire like those af the SDiuidei, Riidare 
CDniiBcted lo the conlacis, K, by wues lunm grooves cut m Ihe woad 




KEY-A woad.B bra?s or uon soldered to nad^ C biass.D biass E wood F. 
connecbanof D to iiaiL^ HH bmdir^ po?l? 

How » Makf 4 Musir C'qbintt |77] 



A neat music cabinet CEin be made as shown in Ihe accomptmying skelch Each side, 
AA, F^ 1, IS cut&am abDaidabDut36 ui m length and Id m wide Both aie ahke Piiid 
CEinbe cut fiom Ihe same palteni As llie fiontlegs cui'h'e out a hitle Ihe mambady of llie 
boaids AAslioiildbe 15 m wide The back, B, slioiildbe pbout 32 m long by Ifl m 
wide Eind set m between sides AA Cut Ihe top, C, 16 ui lor^ and 14-1^2 m wide The 
bottom must be tlie same length as llie tap and 13-1/? m wide 

The doai, D, can be made panel as sliown, or a sii^le pece, td m wide and Eiboul2D 
m long All niPitenal usedis la be niPide fiomboaids thai wiL diess la 3M in thick 




How W M-ur - HuiLc CaDbcl 
How [o r.'Iake a Music Cabuiet 

Slielviiig mEiybe piiliii as aho^vii uiF^ 2 and iiiRde fiaiii llA-ui mateiiel Make 13 
cleats, E, 13-1/3 in loi^, from a sinpof im]Dd lOby 3/4m, wiiha gioove (Mby 1/4 
III cutmlhem Fpislenif cleats evenly spaced on tlie mside of each af the sides, AA, 
with 3/4- in biads This will give seven :3pece:3 far music aiidai; the slielves Eue 
lemovable tiva places CEinbe made into one 

Euil^MAdtWiieluic Cclie»F U"^] 

A good wiieles^ colieier may be made wilh^'eiy little eKpense, the only matenals 
neceg^aiy being a glass tube, two corks a magnetised needle Riida quantity af iron and 
gih'ei filings Push a pece of wire lluaugh one cork Find place in Ihe bottom of the tube, 
as shown m Ihe sketch 

Pouiui Hie filings anduisert the topcaik wiHi Hie needle pushed through 



To Airtenn^e 



'-CQi-\i 






Jivm FiJrn9a 



RfflHrver 




DMiil oE Cubrnr 

Detail of Colieier 

from pbave Tlie pomt af tlie needle should baiely touch Ilie fJii^;; andby sl^hlty 

agitRlii^ tlie lube Ihe iron tilings will separate from the silvei and chi^ la the 
magnetised needle, as shown 

In operRlion, the de^'ice muslslandon end and sliouldbe comiectedmtlie circuit as 
ishowii mtlie sketch \Vlien Ihe electncal wffh'es stiike Ihe needle. Hie canductivity of llie 
filings IS eslabh^hedand el chck is lieaidm the receiver. 

— ContribuledbyCail Foimlials, Gpiifield, 111 



One-Wire Ttlegraph Lint [78| 

The accompanyii^ wiring diagrEtm uhows a lelegmplis^lem llial requires no 
gwitcheg and maybe operated with ope n-circuilbattenes on a one-wue 



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Diagram of One- Wire Line 

line wilh ground caniiecliDiB ateRcliend Any leiegiRphsetui ifbich Ihe 
keynames double coiitaci can be caruiected up in Ihis way — Conliibuledby R A 
Biawn, Faupiit, N Y 

Hov la M^kf % WilFT Rhtorl3l [78] 

A water rlie a slat maybe made by fitlii^ abrasf tube i^ilha coik, Ihiai^li mhicha 
pece af wue is passed The bra:;^ lube niEiybe au aid bicycle hand pump, A{:3ee 
iskelch), filled wilh watei Puslm^ llie wiie, B, downiulo tlie water incieaises llie surface 
inconlact, and lliusdecieaises the lesislaiice An apparatus af tlus kind is suitable for 
legulalu^ Ihe cuneiitfiam an induction cdiL wlien Ihe coil is not provided ivilha 
legiilaloi, aiidby usuig b piece af pipe insteEidof the tube, itcRube used lo regulate Ihe 
?peedof a molar 

When the pipe is used, a piece afbid^s or copper lod ^liouldbe ^ubstiluled fbi the 
wiie, moidei ta incieaise llie surface Adding isalt la the watei will decrease Ihe re- 
:3i5lance, and, i^henused with a molar, will gi^'e a giealer ispeed --Cantiibuledby John 
Koelilei, Ridgewood, N J 




DiEigrain of One-Wire Line WalerRheostal 
Ebctru Door-Opener [73] 

A very conveiuenl Find efQcient device for unlackir^ anydaor filled wiiha spring 
lock IS ?liownmtlie accampanyuig sketches Afpiirly gtifTspiu^, A, is comiectedby a 
flei:ible wire cord lo llie knob B The cord is also fEislened la a le^'ei, C, wlucli is pivoted 
al D and is leleasedby el magnetic tiiggei, E, made from the airoEiluie and m^iielof an 
aldelectiic bell 

When the ciicuil is comple led by means of b secret conlactde\^ce oulside the dooi, 
tlie magnet, F, pulli; dawn the armalure, wlucli releases the trigger and eJIows tlie spring 
to open Ihe lock If tliere are metal numbers on Ihe outside affile daortlieyinaybe used 



foi Ihe iseciel conlect if deisiied. 




AtnEiluH fLk«d on Inside of [«m 
Appsialiis Placed on Iiiside of Daai 

biitif llieie ELie no iimnbeK on Ihe door, a smell conlact-boaniiiiELybe canstiucledby 
diivu^ about 1 3 biass headed tacks mio a Ihm piece of waodaiidniEiluig cannecluiDS at 

tliebackas sliowiiin Ihe winng diagiam 

In Ihis paiticular diRgrELiii tlie tacks nmnbeied 1 and 7 aie used far milactii^ the daoi, 
tlie olhersbeii^ ca line c led with Ihe electiic-bell cucuil as indicated, foitlie puipose of 
gi^TT^ an alarm sliould an^ady Qy to experiment with the secret contacts By means of 
a pocket inife ai other me lal Riticle the aperRlai can let hmiself mat anytime by 
canneclir^ tlie lacks iimiibeied I and 7, wliile a person not knowing the combination 
would be liable ta sound Ihe alarm Of couige, Ihe buildei of Ihis de\^ce may choose a 
combinalionaf his own and inay thus pieveiitan^ody else fiom entering Ihe door, even 
tliose who lead Ihis description — ConlribuledbyPeiryA Boiden, Gacliville, N B 




Wiling Diagram 

H<pw n Tighren a Curiam- Roller ^ring [79] 

A common table faib CEinbe used to hold Ihe hitle projection an Ihe end of a cuxlam 

roller for t^hlenmg Ihe spru^ Hold the fork finnly with one liand while turmi^ the 
roller with the other Do not let go of Ihe fort until Ihe htlLe catches are selm poisitioii la 
pieveni Ihe spiu^ &am timni^, or else Ihe fork maybe thrown off wilhdai^erous 
force 

Abrm Cloih ClurkenJeeder [79[ 



An automatic pDullry feeder, which will dischaige Ihe necessaryamouiitof comoi 

alher feed at any de sued luue, maybe made byu^u^ an alarm clock as shown mthe 
skelch A small wue tiiggei rests on the winding key and siippoils Hie swinging bo Itom 
af the food hopper by mean; of a piece of stiu^ ivlnch comiecis Ihe two Wlienthe 
alarm goes off tlie Ingger diops and allows the door to open, thus dischaigmg Ihe 
cantenls af Ihe liopper 
Aileilhe device has been mopembon for same lime Ihe hens will iiui lo the feeder 



whenev'ei Ihe bell ni^:3 -CoiilribiiledbyDi H A Dobaiii^ V/ashir^loii^ D C 




WiEOpen orClopfe Ciiciulas Desiied 

Honunude Dnk-RtcoTd Cibintl [79] 

^eteclajinebaEuds liiatlia\'e a luce giam and aboul I m thick Eiiid 12-m wide Cutlhe 
eiidpeceseach 36-m tar^ aiidtnindawnUie edges so Eis lo make them 11-3/S in wide. 
Tlie lop board 15 made 2S-UI long aiidfull llT-m wide The liiiee shelves ate cut 25-iii 
long Eindtlie edges trimniedso they will be 11-3/S in wide The distance between the 
bottom of the topboaidand I3ie topof Ihe firstshelf isliouldbe 3 m Two diaweis are 
fitled iiitlu'3 5pece, as sliownm Fig I A ueiie^ of gioovea aie cut IJ4ut wide. 



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Ciblnel HaldbDB H GrcuJilEi 

Cabuiel Holdiiig 33 Records 

IMin deep and 3/4 m apart on one side of the lop and bottom slielves, as shown mF^ 
2, and on both sides of Ihe mirldle shelf The shelves should be spaced 5-5^3 in for 10- 
m lecGids andi-i/Sm foi fl-ui records A nealscioll designis cutfroma boaid25 in 
long to Sll lip and finish Ihe space below die bo Itom slielf —Contributed by H E 
Pvlar^old, Camptan, Cal 

ABan«zyS)Kosial [80] 



InabaaidTin loi^andim wide bore halesabant IMm apart, ma semicircle 2 in 
fiom Ihe boHom, and cut notches m lop end to correspond with Ihe hole^ From a piece 
afbiassa swilch, C, is cut with a knob soldered on al Ihe end Nads far stop; are placed 
atDD Twobuidir^-poslsare placedinboardat A andB Wilhaboul9fl of fine iron 
wire altachone end to the bottom of post A and iiui Ihrai^h fust hole andovei m fiiist 
notch to back ofbaaid andlhen tluough second hale aiido\'ei second notch and so an 
luitilEisieached^ wheie Ihe atheiendofwiie 13 fastened Comiectswilchta posi B — 
ConliibuledbyEdmmidKuhn, Ji , EaslOrange, N J 




Battery RJicoalat 

Autonutir Time Swilcli [90] 

This device laaybe used Id eilhei open di close Ihe circuil a I any deisued lune An 
alanii clock is fumly fastened lo a wooden biRcke I Find provided with h small iffoodoi 
inetRldnun, A, lo winch is fastened h coid, B The olhei end of Hie co id is lied to the 
iTintch handle :30 fliativhen Ihe alann goes off the swilchis eilhei opened or 
closed, deiKiuluig on whether Ihe coidispaissedavei pulley C oi pulley D 

When Hie cordis pessedov'ei pulley C, f\s ishowii inF^ 1, Ihe circuit mllbe closed 
when the alEmn goes off, but if ilis pasised ovei D the circuit will be opened Pulley D is 
fastened to a piece of ispiii^ steel, E, wluch inoperRlionisbent, as sliownby the doited 
lines, thus causii^ tlie sffilchto snap open quickly and pie\'ent faiiiiii^ an arc 

— Canbibutedby Doi^Ieis Royei, Roanoke, Va 




Will O^a CI llliug llJri'till an II!>rDlr<d 

Will Open or Close Cucuilas Deaued 
Haw lo MahtaEolnryPiunp [SIJ 



Puuj or ""I*** stm^ hewovep 




Fm.S 



Dfltafli al Ptfirv Pimw 



Details of Rotary Punip 



A simple lotarypmiip is constnicted on llie pimciple of creEitiiig a vacuniii ma lubber 
tube Eiiidso causing i^ateitD use to fill the VBCuum F^g 3, 4 aiidi ^liDwalHIie perls 
needed, eKcephi^ llie cmiik and lubii^ The dimeiisians Eind descnptioii gruenare far a 
iiuiuiiimii pump, but a lEiiger one could be built in proportiDO 

Tluaugh Ihe centeiof Eiblock of ffood 4 in square and 7^3 in thick (A, F^s l,2aiid 
3) saw El cuculai openir^ 2-7/S m indiEtmelei On each side of Ihisbhick cul b laigei 
circle 3-l/4iii m diRiueter, havu^ Ihe spime centeias Ihe first circle (Fig 3) Cut tlie last 
circles only 1/4 m deep, leavu^ the firstciicle in the fonu of a ni^e ai track 3^3 in. 
wide, agaiiisl wluch the rubber tubing, E, is coinpiessedby i^heels Boie Iwo IMin 
lioles (HH, Fig I) fiani tlie oulside of Ihe block to llie edge af tlie uinei circle Put the 
iTibbei tube, E, lluaugh one af these holes, pass il around the Irack and out thioi^h the 
alheihole Nahce the bieok (li) in Ihe tract, tins is necessEiiy inoideito phice in 
position Ihe piece lioldii^ Ihe i^heeLs 

Fig 4 shows the wheel-holder, B. Make it of liard i*ood 3-1/3 in. long^ I in wide and 
a hitle less tlian 7/S in tluck, sa thatil will iiui freeLybetween the sides (Fig i) when 
tliey aie placed Cut two grooves, one ui eochenEl, I in deep and I/Ii in wide In these 
grooves place wheels, CC, to turn an pus of stout wiie Tliese wlieels should be 3/4 in 
indiPiraeler Wlien placed in the holder tlieii cenleis inuslbe exoclly !? in apart, ai so 
airanged tliat tlie distance between tlie edge of the wlieels Eindthe Irack <K, F^ l> is 
equal to the Ihickness of tlie tubu^ wlienpiessed flRl If the wlieels fit too t^litly, they 
will bind, iltao loose, they will Lei the autlirough Boie a hole Ihioi^h the middle of the 
wheel-holdei and mserl Ihe crankpin^ D, wluch sliouldbe Eiboul 1/I?in mdiRmeter The 
crankpin should fil lighdy, if necessary diive obrEid Ihiai^h to keep it from shppu^ 

In the sides (F^ 5) boie a liole in tlie cenlei of tlie crEinkpn to ninm loosely Now 
put all Ihese perls together, as shown m Ihe illuslration Do not fasten the sides too 



iseciiielyiiiililyaiiliave Ined tlie device aiidare sine il will nui siiiootlily Fde Ihe crank h 
bent^aece af slant wiie or a iiail willseiue, Ihoi^li h sinalluon wlieel abetter, a? il 
gR-es BteEidiiiess to tlie molion In llus case h liandle mu'stbe Rltached Id Hie niii af llie 
wheel to sei\'e a^ a ciaiit The diive wheel ftom abiaten-dDwiieggbealei will do 
lucely Fai ea^e in liaiulhr^ tlie puinp, a platfoim should be Eidded 

To use the puinp, filllhe tube with walei Riid place tlie lower end af the tube in a 
reseivaiiaf water Mpile a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe slenifaithe olher end of Ihe 
tube Then liunihe crank from lefl to light The first wheel presses the air out of the 
tube, creating a vacuum which w iimiiedialely tilled with ivalei Befoie Ihe fiiist wlieel 
releEises the tube at the top, Ihe alhei wlieel hes le ached tlie battani, tlus tune piessir^ 
along Ihe ivatei tlial wasbiDi^htupby the fust wheel If Ihe motion of the wlieels is 
regniai, the pimip will give a steady stie am Two feetof W4-in tubing, casluig IQ cents, 
IS all the expense necessary — Contributed by Dan H Hubbaid, Idana, Ean 



How n Make a Fire Sriern [82] 




Kode qE Stiup Iran 
FIG 2 Made of ^tiaplion 

A screen winch wiUnoltnlerfeie with Ihe radiation af tlie heal from Ihe fire, and will 
keep skills and clulrlien safe can be made athtlle ei:peiise out of some strap nan The 
screen which ls shawnmF^ I, stands 20 m h^h from Ihe base to Hie lop ciasspuece 
and IS made of 3Mby l/4-in and l/2by HA-m uon The topandbottani pieces marked 
AA, F^ 1, aie 3Mby lf4iii andare30in lDng,bentatan ar^le ta fitlhe fiieplace 7 in. 
fiom eachend, as shawii mF^ 2 The Huee legs niaikedBBB, Fig i, are of Ihe saiue 
size iron and each leg will late 34 m of maleiial Inshapuig Ihe feet of these lluee 
pieces give them a slight tendency to lean lowaid Ihe fue oi inside of screen, sey^ a 
canespondentmthe Blacksmith and V'Tieelwiighl Intlie two ciossbais 1 m from each 
eiid,AinFig 2, maikfaihole and 3 m fiani Ihatniaib tlie iie:ilhale Take the center of 
tliebai, B, 15 in fiani each end, andniaik foi a liale, aiid3-!nm on each side mark 
again and 3-1/2 m beyind each of these twa, mark agam 

fvlaik the legs 2-3/4m from Ihe bDtlDmand2 m from Ibe lop andaflei making nvel- 
holes iT/eltheni to the ciassbais, AA, Fig 1 

Cut SIX pieces, 17-10 m loi^ and pmich holes to fit and iivetonto Ihe remaining 
holes m ciossbais, AA, Fig 1 Clean il up and give il a coal of black Japaii oidead 
black 

Tr^ ibi SimU Animab [BZ] 



Tins IS a box Irap with glass sides and back, Ihe panes of glass being lield in place by 
bmds placed on both sides The animal does not feai to enler Ihe bo:i, because he can 



gee tluough it wlien he eiitei;;, liowe\'ei, and loucJie:; Hie bail Ihe lidis released and, 
diappmg, shuli; him in Tins k one af tlie easiest QEips la build and is usually successful 




Hoin«iud« Grenet Battery &3] 

Piacuie an ardinary CEuban-zinc, sal-anuuDiiiac balteiy aiidiemov'e tlie zinc rod If 
llie balteiy has been usedbefaie, it is belter la saat Hie caiban c^^iinder foi a few liouis 
Id ieniD\'e any reniEiining ciyslals of SEil-EininiDniac fiom its pores 

The truncated, corucal sine required is known eis a fullei's sine and can be bought at 
any electric Ell supply dealer's, or, it maybe CEislina sand maid from scrap zinc artlie 
worn-out sine rads fiani sal-aminomac baltenes It sliouldbe cast on the eiidof a piece 
af Nd 14 copjKi wue Amalgamation is not necessaiyforlhe suic one bu^, but if one 
cpisis his own sine, iIls necessary to ama^amate it or coal il wilh mercury This maybe 
done as folloios 

Dip a piece af rp^ in a diluted solulion of sulphuric acid (waler 16 pnrls, acid I part), 
nib the zinc well, at tlie SEinie time allowu^ a few drops of mercury lo fall on a sp]l 
attacked by Ihe acid The meicury will adliere, and if tlie rubbii^ is conlinued sa eis Id 
spread Ihe meicury, itwillcovei Ihe enliie surface of Ihe zinc, givii^ itabnght, silvery 
appearance 

Ne:il procure whal is knawn as a wire CDnneclor This is a piece of copper tube abaut 
l-iy2 in loi^ havii^ two Ihumb screws, ane on each endonapposile sides (F^ 3) The 
upper screw is Id comiecl Ihe battery wire, the lower one lo raise andloioer Ihe zinc Tlie 
batlery IS now complete, and Ihe solution (Fig I) must be prepaied Proceed as fallows 

ln32oz of walEr dissolve 4 oz polassiumbichromale Wlien Ihe bichromate tuis all 
dissoK'ed, add slowly, stirni^ constantly, 4 oz sulphunc acid Da iiol add the acid too 
quickly or Ihe heat generated may break Ihe vessel canlauiing Ihe solution Thenp]ur 
Ihe solution into Ihe batlery jai, until il is within 3 in of Ihe lop Thiead the wire lioldii^ 
llie zinc lluai^h the poicelainuisulalarof Ihe carbon cylinder and also tliraugh Ihe wire 
coiuiEclor Pull the zinc up as far as il willga and t^hlen Ihe lower lliumb screw so tliat 
ilholds the wire secure Place llie carbon in the jai If Ihe solution touches the zinc, 
same of il sliouldbe poured aul To deleinmie whelheroi not Ihe zinc is lauchedby the 
salulian, lake oul tlie caiban and lower Ihe sine If ilis wel, Iheie is loo much liquid in 
llie]ar The battery is now leadyfaruse 

To cause a flow of electricity, lower tlie sine iinlil ilalmosl touches Ihe baltom of the 
jar and conned anelecinc beJlorolher eleclncal apparatus by means of wires lo Ihe two 
bmrhi^ pcsls. 

Tlus batlery when first setup gives a cuiient of Eiboul two volls Ilis useful for 
iiumii^ uiduction coils, oi small electiic moloi's When Ihioi^h using the baltery, mise 
llie zinc and l^hlen Ihe lower thumb sciew This preh'ents Ihe zinc waslii^ away when 
no cuiienl isbeii^ used --ConlribuledbyH C P.1eyer, Pluladelphia 




/S\ -jW'ioTT 



■XI 

Diialla el Eiewanad* Bftiirr 

Fig 1 Deljuls nf HomeitiEide Battery 

D«or-OpFnFr far Furnaif [B]] 

The accampaiiyii^ diE^ieiu uhows an Einaii|eraeiil lo open the coal doaiof a 
fuiniice WhenappEDaching tlie fiuiiace wilh a sliovelful af coEilitis usnally necessary lo 
ie:3l llie sliavel on Ihe lop af the Pish ±ior, ivlule Ihe coal dooi isbeii^ opened Wilhniy 
device it IS only nee essaiyta press llie foal pedEd, which opsns Ihe doar After pulting in 
Hie coEil, pressing the pedal cloises Ihe door The pulley m Ihe ceJii^ mu'slbe placed a 
lilUe in fiont of Ihe door, inoidei la Ihiow Ihe doar open aflei lifting ilfioni Ihe catch A 
Iwge gale lui^e is used lo hold Ihe pedal Id Ihe floor — Conlnbutedby Edioard Whilney, 
Madison, Wis 




FaUuE Dinr OorCt^ 

Furnace Door Openei 

HoH la M^kt in EfBcienl Wirtku T«lcgr^h [34] 
ByGEORGEW RICHARDSON 

A simple bul veryefTicienl ivueleiss lelegiepli maybe conslrucledalsl^hl co^l fiam 
llie foUowiiig descnplion 

Tlie sending apparatus canjisls of nalhing bnl an indnchan cod wiiha telegraph key 
iiipeiled in the pnmaiy circuit, i e , Ihe batleryciicuit This apptiratua maybe purchased 
from Einy eleclncal-supply liouse The pnce of Ihe coil depends upon lis uise, Eindupon 
llie size depends Ihe dislEince signals cpinbe liansmitled If, liDwevei, ane uishes ta 
conslructhis awn cod he can make and use, wilh:;!^ lit charges, Ihe jDinp-spoik cail 



desciibed elueioheie ui llusbook This coil, beii^ a l-in coil, wall tiaiismit nicely up la 
a distance of one mile, while a l2-iii coil made on the SEime pkii will liansmil 20 miles 
ai even more imdei fffhTJiable CDnrhtiaiis 

Charge the coildesciibed^ as fallaws Insert an aiduiaiy Telegraph key in liie balleiy 
circuil, and attach two ismallpeces of wiie wilhabmsu ball on each, by inserlir^ lliem 
in llie bindir^-posls of the cail au slioivn at B B" Of these tivo termuial wiiei; one is 
giDunded to eaillv while the olhei wue is sent aloft Eind is called the aenEilline Tluu 
constitutes all theie lu to the isendir^ appiiatus 

Noio far the leceiving EipperBlus In the eaiher leceivii^ inslnimeuts a coheiei i^as 
used, consislii^ of a gloss tube aboul IfS-in diPimelei, in wluch were two silver pislana 
sepaiated by nickel andsilvei filii^s, ma pnitial vacuum This receivei was difficiiHof 
ad]ustmenl and alow in transmission An instnunentmnch less complicated and 
ineKpensive and wluch will work well can be made Ihus 

Tate a 5-cp incandesceni lamp and break off the tip at the dalted hue, as shown in 
Fig 5 This canbe done by givii^ the glass hp 01 point a qmckblaw with a file or alhei 
tlun edged pece of nielal Then wilhablow-toichheal Ihe broken ec^es until red hat 
and hini the ei^es in as seen inF^ 6 Remove the caibonfilamentm the lamp and 
bend the two small platinnm wires so lliey will point at eachothei as inF^ 6, WW 
liciew tlie lamp into anoidinary wall socket which will seive as abase as m Fig 1 
P.1ake a solution af I part sulphuric acid to 4 pails of water, and filltlie lamp aboul Iwo- 
tluids foil {Fig 7) Tlus will make ane:icellent leceivei Itwillbe necessaiy to adjust the 
platuium points, W W, to smt the dialance Ihe message is lobe worked For a mile or 
less liie pouils should be about Widin apart, and closer foi lai^ei distances 

Tlie tuiui^ call is sunplya vaiiable clioking coil, made af No I4uisulaled copper 
wiie wound on an nan care, »s sliownui Fig 7 After wiiuhi^, caiefuLy scmpe the 
insulation from one aide of the cail, ui a stra^hl hue from lop lo bottom, the full lei^th 
af tlie coil, unco^'eiir^jusl enaugh to allow a 




good contact for the sliding piece The timing is done byslidii^ the conlact 

piece, wluch is made of light cappei wue, along Ihe convolutions of Ihe tuning coil until 
you can liear Ihe signals Tlie s^nals are heard ui a telephone receiver, wluch is sliowii 
cannecled in shunt aciass tliebindir^ posts of Ihe laniphaldei with ane oi Iwo cells of 
diy battery in cue uit, F^ 7. 



;rTUVVIhE 



ft&WAL 
LINt 




F».l 



Fifr.J 



The Eieiialtine, No 5 sliRiided^ is nui froinbuidii^-pDslB tliiDi^li Ihe cliokiog di 
timuig CDil, and faibeslie suits should exiend up 5Q ft m Ihe an To waik h 20-mile 
distance the hue sliouldbe lOQ ai 150 £1 Eibove Ihe giauod A goad wnyis la erects 
wooden pole ana liouse orbani Eind CEiiiytlie Renal wiie lo tlie tap and out to Ihe end of 
a gaff DI ann 

To tlie end of tlie aeiial wue fEisten a bunch of endless loaps made of EiboulNa 14 
inagnetwue {bare DiuisulRled), attaching both ends to Ihe leading aiaeiial wise The 
aened wue should na I coine neEuei llian 1 fl Rt any point to EinyinetEJ iffluch is 
giQunded 

Run a ffue fioni the oHierbindii^ posl. A, lo tlie ground and be suie ta make h goad 
giaund coiuiection 

For simple eKpeiimenlnl waik an distances of IDO fl only, inordinary automobile 
speik CDil can be used in place of Ihe niaie elabaiate coil, F^s I to 4 

Tlie abave-nientioned inslruments have no patents an Iheni, andan^ne is at liberty ta 
build and use Iheni The wnlei does notclEiun la be the onguiatoi, butsunplyillusbates 
tlie above to sliow that, aflei all, wiieless is ^'eiy simple when, il is once understood Tlie 
fundamental pnnciples aie IhRlinducliDntiav'els at r^lit angles, PQ'*, to tlie diiectianof 
the cuiient For Ein lUustiatian, if a peii3onstanEhng on abiu^e should drop h pebble mto 
tlie water beloff, aflei contact lie would note circles rEtdiatu^ oul over tlie surface of Hie 
waler These circles, being Rli^hl angles, 90", to the diiectionof the force Ihol caused 
tlie circles, are analogous to the flaw of induction, and hence Ihe aeiialline, beuig 
vertical, transmils signals lionaantally ov-ei the earth's surface 

BtuwqxibrWaod Filltr [95] 

When filling nail lioLes iny^Uawpine use beeswa:! instead of putty, as itrnEilclies the 
color well 

How n Mnkf n Lath? [U] 



A small speed- latlie, smtable foi luniing wood or siiieJI me tpJ articles, maybe easily 
made Eilveiy bitle expsnse A lolhe of tins tindis shown intlie cut(F^ l),wliereAi5 
tlie hepidstock, B Ihe bed and C the tEulslock I runmylalhe by power, usir^ an electric 
motoi and counleishafl, but it could be runby foot power if de sued A large cone pulley 
would tlienbe lequued^but llusmEiybe made in Ihe same mamiei as the smollone, 
which will be described later. 




.1-- . V 4-1'- 



fitt? 




nw.i 



na 1 ri4.4 

Aiurmblri] Li(li« BeiI bdi] Brkriilt DntkiM 

Assembled Lathe Bed aiid Beaimg Details 

The bed of the maclime is made of wood as shown in Figs 2 aiid 3, liardwood beir^ 
prefeiable faillui; puipoise F^ 2 sliows Emend view of the aisisembledbed, aiidF^ 3 
shows howllie enrls Rie culoul to receive llie side pieces 

The heEidslDcti, F^ 6, is fastened to Ihe bedbymean; of canip^e baits. A, wlucli 
Ihiougha pece of i^ood, B, on Ihe underside of tliebed Tlie sliafi ismEide of 3y4-in 
steel tubii^ about I^Em tliick, aiidnm.^ ui babbitt beain^s, one of ivlucli is ?liownui 

Fie ^ 

To make tliesebeaniigs, cut a squace liole in the wood as shaivii^ making lialf of tlie 
sqiiaie meach lialf of Ihe bearing ^eptmile Ihe tita lialves of the bepini^ sl^hllyby 
placir^ a piece af caidboaidon eRch side,] list tauc lung the sliafi Tlie ec^es which 
touch Ihe sliafi sliouldbe notched like the teelh af a saw, so as to alloi* Ihe babbitt to iirn 
into Ihe loweihEilf af tlie bepmr^ The notches fortius purpose mEiybe about l^in 
ptchand l^in deep Ploce pieces af wood E^amstthe eiuls of tlie beani^ as shown at 
A ELiidB, Fig 4, and drill a liole mtlie lap of the bearing as shown mF^ 4 

The beEiring is llien leady la be poured Heal Ihe bobbiltwelL but not hoi enough lo 
bum it, and it is well lo have Ihe sliafi liol, loo, so Ihiil Ihe babbitt will not be dulled 
when il strikes Ihe shnfl If tlie shaft is llioroi^hlycluilbed or sinoked the babbitt will not 
stick lo it After pomii^, leinove Ihe sliafi Find sphi Ihe bearing with a round, tapered 
wooden pm If Ihe beaiii^ has been properly made, it will splil along die line of Ihe 
notched cardboard wheie the sechonof Ihe metal is smallesi Then diilla hole in Ihe lop 
as shown bI A, F^ 5, drilling just deep enough la liffh'e tlie paint of tlie diiU appear al 
tlie lower side This cpvily acts as an oil cup and prevenis Ihe bearing fiomrumung dry 

The bolts B (F^ 5) Eire passed Ihiai^ lioles mtlie wood and screwed mio nuls C, 
which are let mto lioles 




FIG 6 He adslock Details 



D, tlie holes aflerward beii^ filled with melted lead 
This type afbepinng will be fouiid'h'eiysalisfEictary Find maybe used to Pid^'Eint^e on 



alheiLoeclunes Aflei the beaiii^g Eiie campleled llie coiie pulley can be placed ontlie 
shpifl To make Ihis pulley cul lliiee cucuIri pecei; of ifloodla Ihe dimeiL'SiDLi? given in 
Fig 6 aiidfesleii tliese lagelhei wilhnaik and gLue If iiol perfectly liue, they maybe 
turned iipaflei aHembliiig.by iiggii^ i^ a tempaiaiy tooliest mtiantaf tlie lieadslack 

The tml stack (F^ 7) is faisteiiedtD Ihe bedm Ihe isame manner as Ihe lieadslock, 
eKcepI IhBl Ihiimb nuls Eue used on Ihe carnage bolls, thus aUowu^ Ihe lail slock lobe 
shifled when necessary The mechanism of Ihe cenlei holder is obtained by usu^ a 112- 
m 




ria.T 
FIG 7 Details of Tailstoct 



pipe. A, and el l^-in lock iiul, B, embedded in the wood 

1 found thai a ivooden lool-iesl ivas nolsRlisfacloiy, so 1 had lo buy one, butliiey are 
iiie:ipeiisi%'e and much handler than liomemade tool rest — Conliibutedby Donpild 
Ree\'e5. Oak Paik. Ill 

To Use Old Baittiy Zinti [87] 

When Ihe loweihnlf of abRlteiy zinc becomes eaten Rway Ihe lemaimi^ paitcanbe 
usedagEiinby suspendii^ il from a wue assliownm Ihe cut Be suie Eind have a good 
comiection at Ihe zinc binding post and cover Ihal wilii melted paiaffm This pievenis 
conasion^ wluch i^ould otherwise occiu fiom Ihe octiDn of Ihe sal PimniDniac or olhei 
chemical The wiit maybe held bI Ihe lop by twisling it around a pece of wood oi by 
dir/ii^ * F^E Ihioi^h the hole m the porcelam uisiiIelIoi --Contiibuled by Louis 
Laudeiboch, Newark, N J 




Sliowii^ Zmc Suspended 
C3lbrj'App»3chAlannE87] 



This Eilaim iii^s so llialcalleis appioechir^ tlie door maybe seen before they ring Ihe 
bell and one cane:ieicise his pleasiue about Eidmitlii^ lliem 

If one lias El wooden walk, tlie aLannis easy Id fiK up Take upaboul 5 fl of Ihe walk 



aiidnail il logellieiso a^ la make a Inipdooi Ihal will work easily Place a small spiii^ 
under one end Id haldil upaboul IMin (A, Fig 2) Nail a ship aflin along liie under 
:3ide of Ihe li'ap iieai Ihe upiii^ aiidfaslenaiiolliei islnpon Ihe basebopiri so Ihal Ihey 
willnol louclv SEive when a ^veightis an Ihe liap CDiuiecl up Etnetectiic bell, putting Ihe 
baltenes Pindbell anywhere desired, andusii^ rubber- co^'eied 



3 



Fia i 



Fhfl.* 



Alcm PJDiB Vl\rit CkP^r AfUrudtH 

Alami Ru^s When CaUei Appioaches 

wiie oulside Ihe house, and Ihe alannis complele. 

V/hena peison approaclm^ Ihe liouse ?lepg on Ihe hap, the bell will rii^ and Ihase in 
llie house canisee who ilisbefoie Uie doaibellnngs — Conhibutedby R. ^ Jocksan, 
P.1miieapolis, t%ui. 



EuyMfthadvfFlrcEnplniiiig [8S] 

Before paceeding Id eleclioplate withcoppei, siK-eror olhei inelal, clean Ihe articles 
llioiai^lily, as Ihe least spol of grease or dirt will prevenl 



EflTTEFflES 



UBSTITUTE 
PPER FOR 
DPPEP 

i^TIHS 




Elec Ira plating Appaialus 

tlie deposilfiom adliering Thenp]hsh Ihe articles and nib fliem over with a clolh Eiiid 
fine pumice poi^dei, to roughen Ihe surface shghlly FniEilly, to remove all traces of 
greEise, drptlie Eirticles lobe plated ui Etboihi^ p] lash solution made by diasolvu^ 4oz 
American ash in l-lf? pi of water Do not touch tlie work with the liands p^ain To 
avoid loiiclmig il, liang Ihe aiticles an Ihe wiies, by wluch they Eire lobe suspended m 
llie platii^belh, befaie dipping them m Ihe potash saiuhan, then liold them by Ihe wires 
under ninmi^ water foi len nunules to c ample lelyie move e^'eiy ti'ace af tlie potash 

For plalii^ wilhcopperpepere Ihe fbllowii^ solulion 4 oz coppei sulpliate 
dissolved in 12 oz waler, addslrong EimmamEL salulion until no more green cryslEils Eire 
preciplaled Then Eiddmore ammorua and stir until the green ciyslEJs are re-dissolved 
gping hii intense blue solution Add slowly a stioi^ solution of pDlassimn c^nide until 
llie blue caloi disEippears, leaving ei cleai solubon, add potassium c^iude agam, about 
ane-fouith eis much in bulk rs usedui Ihe decolonsu^ process Then niEike Ihe saluhan 



up la 2 ql with i*alei Willi oil eleclnc piessiue of 3 5 lo 4 veils, Ihii; will give Eine^'eii 
deposit of copper ontlie arhcle being plated 

A solution foralvei plating roEiybe pepeied Eis follows Dissolve 3/4 az af 
CDmmeicial silvei nitnile m 3 dz of WBtei, Eiiid ^lofflyadd h strong isolutioii of 
potpissiiuii cytLiude until no moie while preciplate is thiowndawii Then pom tlie hqmd 
afTEind washtlie preciptste caiefuUy This isbesldane by filLi^ tlie battle wilh walei, 
ishEilii^, allDwmg pieciptale la setlle Eiiid then pouni^ off the wnlei Repeat siz bmes 
Heving fiiU'shed ivaslimg the preciplate, islowlyadd lo it el salulion of potassiuni c^nide 
until all the precipilate is dissah'ed Then add an e:i cess of potassium cyiimie— about as 
much as i*a:3 used in dissolving the piecipilate— andniEile the solution up to 1 qt wilii 
watei Tlus solution^ with Pin eleclnc pregisuie of IT to 4vaits, wiH gp'e a good while caol 
of silvei in twenly minutes to half-an-lioui, use 2 volls foi large Riticles, and4vGltg fbi 
veiy small ones If more solutionis required, it is only necessaiy to double eJI given 
qiianti.tie:3 

Before silver plating, :3uchmelals f\s uoii, lead, pewlei, zinc, mu3tbe coated wilh 
capper m the altaline copper balh described, and then tieated a^ coppei Onbra^s, 
capper, Gennanisilver, mckel and such inetnls, silver cru be plated duect The deposil 
af silver will be dull Find must be palished Tlie best inetliod is to use a revolving sciatch 
biush, if one does nolpassess abiifiii^ machine, a hand scralch brush is gaod Tate 
qmck, hglit:3tiokes Polish the articles finally with ordinary plole powder 

The sketch ishow:; haw to suspend Ihe Riticles m llie platuig-bath If accumulators aie 
used, which IS advised^ be sure to connect the positive (oi red) tetminal to the piece of 
:3ilvei hai^ii^ m the balli, and Ihe negative (oiblRck) lermmnl la the arlicle ta be plated 
V.'heie Buiisen cells are used, llie carbon terminal takes the plRce of the positive termuial 
af the Eiccmuulator — Pvbde I Ermine ei 



Anlngmious Eleitru Loihibr a SMing Door |S9] 

Tlie appeiatu3 shown mF^ I not only milacks, butapens Ihe daor, also, by simply 
piessir^ the key m the kejiiole 

In iigging it lo a sLidii^ door, the maleriEilsrequiied Eire Tliree flal pulley, Pinotd 
electiic bell oibuszer, Eiboul 25 ft of clothesline lape and some No ISwue The 
woodencEitch, A ^F^ 1}, inustbe Eibaul 1 in Ihick 




Bltlrlc l4ck br BlLHiiDH Door 
Electric Lock forSlidii^ Doai 



aiidS m long,B should be of the same wood, ID m loi^, wilhtlie pvot2 m from the 
loweiend The waodenblock C, which is lieldbycatchB, Canbe made of a 2-m [oece 
afbioomstick Drill a liole through the center af tlus block foi Ihe lops to ptiss tlirough, 
and fEisten il la tlie rope with h httle tiie lape 

Wlienall litis is setup, assliownm Fig I, make a key and keyliole A iy4 m boltoi h 
lEirge nail sharpened to h point, as EilF, F^ 3, will serve foi Ihe key To provide the 
ke^iole, saw a piece of wood, I, 1 m Ihickby3 m square. Find bore h liole lo fit tlie key 
in Ihe center Make a somewhat laigei block (E, Fig 3) of Ihm wood with a 1/E-ui hale 
mitscenlei Onoiie side aftliia block lack a piece of lm(K, Fig 3) directly aver Ihe 
hole Screw Ihe two blacks logetlier, being careful to bring Ihe holes oppasile each 
othei Tlien, when Ihe pomi of Ihe key touches the liii, Riid tlie laigerparKF, F^ 3) 
stiikes Ihe bent wire L, a circuit is compleled, Ihe buazei knocks CRlch A (Fig I), which 



nse:3 attlie op|B:3i1e end Find allows catch B to fly foiwAid flndieleflse Ihe piece of 
biaomstict C Tlie weight D llienfEills andjeik^ up the hook-lock Pvl, winch unlocks the 
dooi, EiTui die heaviei we^hlN miiiiediately opens il 

Thus, wilh h switches inF^ 3, Ihe dooi canoiilybe opened by Ihe psisDD who hiis 
die key, for Ihe cuciul caniiDtbe cloised withanoidmaiy iiail Di wue B, F^ 3, sliows 
catch B, F^ 1, enlniged, 0, F^ IT, is llie cuttluDugh wliich Ihe rope nuis.H, F^ I, is 
an elastic IhEil snaps die catch back mio place, Eind at G Ihe wues nmouliside to llie 
keyliole 

Tlu:3 anar^eiiieiitL3 very convenient when one m cairyii^ somelhir^ in one hnnd and 
cpin only use the otiiei Clo:3u^ die doDi winds up the apparatus agam — Conlribuledby 
E H Ehpstem, I Ifl Praapecl ^t, EaslOrai^e, New Jersey. 

Parlor Magif for WinlfrEYHiinEspO] ByC H CLAUDY 

Vou ore sealed m a perloi bI night, with Ihe l^liti; turned low In fioni of ^^u^belween 
the piirloi and the mom back of it, is an upight scpiaie of br^htlybuimng l^hti;, 
suirounding a perfectly black space Tlie magiciEin staruls infiant of llus, in his shiil 
sleeves, and Pifler a few words of introduction poceeds to show Ihe wonders of his 
magic cave 

lihowiiig ^u plauily that both hand? are eniply, he pomts wilhone finger to Ihe box, 
where immediately appe bis ei small wlute cluiia bowl Holding lus empty hand o^'ei llus 
bowl, some oimiges and apples diap from his empty hand uito the bowl He lemoves the 
bowlfiom the block boz, or cave, Eiiid hnnds its conlenia round to Ihe oudience 
Receivu^ Ihe bowl agpiin, he tosses ilinto the cave^bulil never reaches the floor- it 
disappeais ininidau 

Tlie illusions he shows youaie too niEiiiy to letad al length Objects appeal Eiiid 
diaappeai Heavy melal objects, such as forks, spoons andjackkiuves, wluch have been 
sliown to the audience and which can liffh'e no strings Bltached to Ihem, fly aboul in die 
box at the will of the operator One thing clianges to another and back p^ain. Find black 
ait leigns supreme 

Now Pill this "magic" is veiy smiple and lequires no more skill to pepere oi execute 
tlian Piiiy clever boy or girlof fouileen may possess It is baaed on the perfonnance of 
tlie fpimous Hermann, Pind relies on a pinciple of optics for lis success To prepare such 
a magic cave, the requisites aie a laige sopipbaK, a few simple tools, some block paint. 
some black cloth, and plenly of candles 

Tlie box must be alleied firsi One eiidis removed, and a sLt, one-tlurdof the lenglh 
from the lemaimi^ eni cul in one side This sht should be as long as the width of the 
box and about frve inches wide On either side of the box, half wpiyfiam open end to 
closed end, should be cut a hole, just laige eiioi^h to comfortably admit a hand Eind Pinn. 

Nexl, the box should be |HintBd block both uiside Pind out, and fuially lined mside 
wilh block cloth Tins hiiuig must be done neatly-no folds musi show and no hepids of 
tocks The mienor must be o dead black The boK is painted black fust so that tlie cloth 
used neednolbe veiy heffh'y, bul if the cloth be sufficiently tliick, no peintii^ inside is 
lequired The whole inside is to be cloth-lmed, flooi, top, sides ond end 




Nexl, tlie lUuminpilion in front must be anai^ed If you can liave a plumber make you 
a square fiame of gas-ppii^, with tuiy holes all eQoi^ it for the gas to escape and be ht, 
and connect tliis by means of a rubber tube to Ihe gpis mtlie liouse, so much Ihe better, 
but a plentiful supply of slia it candles will do just as well, although a little nioie liouble 
The candles must be close together and anangedon htlle brackets aiaiind tlie whole 
front of the "cffh'e" {see small cut), Eind should have Ltlle peces ofbnghl tmbehind 
tlieni, to llirowthe hght toward Ihe audience. The whole function of these candles is to 
dazzle the eyes of die spectators, he^htenthe illusion, and preveni them seeing very far 
into the blackbox 



Filially, ^u iiiusl liavc eui asaplEinl, ivlio must be pnTvided willi eilliei bkct glD\'es or 
black bags to go avei luu haiidu Eind anus, aiid se\'eiiil bkct diop ciulaiiia, attached la 
:3ticks gieolei inlei^lh limn llie widlli af the box, which are letdown Ihioi^li the sktin 
tlie tap 

The ELiidience loam ishDuld hove only laiv l^lits.tlie laoiii ivlieie tlie cave is should be 
dark, aiidif y]u cendidpe poitieres between tioo roams around the bax (which, of 
CDUise, IS ana table) so much the bettei 

The whole secietof Ihe tnck lie:3 ui Hie feet tliat if light be limiedawiiyfiom aiiylliiiig 
black, mta the eyes af him who loot:;, the much famteil^hl reflected from Ihe black 
isiuface will iiot aiTect tlie obseiuei'i; eye Cansequently, if, when the e^hibitoi puts his 
liand m the CEive, his confederate behind insert:; his liarui caveied with a black glove 
andhaldmg n ismallbag af black clotli, m wluch Rie omi^eg and apples, andpouis them 
from the bp^ uilo a dish, the audience sees Ihe amiiges and apples appear, but does not 
gee tlie black arm and bog pianist the black boctgiaimd 

The dish appeEiii3 by liavii^ been placed in position behind a block cuitmn, wluch is 
sniilc lied swiftly away at the piapsi mamentby Ihe assislant Any Rilicle thiownmla tlie 
cove and coughtby the black liand Find cancelled by a block clalh seems la disappeai 
Any abject nal lao laige con be made to "levilate-by the same means Apiclure of 
aiiynne peseni maybe made to chaise mlo a gniming skele ton by suddenly screeiung it 
with a dropped curtaui, wlule analhercuitamis swiflly lemaved from avei a pasteboard 
skeleton, wluch can be made to dance eithei by shii^s, or by Ihe black veiled liand 
lioldu^ onto it frombehini and Ihe skeleton con chaise ta h while cat 

Bnl illusions suggest themselves Tliere is no end lo tlie effecis wluch can be hod from 
tins simple appaietus, and if tlie operolois are suiTiciently well drilled the result is tinly 
lemarkable to the luumtiated The illusion, es presentedby HermEinn, was identical wilh 
tins, only he, of course, had iibig stE^e, Eind people dollied ui black to cieep abouland 
do hisbiddu^, while heie the powei belund the tlirone is but a black-veiled liand Eind 
aim It can be mpide even more complicated by lurking two assislants, one on enchside 
af tlie boK, and llusis Ihe leasan why it was advised tliattwo holes be cut This enables 
an pbsolutely instantaneoiis cliange es one uncaveis Hie object al Ihe mamenltlie second 
assislant covers and lemaves Ihe allier 




Tlie Mj^ic Cave 



riLS uiiportant that the assistants remain invisible tliroughout, and if poitieres are 
impossible, a screen must be used But anybayu^eiuous eiioi^h to fallow these suitple 
inshuclians wiL not need ta be lold tliat tlie wliole success of tlie e:ilubition depends 
upon the absolute failuie of the audience la understand that theie is moie than one 
concerned uibnr^mg Rbontthe cuiious effects which are seen Tlie exlubitar should be 



aboy wlio can lalk, a good "patler" —as Ihe iimgiciaos call it— is aflenof iiiDie value 
lliaii a 'niiole hasl of iiieclianical effects and liel|Kis Ilis e^^ulial that the e:ilubi.lDr aiid 
Ins coiifedeiate be well drilled, so Ihiil Ihe latter celh produce the proper effecis at the 
prapei cue fiam llie fonuei Finally, never gp'e an eKiiibiliDn with the "ca\'e" until ^^u 
liave walchedthe iUusidos fiam tlie fioiit youiself , so tliatyoucan deteiinine i^helhei 
everytlm^ connected with the di'apuig isi^hl, ai whethei same istraybil of l^hlievcHls 
what ^n wi:3h to conceal 

RflfCTsing- Switch ibz ElKtzualEjqitrimFnti |92] 

A lioineiuade iFh'eisii^-swilcli, :3uitable foi iiseby :3tudeiit:3 of eleclncal and 
ei^ineeiii^ courses in peifonning expeiinienls, is sliownm the diagram 



\ 






' 


^^^g^ 










w 






/ /Vi' 


o 

F 


L 


) ) 






\ V-^ 













* ^-^^^ OK ^^^ 


-^ 




^ 




r.i, E 




■^ 




■ 




FIG 2 Smlable forljtudeiits' Use 

Refemng to F^ I, A lepiesents a pine board 4 in by 4 in aod b is a cuculai pece of 
wood about 1/4 in squaie, withtluee brass istiips, bl, b?, b3, held dawn anitby Iwo 
terminals, oibuidii^ post:;, cl, c2, Riida camnian sciei*, d Po^l cl is connected la dby 
means of an msulated ffue, makir^ them cany llie same tiiid of cuiient (+ m the 
Bkelch) 

Aboul the center pece H moves b disk, held dawn by anathei disk F (F^ ?}, niuchis 
fastened llirough the center jmece to Ihe woadenbase. A, bymeait; of two ivaodsciews 
On the disk G Eue tiw] brass stiips, el aiide2, so aiiEir^ed Ihol, i*hen handle K is tiuiied 
to one side, their ane end just shps under the strip; bl,b2, aib2,b3, lespectively, 
making conlaci with Iheni, assliownin Fig 3, atL, i*hile then olliei ends shde ui twa 
liaif-circular brass plates £1, C, held down an disk F by two other terminals, c3, c4, 
making conlaci i^ilii Ihem as shawn at y Fig 2. 

The Bclionof Ihe switch is shaifii inF^ I Connect terminaLc I to Ihe carbon af a 
baltery, aiidc2 to Ihe zinc Then, if yDU luni lianrlle K to Ihe light, so that the sinps el 
aiide2 touchbl aiidb2, respectively, teiiniiiaLc3 will sliow-l-. Find cl - eleclncity, vice 
verso, if ynu tiuii the handle to the leflso lliatel aiide2 touch b2 andb3, respeclrvely, 
terminal c3 will show- , and c4 +electiicily 

Tlie swilch IS easy lo make ondofveryneEilappeaiance 



How la R«fht Wireless TtlFgr^hMt:«sagt:« wilha Tfkplioiit |92] 

Any telepliane having caibon in the Iransmitlei (all oidinaiy tele jiiones liave CEirbon 
transmitters) can be used to leceive wiieless messages by siroply niEikii^ a few charges 



in llie CDiuiectioiis aiid pioviduig h :3uilEible ELiileima Coiinecl Ihe liaiisniitler aiid 
leceivei indues with Ihiee diy cell:; end iiiii one wiie fioiii Ihe bEuismittei lo Ihe 
aiileiina Coiuiecl Ihe alheitiaiismiltei wue lo a walei aigEis ppe inoidei la giauiid it, 
aiid Ihenhald the receiver Id y^ui epu Any wireless lelegiepli inesisage wilhuia mdius 
af one iiule will cause tlie trarwrnitlei lo act eis b caheiei, thus mahing tlie me^sE^e 
audible in Ihe leceivei 

Byu'311^ an aidineiy tele phone tiansmiltei and leceiv'eianda 1^2-111 jmnp^pnik 
CDil, a complete wiieless lelegniph statian maybe made, wluch will send or leceive 
nieggages foi a mdius of one mile The accompanyu^ wuuig diagmm shows hawta 
make the camiections By piitluig man eKtia swilch three of the isendu^batlenes may 
be switched m when leceivir^, llius obviatuig the iiecesisityofEui extra setofboltenes 
ContiibuledbyA E Joenn 




Wintig Diagram for Wireless Telegiaph 

C«iuie(ting Up Batteries to Gne Any Voltage [93] 

Referring to Ihe illustiation A is a five-pomlswilch (maybe liomemade) , B is a one- 
point switch, aiidC and CI are buidii^ pasis Wlien switch B is cloised and A is anNa 
1. 




^u liave the current of one battery, ^liien A isonKo 2 ]fflu receive the conent from 
two batteries, wlien anNa 3, fiom tliree battened, when anNo 4, tram fourboltenes, 
and wlienonNa i, fioni five batteries Pvfcre battenei; maybe camiected to each point 
af switch B 

I lia'h'e been using tlie same method for my watei rheostat (liomemade) I liave tlie jais 
af walei where tliebatlenes are and the current comir^ uiala andb — Contribiitedby 
Ei^eiie F Tuttle, Jr, Newwk, Ohio 



A Sin^lt Acctbronuttr J9J] 




A simple acceleiDinelei for indicating Ihe increase ui ?peedof a Imiii was described 
byMr A P Trotlerma paper lead before Ihe JmuailiisliluliaiiofEi^uieeisof Great 
Bntam The device caiisnsls of anoidiomy 2-fl' rule. A, ifilha piece of Ihiead lied to tlie 
33-m mark, as shown in Ihe sketch, and suppaiting the small i^eight, B, ivluch maybe a 
button Diothei sniEillab]ecl 

The device Ihus pjiai^ed^ and plnced on. Ihe windowsillDf Ihe car, willmdicEile Ihe 
acceleration Find retaidRliDn as follows Every 1/!! in. traveled by Ihe Ihiead, ovei Ihe 
bent porlion of Ihe lule, indicates RnuicieEise of or decrease af velocity to the extent afl 
ft per second far eRch second Thus, ittlie llueEidnio^'ed 2-lM in ma due c lion opposite 
to Ihe movemenl of Ihe tiaiii, then Ihe tiain would be incieasuig its speed at the lale of 4- 
1^ £t pel second 

If tlie llueEid IS lied otthe 17-m maik, then each half inch will represent Ihe mile per 
lioui uicrepise foi each second Thus if the tine Eid moves I m, it shows that Ihe tmmis 
gaming 2 miles an horn each second 

A]iE^-ShcllFuimtl[93] 

Botlles liffhing small necks are hiird to fill without spilling Ihe hqiud A flinnel connot 
be used m El small opemi^, and pouiing with h grEidiinte glass leqmies a steady liaiid 
When^u do not have a graduate athEind, a half egg-sliell with a sniEill liole pnckedm 
tlie end willseivebetlei limn a funnel Place Ihe shell man oven to brown Ihe suiface 
sl^hlly Find il will be lessbntde and last much longei -Conhibutedby PvlRunce Bau- 
dier. New Orleans, La 

Handy Ekilric Abrm [94] 

Aneleclnc alEuin wluch one maytunioff tiam the bed without aiisir^ combined with 
a l^hl wluch maybe Imiiedon and off from h lyu^ position, so one can see the bnie, is 
tlie device of H E Redmond, of Burhi^ton, Wis 
Tlie Edarm clock lesls on a shelf. A, 




Hmiy filgcirlc hlann 

Hfliidy Elecbic Alami 



which Ims a pece of melal, B, fastened in such, fl poaliaii Ihiil Ihe melalnjdC, soldered 
to Hie alami wjoder, will complete tlie cucuif and img Ihe bell The two-pauil swilch D 
IS closed iiomiEJly EilE, butiaaybe closed alF anytime desued, llius luimng ontlie 
smell mcEindescent light G, niuch lUimiinales the fRce of Ihe clock Wlienihe aLaim 
goes off, the bell will conlinue lo rmg imQl tlie switch is npened 

To Kftp Da^ and Cats Avfmj &ani Ihe G^rb^^-Cin [94| 

Lastsunimecl wrs anna^ffid a gieal deal by dags upeetling qui gaibage CEinon the 
Ibwii^ but Sonlly exec nled h plan fliatiid Ihe yaid of Ihemin one afleinaDn 

I fust seemed a niRgnelo aiitof anoldteleplione, Ihen diove a spite ui a damp place 
uiidei the porcli, attached a wiie to Ihe spite aiidian Ihe wiie la one of Ihe poles af the 
magneto Then! set Ihe gEiibage-can du some blocks afwood^ being cacefiilQal la have 
il lanchtlie ground at any poml I ne^liane wiie Sam Ihe olher pole of the 




magneto lo Ihe can, wiajping tlie wiie aroiuidtlie can several limes Then I sal dawn an 
tlie paich lo wbiI 

It was not long before a big gie^^und came alai^, pulling Ins foiepaws an Ihe lop af 
tlie canto upset it At Ihe same inslanll gave Ihe magneto a quick turn, which sent Ihe 
dog awaya veiysiupiisedamnial Tins was repealed several limes dunng Ihe afternoon 
with other dogs, and with the same lesoll — Cantnbuled by Gordon T Lane, Ciaflon, 
Pa 

How to Cro:«:« a Stn^nn on 3 Log [94] 

Whenciossmg a watei coiiise ana fence lailai small log, da not face up or down Ihe 
stieani and walk side wa^, for a wetluig is Ihe inevitable lesull Instead, fix the eye an 
llie opposile share and wait steadily for waid Then if a misliap comes, yau will fall with 
aiie leg andaim enciicling Ihe biu^e — C C S 



Rtimy MadF &on El«irk Btll [94| 

II Ls nolneceHELiy lo reniDve tlie adjustir^-^crewivhencliaiigu^ an electnc bell inlo a 
relEiy limiply twnstitaiouiidas at A aiidbeiidtlie cucml-bieakmg contact back a? 
ishDwii It maybe necessary la leinove the lieadof the screw. A, Id pre\'eiilshait- 
cucuilmg wilhtlie aniiatuie --Canlnbntedby A L Macey, NewVoikCily 




Foundry WortatHomf [95] 
Tlie Equipment PJJ 

Mpiny amaleui mechanics wlio require small metal castii^s in then work loould like 
Id mpike tlieu owncastmgs This CEineasilybe done at lioine willioul gaing Id 
any gieal eKpense, and the vane ty and usefulness Df llie ailicles poduced will mpike Ihe 
equipneni a goad investment 

Wilh Ihe episily made devices about lobe described, tlie yoimg meclianic can make liia 
own lelegrapli key^ and saunrieia.baltery zmcs, binding posts, ermines, camiaiis, 
beaiings, small machine lyptiits, models and miniatme abjecis, ornaments of various 
kinds, and duplicates af all lliese, and many olher uileiesting and useful Eirlicles 

The fuisl tlui^ la make is a molding bencli, as shaivii mF^ I II is possible to make 
maids witlioul b bench, bul it is b mistake lo tiy to do tlus, eis Ihe sand is suie to gel on 
llie flaor, whence iIls soan liEickedinlo the house The bench will also mpike the 
apemtian af inoldir^ much easiei Eind will prove lobe a greal conveiuence. 

The bench sliouldbe made of lumber about I m Ihick andshauldbe constructed m 
llie form af a lioi^li^ as sliawn Twa cleats, AA, sliouldbe nailed la llie fiani and back 
lo support tlie cross-boards, BE, which m turn support Ihe mold wlule il is being made 
The object of using llie cleols and lemavable cross-boaids instead af a slalianaryshelf is 
lo give access ta Ihe sand, C, wlien il is being pcepaied 

Abaul one or two cubic feelof fuie moldu^-SEind will be required, which may, be 
purchpised ottlie neaiestfoundiy fai a sniEill sum Yellow send will be found a httle 
better foi Ihe amaleui's woik Ihpin Ihe black SEind geneially used inmasl foundries, but if 
no yellawsand CEinbe oblained Ihe black kind will do. If tliere is na foundry 





Fig. ] - Convenient Anangenientof Beiicli and Tools 



iicai Ell hand, liy usii^ amd fiDiii other :30iJicea, giv'ing preference lo the fuiestuandand 
llial which cimga logelheiin a cpile when compressed be tive en Ihe hands Cammanlake 
airi^'eisand is not suitable for Lie puipose, as it is too caai'se and will not make a goad 
mold 

For mixing and preparing the sand a uinall shaveL D, Eind a sieve, E, will be required 
If desued the sieve maybe liomeniEide Ordinaiy wue nelting uuchai; is used m screen 
doar:3, IS about the r^hl niesli, and llus, npuledta replace thebaltoni of a bo:!, make:; a 
very good sieve 

Tlie mniniei, F, is made of wood, Eind is wedge- uliaped oloiie end and flatatliie 
alher, eie isliown In foundnes eBchmoldei generally uses two laminers, bulfartlie snipJl 
wor^: which wiLbe dEsciibed one will be sufficient An old teaspoon, G, will be found 
useful m the moldii^ operations and maybe hung an Ihe wall or alher caiiveme ill place 
when iial muse 

Tlie clalhbag, H, which can be meide of b knilted sloctii^, is fJled ivilhc oaldust; 
which IS used foi a partii^ medium ui making Ihe maids Tate a smEiU lump of sofl coal 
and reduce lo pawderbypauiuhi^ licieen autall Ihe coarse pieces Eind put the 
lemaindei mtliebag A sl^lit shake of Ihe 




F^ 2 - Hanieniade Flask 

avei Ihe mold^nll then cause a claud af caEil-dusI lo fEill an it, thus preventing tlie two 
layeis of sandfiam sticking, but llus opemlian will be desciibedmore fully lalei on. 

The flask^ J, Fig 1, is shaini more clearlym Fig 2 Ilis made of waod aiidis ui Iwa 
lialves, tlie "cope," oruppei half, and Ihe "diag," ar lower pail A good ivay lo make tlie 
flask IS lo take a bo^:, say 13 ui by E in by d m lugh, and saw it m lialf lar^itudinally, 
as shown If tlieba^: is iiol veiyslrong, Ihe comers should be braced with liiai^iilai 
woaden stiip;, A A, ivhich should be nailed in, previous lo sawir^ The wooden stiips 
BB are used la liold Ihe sand, i*hich would olherwise slide out of llie flask wlien the two 
lialves of tlie mold aie separated 

The dowels, CC. aie a veiy unparlani pari of Ihe flask as upon them depends the 
inatchir^ of Ihe two lialves of the mold A we i^e-shapsd piece, CC, is nailed lo each 
end of Ihe cope, and Ihe lower pieces, DD, aie Ihen nailed an Ihe drp^ so llial Iheyjusl 
louche when the flask is closed The li*o hah'es of Ihe flask will tlie n occupy ezaclly 
llie same relative position whene'h'er they aie pul together 

After the flask ls daiie make two boards ns sliownalK, F^ 1, a htlle larger than Ihe 
aulside of Ihe flask A couple af deals nailed to each board will make it easier to pck 
up Ihe mald^iiien ilis on the floar 

A cast-nan glue -po I makes a veiy good crucible farmelbi^ Ihe metal, wluch can be 
either aluminum, while metal, sine oi any alher metal liaving a low inelbi^-pouil This 
completes Ihe eqmpineul wilhUie exception af one oi two simple devices which will 
iiowbe desciibed 



II - Hdw lo Make a Mold \95[ 



Havii^ finished inakmg Ihe fTaisk aiidolhei equipiieiil, eis described, eveiytlui^ will 
be leEidy for the opsralionof moldii^ It would be well foi tlioae wlio have never liEid 
any experience mtlus line ta vnsita sinallbiaiss faundiy, wheie they can watch Ihe 
ntoldeig al work, as it is mucheasieito leamby obseivEitiDn, but tliey must not e^pecllo 
inake a goad maid at the fiisl liiEil The fiiist attempl usually ie:3ult:3 m the sand dioppi^ 
autof the cope i*hen it is being hfled fioni Ihe diRg, either because af uisufficient 
lanmong EiiDund Ihe ei^es oibecEiuse Ihe SRiidis tao diy 

A good way to tell when Ihe sand is moist enai^h is to squeeze it mtlie hand If il 
foims mtD h cake andsliaws eJI tlie fmger-maiks, ithns a sufficient antount of moisluie, 
but if it cmmbles oi faiLs la cpile it is toa diy Anoidinaiy waleni^-pal will be found 
useful ui ntaisteiung Ihe sand, but CEue sliouldbe tEiten not to get iltao wet, Ditlie hal 
metEJcamir^ m conlact with it when the inoldis pauied will CRUse such lapid 
evapomliDn llial Ihe mold will "boil" and make a poor ceisIu^ A liltle pactice m this 
apeiation wiUsoan enable Ihe moldeito detennine Ihe coiiecl amount of moisture 

When inoldii^ with sand for the firsi lune it willbe necessary ta scieen itallbefoie 
using il, in Older to leniave the liunps, and if watei is adEled, Ihe sandshauldbe 
tlioiai^lJy shD\'eled until the maistuie is evenly distributed The sand is tlien ready fai 
molding 

The operation of makuig a maid is as (bllows The loweihalf of Ihe flEisk, or "diag," 
and Ihe patlem la be molded are both placed on the co^'eiboEiid as shown oi A A 
quanlityof SEind sufficient to completely cove i Ihe pattern is then sifted mto the diag, 
which Ls Ihen filled level with the top with unscieened sand Tins ls mmnied down 
sl^hlly wilh tlie mmniei, Eiiid then moie sand is added until 



jStu. 



.^ 




^^ ■M^;'^^; 



^ 






s#'a/-j: 



. ■ . - .!— . 





Tig. S— UflhlnH B Hold 




Fig 3-IMat]iig a fv^ld 



it becomes heaped up as shawii Rt B It is tlien rammed agpiin as be foie 
It IS impossible to desciibe just liaw liaida mold sliouldbe rammed, but by observing 

tlie results the beginnei can tell iiiien h mold is tao haidoi tao sofi, Eind tlius]udge foi 
liimself If the sand falls oul of the flask when lifting tlie cope, aiif itapens upoi 
spiepids Pifter it is poured, itshaws llial Ihe mold lias been lammedtao hitle, and if Ihe 
suiface of Ihe sandneKtto the pelteni is cracked it shows tlut the mold has been 
lammed lao haid It wiL be found tliat the ei^es of the mold can stiind a liltle more 
lamming than the middle Infinishii^ tlie mnimu^, pound evenly all o\'er Ihe surface 
with Ihe blunt end of the rammei 

Aflei rELmmir^, scrope off tlie surplus SEUid with a strEi^ht-edgedshct, as sliownatC, 
andscattei aboul 1/ifl m af loose sand o^'eithe surface foi a goodbepiiir^ Place 
anothei cover board on top, as sliownatD, aiidby giaspu^ with both liaruls, as shown, 
turn Ihe drp^ othei side up Remo\'e tlie uppei co^'ei board Eind place llie uppei lialf of 
tlie flask, oi "cope," m position, as sliownatE 

In order ta prevent Ihe twa layeis of SEind shcking togethei, the sm&ce of Ihe sand at 



E should be covered wiih coal-dust Tlu:3 is done by sliaku^ liie coel-duslbeg ovei Ihe 
flask, aflei wlucli Ihe dust on Ihe palteni maybe le moved by bio wing The cope is llien 
filled with sand and rammed inexactly Ihe SEinie maiinei eis in Ihe cpise of llie diag 

After Ihe [Pimniing is done a niimbei of vent lioles oie made, as shown at F, from Ihe 
ismface of Ihe mold Id Ihe palteni, inordei lo allow Ihe escape of an Piiid isteam when Ihe 
mold 1:3 being poiiied These vent lioles niEiybe made by puslmig h wiie about the size of 
a kmtlii^-needle down llirai^h Ihe isaiid until il louches the pnlteni The "spine," or 
pouni^-liDle, isnexicut, by ineELiisof Ihe spine -cullei shown bI Ihe right, wluch consisis 
of a piece of Ihm brass or ^teeltiibu^ about 314 m in diameter 

Now comes Ihe cntical pari of the moldu^ o|KrE[lion— tliRlof hflir^ tlie cope from Ihe 
diag It IS here tliatihe amaleui oflen becomes discouraged, as tlie SEindis liable lo fall 
out of the cope Riid spoil tlie n[old,bul wilh a hTlle piaclice and patience Ihe luoldei can 
liO Ihe cope every lime witlioul breaking il, es sliownatG 

The next opeiationis that of culling Ihe gRle, which CRines the molten melal fiom Ihe 
spine lo the opening left by Ihe peTteni Tlusisdone with a spoon, a channel beu^ cat 
about 3Mm wide Riidabout iy4 in deep The peltem is then drRwii from Ihe mold, as 
shoivii Eit H, by dnvu^ a shaippomled steel rod into Ihe pflTteni Riid lifting it from Ihe 
sand Wlienamelal pattern is used a tlueRdrDdis used^ wluch is screwed mio a la^fKd 
hole m Ihe petleni Before drawu^ it is well lo lap the drRwir^-rod l^litly wilh anotlier 
andlaigei rod, sinking itm Eilldirec lions and Ihiis loosenu^ the sandsl^hllyfiom Ihe 
pflltem liome molders lap the pattern gently when willidrawir^, as shown at H, m order 
to loosen anysand which has a tendency to slick 

After drawing the pattern, place the cope back on tlie drag, as sliownat J Ploce a 
buck or other flat, lieav-y object on lop of Ihe mold above Lie pattern, lo pie\'entlhe 
piessuie of Ihe melted metal septiraluig tlie two lialves of the mold. Find tlieii pour 

111- Melius fliid Poum^ [93] 

Heivu^ pieptiredone or more molds, the ne si operation ls thotof mellir^ and 
poirni^ An ordiiiEiry casl-uon glue -pot makes a good cmcible and can be easily 
hEindledbya pati of loi^s, made out of steel rod, assliownm Ihe sketch Inordei lo 
hold Ihe toi^s logelhei a sniRll link can be slipped on ovei Ihe handle, Ihiis lioldu^ the 
cmcible secuiely 

A second piece of steel rod be nim the foini of a hook at Ihe end is veiy useful for 
supporting Ihe weight of the crucible andpre\'eiits spilling the molten inelRl should the 
tongs shpolf Ihe cmcible Tlie hook is also useful for lemovmg Ihe cmcible fiaiu tlie 
fire, which should be done soon after Ihe metal is entirely melted^ m order lo prevent 
overheRluig The melal sliouldbe pouied mto Ihe moldm h small stream, to give llie air 
a chance to escape, and sliould not be pomed directly mto Ihe center of the opening, as 
tlie melal will then strike Ihe bottom hard enough lo loosen Ihe SRiid, thus making a diity 
casting 




F^ 4 -Poiinr^ the Metal 

If, afleibeu^ poured, Ihe moldspulters and emits laige volumes of steam, ilsliows 

tliatdie sand is loo wet, and Ihe castings msuch cases will pobablybe miperfect Eind 
full of lioles. 



A inoldmede in the inamiei previously deisciibed maybe pouied wiUi any desued 
inetEil, butEL inetal iffluch is eaaly iiielled wiligR'e tlie least liDuble One of tlie eaisiesi 
inetals la inelland one winch makes veryatlnictive casbngs is puie lui Tin melts at el 
temperaluie sl^lilly Eibave Ihe melius poinl of solder, and^ allhough soincMiiat 
e:ipeiisi%'e, tlie psimaiienlbnglibiess EindsiK'er-lite appeaiEmce af the casing:; is'v'eiy 
desiiable A goad "iwhile melal" inaybe niadebyiiii:img 75% tin, 15*/* lead, 5% sine 
and 5% anliniany The abject of Eiddir^ anbmany to an alloy is to pievent sluiiJiELge 
when cooluig 

A veiy economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal, bpibbitl, botteiy 
zincs, lolule metal and othei sciap available, andaddii^ a htlle Eintimony if Ihe melal 
sluinks tao much mcaoling If a gaod fninace is available, aluminum can be melted 
without any difficulty allhough tins melal inella at a higher temperaluie tlian any of the 
me lab peviously menlianed 

In casting zincs foibaHeries a sepeiEile cmcible, used only for zinc, is veiy desirable, 
as tlie piesence af a'h'eiy small Eimountof lead oialheiimpunly will cause the bolteiies 
to polarize A very good way to make the binding posts is to leniove Ihe bmdii^ posts 
from warn-out diy batteries Eiiid place tliem mtlie molds in such a way tliat tlie melted 
zinc will flow around them 

The time required for a casting to solidify vanes wilhllie size and shape af the 
CEislii^, but unless the pattern is a'h'eiy large one obautfive inmules will be ample lime 
for il to set The casting is Ihen dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off Tlie 
gate can be lemo^'ed witheilhei p cold chisel oi a liacksow, Eind tlie castir^ ls llien leady 
for fmishii^ 

Battel^ Switch [99] 

Incases wheie batleiies are used in series Eind it is desirable ta chaise Ihe slier^lhand 

direction af tlie cuiieni frequently, Ihe fallawir^ device will be found mosi convemeni 
In my own case I used four batteries, but any leasanable number maybe used Refeiiing 
lo Ihe figuie, it will be seen tlial by moving tlie swilch A lowaid Ihe lefl Ihe cunentcan 
be reduced from foui balleiies la none, and Ihen by moving Ihe swilch B tawaid llie 
nghl Ihe cuireni CEUibe turned on in tlie opposite 




direction lo the desiied sbei^lh In tlie vaiious positions of these two switches llie 
current from each mdndual cell, or from Einy adjacent pmr af cells, maybe used m 
either direction --ConliibutedbyHaialdS tlorlon, Mmneapolis 

AnOp[i:3linmnn[99] 



Tlie engiPivii^ shows a psrfeclly slmighlboswaod lule laid ovei a number of tomed 
bmss rings af 'h'anous sizes Althoi^h Ihe effect in llie illuslmlian 




Ail Opiicfll IlliL'sioii 

IS less piDnauiiced llian it loas m realify, il will be iioliced Ihal the role appears la be 
bent, butaightmg aloi^ llie rule from one end willshoio Ihnlit is perfeclly uti'a^lil 

The brass iings also appeal distorted The porhons on one aide of the rule do nal 
appear to be a coiilinuatian of tliase on llie other, bul tliol theyiepillyaie cpinbe paved 
bys^hting in Ihe uanie loaiuiei as before — Cantiibuled by DraughlsniEin, Chicago. 

N«w Mftbad «f Lifdng 3 Tabk [99] 

To psrfarm tlusfeol efTechuely the hitle device lUuslrated will be reqimed To make it 
tpihe i sheel-uonbEuid^ A, il4 in wide and ottacha ahap to fasten on the foieaim 
between the wnst and elbow Pul a sliarp needle poinl, B, tlirough Ihe sheet-nan so llul 
it extends 314 in autwaid h'lake one of Ihese peces for each aim 

In hfhng the table fust show Ihe lianda unprepared la the audience and aL'Jo a t^hl 
table, removu^ the ccr^'ei lo show tliat the surfoce of tlie table is not piepared many 
way Then replace the table. 




lestthe hand; upon it ond at Ihe same lime piess Ihe needle paints mtlie ann piecea mio 
tlie wood of tlie lable, wluch will be sufficient to lioldit, aa^ a caneispondent af tlie 
liplmix Then walk downamong the audience 



How » Makf q Faddk Bo3i [1001 

A laivboatliPis several disadvEintE^es Tlie opeiatian of the oais nsboth tiresome and 

uniiiteie:3ting, and Ihe oarsman is obl^ed la travel, bactwani. 




FaddLl B«Bt !□ OprntSni 



By replacing the oeus wilh padrlles, eis sliown mtlie illustratian, the operator can see 
where he is going and en]oy the ezeicise much be tie i than wilhoan; He can episily steer 
tlie boat with Ins feet, by means af a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat, connected 
bycoids ta the ruddei 

AttlieblRckismithshap liave a n^-m isliafi niEide, as shown elI A, F^ 2 Itwillbe 
iiece:3:3aiy la furnish a sketch givii^ all the dimensions of Ihe sliafl, which should be 
des^ned to smt the dimensions of Ihe boat, tnkii^ caie llial sufficient clearance is 
allowed^ so tliattlie cranks m levoMi^ will not stiike the operatoi's knees If desiied, 
spht- wood handles maybe placed on the cianks, to prevent tliem fiom. nibbing liie 
liands 

Thebeaiu^s, B^ maybe made of liardwoad, but pieferablyof iron pipe filled with 



inelledbabbitl Ifbabbitl is used, eilliei IhaiDughly sinate or chalk llie sliafloi map 
peperaiDmiditlD pevent tlie babbitt stickii^ The jmeces of ppe maybe tlien^sleiied 
to llie boat by means of smpJlpipe istiaps, such eis maybe obtained at any pluinbei's at a 
veiy small cost 

The hubs, C, should be made of ivood, diiUed to fit the sliafland mortised out to hold 
tlie pflddles, D The co^'ei;;, E, maybe constnicled of timi woodoi galvanised nan and 
jsLiDuldbe bmc ed by tiiangulM boards, as shown mF^ I If galvamzeduan m used^ it 
ishDuldbe e:ip]sed to tlie weolhei Iwo or Ihiee nionllis before pmnlii^, or the pfiint will 
come off, spoilu^ lis appepirance 




DelailofPEiddle Boat 
Fttuliar Propeztin of let [lODI 

Of all the bo^ who make siio*bE[ll:3 piobably few know what dccuk during the 
process Under onimaiy conditions watei luiiis to ice wlien the temperaluie fEills to 32", 
but ^liien m motion^ oi undei pressure, much lowei temperatures aie required to make il 
a sohd In Ihe isanie way, ice wluchis some wliat below Ihe freezu^ pomlcanbe made 
liqmd by applying pressure, and will remain liqmd until the preissure ig removed, ^liien it 
willagEimreluiii to its original istiite ^iiow, being simply finely dnded ice, becomes 
liqiud mplEice:3 when compressed by tlie liaiids, and wlien tlie preissuie is removed Hie 
liquid poitiDiis solidify Eind umte all the particles moiie moss In eKtiemelycold weother 
it IS almost impossible to make a snowbeJI^becEiiL'se a gieatei amount of piesisme is llien 
leqmied to mEike Ihe snow liqmd 

Tlus piocess of melting Eindtreesuig uiidei different pie ssuies and a constant 
tempeiature is well illustrated by the e:ipeiimenl sliownm Figs 1, 1 and 3 Ablock of 
ice. A, Fig. 1, IS 




m 



ri«J 





Fill 




1 



/ 



EKpenment with a Block of Ice 

supported at eoch end by boxes BB, and h weight, W, is hung on a wire loop which 
passes Eiround the ice eis shoivii The pressure of tlie wire will llien melt Hie ice and allow 
tlie wire to sink down tlirough the ice as sliownm Fig 2 Tlie wiie will contuiue to cut 
its way thioi^h tlie ice until it passes Edltlie way thiai^h the piece, as sliownin Fig 3 
Tlus experiment not only illustiates liow ice melts under pessuie, but also how it 
solidifies when tlie pessuie isremovei fbi the block will sbllbe leflm one pece aflei 
tlie wire lias passed tlirough 

Another peculiai property of ice is its tendency to flow It may seem sliange Ihnlice 



jsLiDuld flow like iwiler, bul llie glacieis af SffilseilEindaiidotliei comitiies aie Llerally 
livers af ice The :3iidiv which ace iimulELle son tlie mDiuilains mvpislquEintities is turned 
Id ice a:3 a lesiill af the enDiiitaiis pressiue caused by its aivii weight, and flows tluough 
tlie natuial clianiiek it lias made intlie rock until it leac lie :3 the valleybelow Inflowing 
tluough tliese chminels il fre que nlly passe:; aiDuiid bends, Eind wlien two bimiches came 
tDgelhei llie bodies of ice mute Ihe saine as water would uiidei llie same canditions Tlie 
late of flow IS oflen very slow, sometimes only one or twa feet h day, but, no mRltei 
how slow the motion maybe, the iRige body of ice hiis to bend inoiovii^ 

Tlus pio|Ki1y af ice is liaid lo lUuslrRle with the subslance itself, bul maybe clearly 
shown by sealing- w^:i, wluch lesembies ice m llus lespect Any attempt to bend a pece 
af c aid sealing- wa:i with the liaiuls lesults in breakup it, butby plncing itbelween 
boaks, as shawii an page 65, oi suppoihi^ it msome sunilar way, it will giadually 
change from Ihe ot^inal sliape A, and Eissume Ihe sliape shoini al B 

Rtrurn-Can BtUWilh Ont Win [101] 

Td use only ane wue for a letum call bell connect upas shown in the diaginm, iisuig 
a closed circuit or giavitybatlery, B The cuiient is flawii^ tluough balh bells all Ihe 
time, Ihe same as Ihe calls of a lelegrapli soundei, but is notsboi^ enough lo ring balh 
connected inseiies Piessii^ eilhei pushbutton, P, makes a shorl ciicuitof Ihnlbelland 
lings Ihe ane at Ihe olhei end af tlie hue -Conbibuted by Gordon T Lane, Grafton, Pa 






WlfLriK DiBcfBTii 

Winng Diagram 

CircuilBifaJiFTforlndiiclBn Coils [101] 

Amateurs building induction coils aie generallybatheiedby Ihe vibrator conlacis 
blackemng, thusgivii^ a high resistance contact, whenever there is Riiy canneclion 
made Rlall Tlus trouble maybe done Rway withby depaiting from the aid single- 
contact vibiator andusii^ one wilh self-cleanii^ cantRcts assliown An old bell magnet 
IS lewomidfiill of No 26 double cottan-covered wire and is momited 




iDlxnLiiiIri iai EndiicrilKL CoLI 

Intemipterfor IndiicbonCoil 



upon one endofo piece of tlun sheet iron 1 ui by 5 m as per sketch Ta the alhei end af 
the strip of uan is soldered a pece of brass 1164 m by U4, in by 2 m, on each end of 
which has been soldered a patch of plalinmu foil 114 m squaie 

The wliole is comiected up and momited an a baseboaid as pei sketch, the cantact 
posts being af lJ4m by lO in. brass, beni into shape Pind pio^'ided ^nth plalinum tipped 



Ihmiib sciews The ad^'Riitage of this :3t^e of an iiilenupTei is Ihalaleacli gliate there is 
a wipmg effect at the heiTh'yciiiie ill contact i*hich aula moticELlly cleans off 
any caiba n de pouit 

Intlie wiiuig diagiam, Ais Ihe ciiciul bleaker, B, tlie uiducboncoil, and C, Ihe 

balteiy -Conlributedby A G WeheI, Wilkindiuig, Pa 

^iiTuiwd.byW3RrP4Htj [102] 

Many of the BulgEuianpeEisants do Iheu cookii^ mtlie open air over bDnfirei; Tlie 
illushation isliows a iRboisa^'ing nmclune muse wluch enables the coat to go ELivay Find 
leav'e meat lOEislii^ fDi an houiata time The 




For a Sununei Camp 

lUushation sliows how tlie spit to winch Ihe ineat is fastened is constantly turned by 
iiteans of a slafflymDving watei wheel Some of aui leaders inay wish to Iry Ihe scheme 
when campu^ oul The success depends upana slow cuiient, for a fest-lunung ivheeL 
will burn Hie meat 

A Short-DKtqnctWneksi Tekgraph [1021 

The accompanyii^ diagidins sliow a wiieless-telegmphs^tem tliat I liave used 
Buccegsfiillyfoisignalii^ a distEince af 3,0D0 fl Tlie hensnuttei consist:; of Pinuiduclian 
CDil, about the ?ize iisedfoi aiitamobiles, a key orpush-butlan far cample ting Ihe 
circuit, and five diybattenes The small suigle -point sivilch is leflopenas sliown when 
isendii^ a message, bul i*hen receiving it should be closed m order thiit the electnc 
wffh'es &Dm Hie antemia mRypflsi; lluaugh the caheiei The coheiei in tins case is simply 
tiwj electnc-lightcaibons shaipened to a i*edge atone end with a needle 




Winr^ Diagram foi Wueless Telegiaph 

comiecting the Iwo, eis sliown Anoidinmy telephane receiver is camiected m series 
with Ihe coheiei, as shown To leceive messages hold the receivei to Ihe ear andclase 
tlie swilch, and answer by opemi^ tlie sivilchandopemlii^ Ihe key —Contributed by 
Coulson Ghct, liuhanapolis 

Automatir Drafl-C^tiKr [102] 



A simple appamlus tliatwill open Ihe draft af the furnace atanyhaur desuedis 
lUiislrated The parts are A, furnace, B, diafl, C, diaflchnin, D, pulley, E, wooden 
supports, F,vei"tical levei, G, honsantal lever, H, cord, 1, olarm clock,!, weight K 



ishDivs irfiere and lioivliie diaflis legulaledduiii^ llie day, the eutDLnatic 



FiciJ *■! imn 




: : 






r 



DtbH Ri„T.Ulin- 

Diaft RegiilalDi 

device beu^ used lo opsn ileeilyiii the inoming The spool onlhe elaim clack is 
fasleiiedtD Ihe alanii keyby isawiiig a slitRciass Uie lapof Ihe ispool ELiidgluir^ ilon 
Wheiilhe alanii goes off a cordis womidup on the fpoalaod pulls Ihe lionaantRl lever 
up, ivhich releases tlie\'ertical lever and EillaiHstlie iweighl lo pull Uie draflopen — 
CDnlIibuledbyGaldDnDa\^s, EEilainazao, Kfich 

A Windotv C^imnitory 1103] 

During Ihe winter montlis, where hoiis plRiits are teplmtlie hame, it is olwEiysa 

que:3tiou liowlo aiiai^e lliem so they can gel llie iiece:3:3aryl^hl wilhaut accupyii^ Ido 
much room 

The sketch sliows Iiowb iieal windowconserv'aloryinaybe made at small cdsI llml 
can be fEislenedon the hau'3e]uslcovenr^ a window, winch wiUpiovide h fine plRce 
for Ihe planis Tlie frame {Fig 2> is made af aboul 2 bylT-in matenEil framed logetheias 
sliDivnmF^ 3 This frame sliouldbe made wifli Ihe three openu^s of such a size that b 
four- paiied sash, such rs used for a stann window, will fit nicely in Iheni if the faui 
vertical peces that Eire shown mFig 2 are dressed la Ihe r^hl angle, UienitwiUbe easy 
to put on the finislmig coineibaarrls that lioldthe SRsh 




jhniiiEic WUtdaw Bnra 

Arbstic Window Boxes 

The top, as well as Ihe bottom, is constiucled with two small pieces lite the rafters, on 

which IS nailed the sheEilhing boaids and tlien Ihe shingles on top and the fimslimg 
boards on Iheboltom 



How » Mahf anElFclroscope [I03J 



AiielecliDMope faideleclmg eleclnfied bodies maybe mEide oulof a piece of note 
ptiper, h CDik Einda needle Ehishtlie needle iiila Ihe caik^ andcutliie pnpei in the sliape 
□fa smoUaiiDW Balance die aimiFoii Ihe needk 




Sun pie Electron ope 

a:3 shaiffii in Ihe skelcli^ aiidthe mslninient will Iheiibe complete If a piece of paper is 
llieii heated D\'ei a lamp ai stave and nibbed mlha piece of clalhoi a small bioom, the 
arrow will luiii iwheii the pfiperisbnjoglitiieai il — CaiilrihutedbyWin W Gnint, HeJi- 
fas, N S , Canada 

Mudaiiirt ElFitrk Lighting [104| 

Prodncu^ eleclnc l^htby mcEins af small bulb^ Ihnlgive from oiie-half to six candle 

powei, arid a suilpible isamce of powei, lu somelhii^ tlial will inleiesi Ihe average 
American boy 
These cuciiIm bulbs range from IM lo 3 m. indiEunelei, andcoEl 27 cents 




FAl 



FIG 1 



eoch complete with base They Eue CDimoDnlytiiDwii eis muuature ballery bulbs, suice a 
battery IS Ihe inosi popular source af power The ISl-cp bulbs are usunlly 2-1^ volls 
and lake 1/4 Eini|Kie of cuneni It requires Pibauttliree medium dry cells Id operate it 
However, there is now upon the market aboltery consisling of 3 siueJI dry cells 
comiected mseiies, pul upm a neat cpse with 2 binding posts, winch sells far 25 cents. 
Tlus Ls more economicEd tlmn dry cells, as it gives about 4'h'alts and 3 amperes It will 
iiui Eis Iwge a lamp a 3-1/3 valts, I cp, fai some lime very salisfactoiily P.1oie than one 
Ipimpcanbe lunby camiectii^ the bulbs in parallel, as indicated by Fig 1, winch shows 
tlie special battery with 3 dry cells ui the case, and the 2 bmrlir^ posts for coiinec lion 
wilh Ihe bnlbs In tlus case it is eiIso advisable ta connect several batle lies m paiellel 
also, sa EIS to incrcEise the cuneni, but inaintEun the valtage coiislani Thus tlie indrvidual 
cells aie in multiple seiies, i e , multiples of series of tliree Byteepir^ in mind Ihe 
anipeie autput of tlie batteiy and mtii^ of the lEimp, ane can regulEite Ihe batteiies as 
lequiied Itmuslbe remembeied, ui this cannectiDii^ Ihiil any batteiy wluch is drawn 
uponfarhpJf af itsoutpul will lEislapproximEilely three times eis long, as if diawii upon 
fai its total Dutpul Thus, inanys^^stem of lamps, it is ecDnomical to pavide twice ns 
manybatleiies as necessEiry Tlus eJso supplies ei lueEins of still niEimtaimng the CEindle 
powei when the bEittenes aie paitially e:iliausled,by comiectrng Iheiu inseiies 
Howe^'er, this must be dane wilh very great cauboii, as the lighls will be burnt onl if the 
vollage IS toa h^h 

Persans hving mthe city will find an econamical means af I^litir^ lamps by sec uni^ 
eKhEiusted batteries fioni any garage, where they Eire glad to have them tEiken away A 
cerlaui number of these, aflera rest, can be connecledup in series, and will give Ihe 



piDpeivaltage 

III coiiclusioii, for batlery poioer Comiectir^ boHenes in^iies uicieEisef llie vallp^e, 
aiid sSighlly cutu doitfii Ihe cuneiil or amperp^e, lohicli is tlie ^Eime as Ihal af oiie batleiy, 
while CQimectu^ballencs m paiallel iiicieaiseu Ihe ampEiE^e, bul lioldp Ihe vollage liie 
uaiiie au iLiBlof Dite cell Thus, if Ihe vollagc aiidarapemge af any cell be known, by the 
proper coiiibuiPilion of these, ive con secuie Ihe lequiied voltage aiidaiapemge to l^hl 
any miiiia tine kiup And it might be isaidtliat diy cells are the beat for tlus pnipose, 
especiEilly those of low internal resistance 
FIG 2 




r*.} 



Fox iJiose hevii^ a good waleisnpply Iheie is a more economical means of 
mauitenance, alllioi^h the first CDslisgieater F^ 2 slioios the scheme A small 
dynamo dnvenby a waler mo lor attached lo a faucet, gexkemtes the power foi the l^hts 
The cost of the smallest outfil of the kind is Eibout$3 for Ihe icatei motor and |4 foi the 
dynamo Tins dynamo has an output of 12 w^tls, and will produce from IE to 25 cp , 
accoidir^ to the watei pessuie oblainable It is advisable to install the outfit in Ihe 
basement, wlieie the watei pessuie is Ihe giealest, and IhenleadNo 13 B 8. !i double - 
insulated wire wherever needed The dynpimo cpinabo be used as a motor. 




ft*Ea TO OYhWifo' 

and IS wound for anyvoltp^e up to len The winding should coiiespond lo the voltage of 
tlie lamps which y]ude sue to run However, if wound foi 6 volts, one could run pniallel 
seiies of Iwo S-'h'olt, 1-cp lamps, mpitu^, ns mF^ 3, II series, or 22 lights If wound 
foi lO'h'olls, it would give l-iy4 amperes and run four fl-cp lamps Thus, it wall be seen 
tliat any candle power Ipimp can be operated by puttii^ Ihe propei muiiber of bghts m 
each series, andruiuui^ Ihe senes mpaiallel So, to secuie hghtby tlus metliod, we 
simply turn on the walei, and Ihe waler consumpTionis not so gieat as might be 
iiuE^ined 

For tlie party who has eleclnc hght mhis liouse theie ls sIiU an easier solution for the 
problem of power If the l^hlu^ circmt gives llO'^'olls he can conned eleven ID-voll 
lamps in series These will give 3 cp each, and the whole set of H will take one ampere 
of current, and cost aboul Ihe same as a 32-cp lamp, or l-l/4ceiits pei liour Simply 
comiecttlie minialure ciicmt to an Edison plug, and uiserl in tlie nearest lamp socke I 
Any nuiiibei of different candle power lamps can be used piovidmg each lamp takes tlie 
same amount of cuiient, and Ihe sum of tlie ii voltages equals Ihe voltage of tlie ciicuit 
used Tlus armi^ement of small l^hls is used to pioduce a widelydislributed^ and 
diffused hght ma room, for display of sliow cases, and for Clinslmas liees Of all these 
sources of power the Iwo last are the mosi economical, and the laltei of these two lias m 
itsfavoi the small mitial cost These lamp; are by no means playtlungs or eKpenments, 
butaie as serviceable and practical as tlie laiger lamps 
-Conlributedby Luidsay Eldiidge, Chicago 



Htm laMaktaNcw L^i^uagt [105] 

Aii^ne pD:3sessii^ a phonagiapli can Irya very iiile renting and amiL^ir^ e:ipsnnienl 
williautgauig lo any expense Remove Ihe bell and replace wiiha longer one, i^hichcan 
be mode of nanaffbiaidor h nuinbei of slnuids of yRin The newbell should be loi^ 
enoi^li lo allow cio:3:3ir^ il, flius re\'eRiiig the niBclune Tins leveises eveiy sound on 
tlie lecoiddiid chaises il lo such Einezlentllial veryfei* wands ceui be cecogmzed 

HowfiDM3kr-aCi9-uid-S3KtrRaik[105] 

The mck is niEide of Emy ismtable kmd of wood, and the sides. A, are c lit jiisl able, or 
from one pfllteni The ishelves aie made invanGU'3 widtlis lo fit the sides at the places 
wheie Iheyare wanled The nunibei of slietves can be vanedand to ismttlie sise of Ihe 
dishes Cuphook^ are placedon lop andbaHom shelves llis hung on Ihe wall Ihe ^aine 
as a picture from Ihe nioldu^ -Contiibuledby F B Emig, Santa Clam, Cal 




Rflf«sing a SnullMDnr [1D5| 

All Ihatis iiece??ary for reveisir^ the motor is a pole -changing :3wilch Comiecl Ihe 
tiw] imddle posis of tlie switch with each alhei and Ihe two outside posli; wilheach 
Glher Tlien comiectane of Ihe outiside posIs of Ihe swilch to oiiebnwhaf Ihe iuoIgi and 
one midrlle post to Ihe alheibiiish 

Comiectone bai of Ihe :3witch to one end af tlie field coil Euidtlie otlierbar to one pale 
of the battery, Euidcomiectthe other pole of tliebatleryto Ihe a Ihe i field coil Ta leverse 
llie motor, sunplychni^e the switch 




^CVCTBt for B SiEiilJ Millar 

Reverse for a ^niall Molai 

Refemr^ to llie illustiation, the letters indicate ns follows FF, field of motor, BB, 

biusliesof niatoi, AA, bars of pole -dialling swilch, DD, cenlerpomts of swilch, CC, 
outside points of :3witch -Conbibute d by Leonard E Paiker, Plyinoulh, Ind 



To Dthf Awqy Dogs [t06| 

The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking upsciape After 1 
caimecled iipmyuiducTioncoil, as sliownm the sketch, we were not bothered wilh 
tliein AuulicELles Ihe ground, B, swilch, and C, abailof meol, oi a teniphng bone 




S It iKk I Q e - M Bi] It ma 

S liocking-Mflclune 

-CoQiiibuledbyGeD W Fry, P03 Vine ^t. San Jose, CeQ 
An Aulomadc Loch llOA] 

The illustiation sliowR an RntDiiiELlic lock opeiatedby electiicity, one cellbeir^ 
sufficient When Ihe ciicm.1 isbiaten h weight. A, attached la the end of the amielme B, 
tends to push Ihe other end of the annRture tnio Ihe scieif eye aihook C, ivluchia mihe 
dooi, \has locking Ihe door 

To urdock Ihe door, merely push Ihe butlon E, Tlie ruRgnel Ihen draws the arrnatuie 
aulof Ilie screw e^ and Ihe dooiis urdocked The dolled line alD sliows Ihe position of 
die amialuie whentlie circuilis camplele and Ihe daor unlocked The ffe^hlmuslbe in 
piapoition to die slier^lh of Ihe magnet If il is nol^ Ihe daoi will not 




AubiiEiBlK ELtcUin LiKk Im Dooan 

A-nlomalic Eleclnc Lock foi Doors 



lack, or would leinain lacked The butlan can be hidden, as il is the key to Ihe lock. — 
Conliibuled by Claude B t'lekhioi, Hiitclmison, t'lmn 

E:i9trunFnl wilh Two- Foal Rule ind H^mmcT [106] 

An example of unslable equiiibnuiu is shown in Ihe Bccompfliiymg sketch Alllhatis 
needed IS a 2-foDlrule, a hammer, a piece of slmig, Riida table oi bench Tlie 
e:iperunenl works besi 




All EipcrlmeiiL la EHjibilLHrnin 

An Expemiienl m Eqmlibiimii 

wilhd hammer havu^ a ligli) handle Eind el veiy heavy head 
Tie Ihe ends of tlie stung togetliei, fomiii^ a loop, and pes? Ihis Riound Ihe haiunier 

Imiidle and rule Then place Ihe appfliatiis on the edge of Hie table, where it mil 
reniflin suspended as sliDwn — CDntiibiiledbyGea P Scluiudl, Culebra, Paita Rico, 
W I 

Sin^k CurrenF Rcv«r»r [107] 

On a block of hardivaod draw a square (F^ I) and drill a hole in each cnmei of Ihe 
square Fill these holes withiaeicuiy aiul connect them to fa iii binding posls (F^ I) 

OiiaiuDlhei block af iwoad faslen Iwa wues, as sliowii m Fig 2, sa tlial Iheu ends 
can be placed in lite hales m the fiisl block Then conned up with the 




DelaJs of Reversei 



loolaiandbatteiy as inFig 3 Wlien the block is placed an with the b^ anow A 
pointu^ m the cbrechon inchcated in Fig 3, the cunent flows with the small anaws 
To reverse turn Ihioi^h an angle of 9D degiees (Fig 4} — ContiibuledbyF Ciawfaid. 
Cuiiy, Brockville, Ontaiio, Canada 

Abrn Cbih lo Fidli^ Furiuit Dr^fl [107] 

A sloulconl. A, is atlaclied to the diaftB of the furnace, run Ihroogh a pulley, C, ui 
the ceJii^ and has a window we^ht, D, atlaclied at the alher end A small stick is pul 
tlirai^ha loop m Ihe cord at aboatthe level of the table lap on which the alarm clock 
F stands The other endofstickE is placed under the keyG of the alarm clock When 
the alanu luigs m Ihe eaily loormng. Hie key turns, Ihe slick faUs away, leleasu^ the 
we^ht, wluch pulls tlie didfl open — Contiibutedby Edwaid Whilney, 13 Goihaiu Si, 
Madison, Wis 




Aib(i7i]ii( iC Time I>jBn-D[irDTr 

Anlomahc Time Diafl-Openei 

How n TraiumilFlioiia^apli Miisir ro a Dirlaiuc [107| 

Anuileie^tir^ expenment, aiid one calculaled lo ni^Dfy Rii^iie oal in Ihe secret, is 
to Iraiismit the music or spsech fioin h plionagiaph lo Riiotliei pari of lite liDuse ai 
even h gieatei dislance For rii autdooi ?manier peity the music can be niEide In cnrae 
fiaiiia bush, ai liee, or ftoni a bed of flower; The appaiatup is iiot difficult Id 
c a IIS Quel 

The cut shows tlie anangemeiil Piocme a lor^-dislpnce leleplione liensiaitlei, D, 
mciudiQg tlie mouthpece. Find fasten il lo Ihe lepraducer of Ihe phaiiogiaph Also a 
watch case 




The Lor^-Dislance Phonogiaph 

receiver, E, winch faille nio Ihe horn These perls ineybe poichesedfiomanyelecliical- 
snpply house Conned iwo wues lo Ihe hansmiHei, luinnng one dnecllo Ihe receiv'ei, and Ihe 
othei la llie batleiy, thence lo a switch, ^, end then lo llie leceivei The inoie batlenes used 
Ihe louder will be Ihe sound produced by Ihe horn, bul av'oid using loo much batleiy or Ihe 
leceivei is apt Id heal — CDiitiibaledbyWm J Failey Ji , Cemden, N J 



How *frMa]vaTtlncopt|10S] 

With B lelescope lite Ihe one heie described, made walhhia awn hands, a faimeiboynot 
niBiiy years ego discovered a comel which had escaped llie walchfiile^ffsof many 
as bo iiomeiE 

Fusl, gel iwo peces of plate glass, 6 m square and I m thick, andbieak llie comers off la 
make them round, girndu^ llie loi^hedgesona gmidslone Use abarrel la woikon, and 




HDnieitiEide Tele^caje 

fasleii Diie glesu on llic lop of it m llic cciileibydim^ Ihiee fmaUoFiik althe side? la hold il 
111 place Fallen, willipilcli, b iDmid4-iD block of wood in flie center an one uide of llic allier 
gIPBU lo ser^'e au a handle 

Uue itfetgiamcmeiyfoi coaisc gmidu^ Take a pinch and spiepidil evenly on llie glass 
winch I? on llie banel, Ihenlake Ihe gksa willithe handle and move ilbacb and forth bcioss 
Ihe lower glass, wlule walking aioiind llie bE^irel, ako lolele llie gipss, wluchis necessary lo 
niPike it gnnd evenly The uppei gless or specnliimalwa^ becomes concave, andflie nnder 
gipss or loal conv'e:i 

Work walhsli'a^hl strokes 5 ai 5 in mlei^lh, after working 5 horns liald Ihe speculum in 
Ihe smishine and throw the m^ of Ihe sun onto a p^per, where llie mys came la a point gi^^s 
Ihe focal length If Ihe glass ls nalgioimdenoi^h lo bring Ihe re^ffl to a pointwathini fl, Ihe 
coaise gmidii^ must be canluiiied, nnlessa loi^ei focal length is wanted 

Have leadyar laige dishes, Ihenteke 2 B) flanremeryandmi:! in 12 qt of weter, 
mimediBtely turn Ihe watei inia b clean dish and let seltle 30 seconds, Ihen turn ilinia anollier 
dish and let settle 2 numites, thenS mmules, 3D mmatesand 90 minutes, being cerefiil not la 
tuinaff Ihe coarser emeiy which lias settled Whendiy, Imii llie emeiyfiom Ihe 5 jars into 5 
seperete bottles, andlebel Thenteke b little of Ihe coaiseat powder, welling it lo the 
consislencyof cieam, and spead on Ihe glass, work as before (using sliait straighl sliokes 1- 
l'2 or 2 in) nnlil Ihe holes in Ihe glass lefl by Ihe gieui emery aie ground oul, nesi use Ihe 
finer grades ontillhe pits leflby eachcoprsergiede aie gianndani When the two lastgiades 
aie used shorten tlie strobes Id less Ihi^n2 m Whendane llie gIpss should be semi- 
liaiispaienl, E^iidis ready foi palishii^. 

Wlienpohshu^ Ihe speculum, pasle b strip of pepei l-IJ3m. wide eiomid Ihe convex gless 
or laol, melt 1 lb af pilch and torn an la itandpiess with Ihe welspecnium Maid llie piteh 
wliile hotinlD squaies of 1 m,wilhl/4-in spaces, as m Fig 1 Then wann end piess egam 
wilhihe specolum, being cprefiil la lla^'e all the sqneres touch Ihe speculum, oi itwiUnol 
polish e\'e Illy Truii Ihe paper fioni the cd^c with a sharp knife, and pflint Ihe squares 
sepeintely wilhjewelei's loi^e, wet till soft hke pdml Use abu^ei la spread it an with 
V/orb tlie speculum over Hie tool Hie same as when grmEling, using slra^ht strokes 2 in 
ai Less 

When the glass is palislied enough ta lefleclsome Lght, ilsliouHbe tested with Ihe 
knife-edge lest In a dait room, set Ihe speculum E^ainstthe wall, and a laige lamp, L, 
Fig 2, Iwice Hie focal lenglhaway Place a Inige sheelof pasteboEiid, A, Fig 2, wiiha 
small needle hale oppasile the blaze, by the side of the lamp, so Ihe light 



/ ■ " 


" " V 


L ' " 


■ " 


r ■ ■ 


■ ■ ■ 


\ ' " 


' ' 7 


^TI 


J^ 



H,l 




E^ 



D<1u] it TrIrBEDDr C(iiinllu4.LL0Q 

Delailof Tele:3CDjK CDnstiucliDii 

fiDin Ihe blaze will sluiie duId llie gla^^ Ploce llie specolnmS, Fig 2, a) llie ray^ from 
tlie needle liole will be tliiDffii lo tlie ]ef>side of I3ie lamp (fRcuig Ihe speculuia), with 
tlie kiufr mauiiledina black of ffaodaiidedgewR^ lo tlie lamp, ag mK, Fig 2 The 
kiufe should iiotbe mate Ihan 5 in fioiii the lamp Now move Ihe kmfe acmss Ihe rays 
fiom lefl la light, and loat at the speculum with the eye on the i^hl side af the blEide 
V/hen Ihe focus is found, if the speculum w ground audpahshede'h'eiily it inll datkeu 
evenly over tlie suiface f\s Ihe knife sliuls afTihe light fiom Ihe needle liole If no I, Ihe 
speculum will show some daik migs, di lulls If the glass seems lo hEive a deep hollow 
in Ihe centei, slioitei sirokes sliouldbe usediii polishir^, if a hill in the center, lor^ei 
stiakes The pohslimg Eindteslu^ dane, Ihe speculum isieEidytD be sit^ted Twa glas? 
ai eai+lienwate dishes, laige enough to hald Ihe speculuiu and 3 m deep, must be pio- 
cuied Wilhpilcli^ cemenla sInpafbaaidS in lor^ to Ihe back af the speculum. Find lay 
tlie speculum face down mone of the dishes, fill Ihe dish with distilled watei, emd clean 
tlie face of the speculimi with mine acid, until the water will sbck la ilin an unbiaken 
film 

The lecipe tbi silveiing the speculum is 
liolution A 

Ehstilled water 4az 

^ilverniltale lOQ gi 

liolution B 

Distilled waler 4 oz 

Causlic slick potash (pure by alcoliol) . lOfl gi 



liolution C 
Aqua AmniDnia 

Solution D: 
^ugailoaf .. . 
NitiK acid 
Ale aha I (Pure) 



- 8«gr. 

- -^9gr. 
-- ^5gi 



t/hn solulionD and make uplo 2^ fluid dz wilhdislilled water, pcui mto a bottle and 
caiefuUyputaway m a safe place for future U'se, es il works better when old 

Now lake solulian A and set aside ui a small botlle ane-lenlh af il, andpoui the resi 
into the empty dish, add Ihe amiuama saluliandropbydiop,a dark blown precipitate 
will farm and subside, stop adding ammonia solulionas soon as Ihe balh clears Then 
add solution B, then ammonia unlilbath is cleai Now add enough af the soluliDn A, that 
was set aside, to bring Ihe balh to a warm saffian color without desTioying its 
tianspaiency Then add 1 oz of salulianD andslii until bath grows dark Place Ihe 
speculum, face dowii, m Ihe balli and leave uiilil Ihe silvei rises, Ihen laise Ihe speculum 
andrinse with distilled waler The small flat imiior maybe silvered the same way 
When dry, Ihe stiver film maybe polished with a piece af chamow skin, touched wilh 
rouge, Ihe polishii^ being accomplished by means of a l^hlspual stroke 

F^ 3 sliows Ihe position of tlie glasses m llie tube, also how Ihe la^ Rfiom a star 



aie tluawii lo Hie e^piece E in the ade of liie tiibe Make Ihe lube I of slieel iiDn, cover 
with paper aiidclalli, then peimt to make a nDn-caiiductaiof lieat or cold Nhhe the 
iitoiintmg of goad sepisoiied lumber 

Thus an eKcellenI d-in lelescops can be made Blhanie, wilh an Dulky of only b few 
dolkrs My telescope is if 4 in Lang and cost iiie ]iJslSl5, but I used all my spare linie ui 
ane winter m mELlii^ it I fir^t began istiidyii^ Ihe lieaven^ thioi^h a isp^lass, but an 
instiiuiienlsuch as I deisued would casl$2D0~ mare than I could afford TlieiiL made the 
ane described^ wilh which! discovered a new comet not before observed by 
astranamen; - Jolm E Pvfelhsh 

Htm » Makf "Fieak" Fliolo^rqplu [110] 



Tlie "freak" pcliueg of well-tnownpeaple which weie usedby gome doily 
iiewspepeii3 recently made evei^ody woiidei liow the distorted pliotographs weie 
made A wntei ui Camera Cmfl gives tlie secrel, wliich praves la be easy of execution 
The di:3torlionis accomplished by the use of prisms, as fallows Secure from emoplician 
arleE[ded-g]a:3:3 eslabhsliment, two glass pnsms, sightly wider tlian Ihe lens luauiil The 
flatlei Iheyare the less tliey will distort About 30 deg is a satisfacloiy ai^le Secme 
lliemas sliownby Ihe sectional sketch, U3ii^ stiawbaELrd and black pepei Tlienmake a 
111^ la fit o^'ei Ihe len; mount and conned il with the piisnii; ui isucha way eis to exclude 
all hght fiom Ihe CEimem except that wliich passes thioughtlie face of the pnsms The 
inner suifRce of this lioad miislbe 




™i3* 




Arrfliigenrent of Piisms 



dullblact Tlie paper which conies aiDund plates answers lucely If Ihe ni^ which sLps 
aver the len; mount w lined with black 'h'elvet, il will exclude all hght and hold fiimly to 
tlie mount. Place over lens, stop down wellaflei facusii^, and proceed as foi Riiy 
pctiire 

Anothtr ElHiric Loch [1 10] 



Tlie details of tlie conslruction of an electrically o|k rated lock Eire ishowii mtlie 
lUushation Wlien the dooi is closed Eind the bait A pushed uilo position. 







^^ 



^^^^ 



Ijiinple Electiic Lock 

il aniDiiiatically locks To unlock, pa^li lliebuHonD, which bcI will couse Ihe 
electiomEi|nel lo raise tlie latch C, i^hen Ihe bollmEiybe diawnand Ihe dooi opened -- 
ConliibuledbyA D ?immeniiaii, B pody. Il l 

Htm laMiKPbsRrofParK [110] 

Foitlie mizing af plaslerof Pans fDiaiiypiiiiBse, Eiddtlie plaslergraduEilly lo the 
watei, instead of Ihe coiilniiy, says tlie IvlasleiPaiiiler Do nal^lii it, ]iJslspiiiikLe ilin 
until you have h cieEiniy iiirss witlioul lumps Equal penis of plasleiand i^ateiis 

appio:iuiiately tlie coiiect pro|Bi"tioii The addition of el htlle vuiegai or glue watei will 
letaid the setlii^ of the plaster, but willnolpieseive its liardening MpiisliniEJlaitf 
powdei Eilso relaids tlie setting In tins way Ihe plaster maybe liandled a long time 
williQ lit getting hEiid If you wish the plnslei lo sete:iliEi liard, then Eidd a little sulphate of 
polEish, ai powdered alum 

Enlarging wilh 3 Hand Cuntra [111] 

Everyuiie wlio owns a hand camera lias some pctures he would like enlarged His 
not necessary lo hpve a laige cpimeia lo do tins, as Ihe process is e:iceeduigly simple lo 
make large pctures &ani small negalives wilhtlie SEime liaiid camera 

A laom fiom which all l^hl niEiybe excluded and a window tlirough wliich Ihe l^hl 
con enter witlioulobslmc lion from Irees or nearby bmldii^s, with a shelf to liold Ihe 
CEiniem and a table wilh an iipighl dmivii^-baEird Rltached, camplele Ihe anengement 
The back is laken out of llie camera and filled close against Ihe back of Ihe shelf, which 
must be provided wiiha hole the SEinie sise Find sliape as Ihe opening m tlie back of Ihe 
CELinem The negative used lo make Ihe enlaiged prmi is placed ui Ihe shelf at A, Fig I 
The m^ af llie clew, imobstincted hghtstiike Ihe iiunoi, B, aiidreflecl lliroi^h Ihe 
negalive. A, tlirough Ihe lens of Ihe CELmera aiidon Ihe board, as shown mF^ 2 Tlie 
window miisl be dMkened eJI aioiind Ihe shelf 

Aflei placing the negative and focusing Ihe lens far a clepirmiage on llie baEinl, tlie 
shntleris set and a biomide pflper is placed on tlie board The paper is exposed, 
developed and fixed by Ihe duections Hietaie enclosed m tlie package afbianude 
papers 




Makii^ Laige Pictiuei; with a limall Caiaeia 

FoiitiDning A Huiging Limp [LIL] 

Doii'l pull a IdLuphimg by flexible coidio one side wilha wiie and Hien fpisleii to a 
gas pipe 1 liave j^eena wiiebecoioe ledliolmtlus maimei If Ihe lamphLmg by a cord 

iiiuslbe pulled cr^'ei, use a slnng. 

A Curioiu Compmsfd AirPhenaintnan [111| 

Push a pn Ihioi^li an DiEliiiarybusiiieiss card and place liie caidagEuiisI one end of b 
:3pool with the pui inside llie boie, rs isIidwii intlie sketch Tlienbloi* Ihioi^h the ispool, 
audit will be found tliat tlie caid will not be blown away, bul will leniain suspended 
witliQ lit any visible support Tlusplienamenon is eKplainedby the facttliattlie an 
iddiates troQi the cenlei alavelocily which is neailyconslant, tliereby producii^ a 
partial vacuum between the ispool and llie card Cpin 




EiDFiliDfiit nLUi S^oo] pDd Cold 

Espennieiit wilh ^paol aiul Card 

tlie reader devise a practical application of Ihis cnntiivaiice? 

Simpb Switch for Rflfcrsing 3 Cuit«bI [111] 

Take two strips of coppei di brass and fasten them logelherby mepins of gulla-peiclia 
(F^ 1), also prcTvide them witha handle l^awonta reclai^ulai black about one and 
one -half times as long as the bidss strips and fasten to it at each end two forked peces of 
copper oibiass, as m F^ 2 Fasten on tlie switch level, as at A Eind 
B, Fig 2, so thatitcanrolate about these psmis Connect Ihe wiies as shown m Fig 3 
To reverse, Ihrow 



">' 1 


'•' 


^ 


1 


1 


i=|i2 




*J 




jt 


- — '^ ' T , 


IV3 




5 "^ ■ '*'*^ 




^mSB^ 









Simple Cuiieiit-Ileveisir^ Switch 

the lever fiani one end of Ihe block Id Ihe olhei — ConhibiiledbyR L TliDmaB, San 
Marcos, Tex 

NoitlMoiutfrqp [112] 

A pece of an old bicycle liie and a glass fiiut]ar are the only loatenals leqiiued for 
loaku^ Hue bap Push one end of Hie lire mio Hie liole, iiLaku^ suie Ihat there is el 
spsce leflal the end so Ihatthe mice can gel in Then 





^^ ^'SnjfltfAq** 5« 


^ 




^^ 




T^ 


'-^——^-. .='. — --^ — ■-^^^=— Tr 


"~— -— ■ 





A BbLUfh Trap 

A B alliens Trap 

beiid Ihe other end down into b fnuljaroi olhei glass jri BeiiI maybe ploced in Ihe jar 
if desired, although Ihis is iiotnecessaiy — Contributed by Geo Go NlcVickei, Noilli 
Bend, Neb 



F>>lBlun<NirktI[llZ] 

Abnllianl polish mEiybe gp-eiitD tflnushed luckelby iniineisu^ in Eilcohal Riid 1 
pel cent of ^ulphiuic acid fioin 5 to 15 seconds Take aul, ivash m iimiiing walei, niise 
in bIcoIidI, and rub dry with linen clolh 

Homtnudt Ati L%IiI [112] 

By rewinding an eleclnc-bell magnet wilh No IS wire and conneclii^ il insenes 
mlhtmo electnc-l^hl carboiip, rs shown in Ihe sketch, a small arc will be foimed 
between tlie caiban points when the cuirenlLS Eippbed In the sketch, A is Ihe electnc- 
bellmagnel, B, Hie Rimahire, C C, caibon rackets, D, CRibans, andE E, bindir^ pasts 
When connec led with 10 or 12 diybatlenes lliis lamp gives a fauly gnod Iighl — 
CanbibiLledbyMDnis L Levy^ ^an AnloniD, Tex 




Arc Lidit 

Arc L^hl 

Lighting on Incmdtsc Flit Limp with 3ii Induction Coil [112| 

An incandescent lamp af lowcaiiEllepoiweiniELybe iJlnraumledby coniieclir^ in an 
iiidaclioiicoil in Ihe mRiinei shown in Ihe sketch One wiie is connected Id the metal 
capaf Ihe lamp Find Ihe other wue is fasJened ta the glass tip If the appaiRtus is then 
placed in the daik and tlie cuiient turned on, a peculiar pliosphoiescent glow will fdl 
the iwhole mteiior of Ihe lamp The uiduction cod used for this piiipose should give a 
:3jHrk about in m lai^ oimoie — Coiilnbutedby Jo^epliB Bell, Bioaklyii 




Geisslei Tube 



How 10 Mikf q Jun^-^i^irk Coil [113] 

The induction call IS pabably tlie most papular piece af appuratus mtlie eleclncal 
Ipbamloiy, and perticiilaily is itpopiilai because of lis use m eKpeiimental iviieless 
telegraphy Ten years Rgo wireless lelegmphy wrs el dieEim of scientisls, laday ili:3 Hie 
plaything af school-bo^ and lliousELiids of grown- up boys as irell 

Divegledof nearly Pill technical phia:3e:3, an induclian coilmoybe biieflydegciibedas 
a step-upbansfaniiei of ?iiiall capacity Itcampnses Pi core CDnsisling of Pi c^^indncaL 
bundle of soft-iion wire^ cut Id proper length By means af ti*o oi luore layers of Na 14 
aiNo 16 magnet wiie, wound evenly Pibout tliis core, the bimdle becomes niPignelized 
when the wire lermmpils pue camiected to a souice af eleclncily 

Sliould we now shp cr^'ei this eleclromp^nela paper tube upon i*hich liPis been wound 
with regularity a giepiland conluinoiis length af No 36 magnet wire, it will be found 
that Ihe bneg of force emaiiating from Ihe energized coie penetrate the new coil- winding 
almost as llioughil were but h pert of the suiiounding air itself, and wlientliebatteiy 
cnnenlisbiokenmpidly a isecond elecbicalcunenl is said to be induced uito tlie second 
coil arsecandpiry 

AJloi Piny af the pait; of Pin uiduclian coil maybe purchased leady-made, and Ihe 
first tlung to do IS to decide which af the parts the amaleui meclinmc can make and 



which would be be He i la buy ready-mRde If Ihe biiildei ha:3 had iio e:i|Kiieiice mcail- 
wiiidu^ il ifloiild piobEibly pBy la puichnse die Mcaiidniy cail leady^waimd, a:3 Hie 
aperatioii af wuulu^ a mile ai more of fine wiie is'h'eiy difficulland ledious, and Ihe 
lesullsare Dfleniuisatisfacloiy In ordeiii^ die secondary it is alwa^ necesisaiy to 
ispecifydie lengdi of upeik desued 

The fbllowii^ melliod of completing a l-m coil illustiales Ihe geneial details of the 
woik Tlie same melhods and cucuils Eipply to small and laigei coils The leEidy- made 
secondary IS insolidc^^indncalfDnn, abautfi m loi^ and 3-5^3 m dmnie let, with b 
hole 



EFII4L LlhE 




Jump-^pflit Coil 



jDiap^EafU cut 



'4 2 



tlitough die ivindir^ I-H4 m m diameter, as shown in Fig 1 The sec andaiy will slaiid 
consideiable liandlir^ witlioulfeaiof mjuiy, and need not be selinlo a case mild Ihe 
pnmEjy IS compleled The pnmEiiy is niEide of fuie amiealed Na 24 iron wue cut 7 m or 
3m inler^lh, Eis the makeipiefers, andbmidled lo a diametei of 7y3 m Tlie wires may 
be slni^htened by rolling twa aitluee ola lime belweentwo pieces of liaid wood If the 
amaleui has diiTicullyin pracmii^ lliis wire, Ihe enCie core maybe pmcliasedready^ 
made 

Aftei the core wiies are bmidled, the c are is wrapped with one oi two layers of niEimla 
pepei The siraighlei Ihe wiie die more nan will entei uilo the conslmclion of the coie, 
whichis desirable Beginnii^ half an inch from one end. No Id colloii-co\'eied magnet 
wire IS wound from one end to Ihe olheie'h'enly Riid llien letiinied, makii^ two Iel^is, 
and Ihe leinunnls ted down to Ihe core with twine Core andpnmaiy are then immersed 
mboilir^ perEiirme wa:i lo winch h small qiuinbly of resui aiidbeeswa:i lias been added 
TlussEJoe wa:i maybe iisedlolei m sealing Ihe completed coil mto Eibo:i Over this 
pimifliy IS now wiRppedone layer of okomie tape, or same lliickness of lieavily 
shellRcted muslin. This completed primary will now allow of shppi^ mio Ihe hole m 
die secondEiry 

lihould Ihe secondEiry lia\'e been purchased wilhouta case, Pi wooden bo:i of 
maliogpiiiy OI oak is made, large enough lo contiiui die secondaiy and wilhan inch lo 
sptire allaiound, with room also for a smpJl condenser, bul if it is nol conv'enient lo do 
tins woik, Eibo:i like thai sliown mFig 2 maybe purcheisedata smpJl cosl A T^E-m 
liole isboiedm Ihe cenlei of one end, Ihioi^h which the pmnary core pojects l/Sm 
Tins core is lo be used to Rlbacl magnelicEilly Ihe uan liead of a 'v'ibiating mlemiptei, 
whichis animpoitanlfEicloi of Ihe cod This mlemqilei is shapedas ui Fig 4, and is 
fastened lo Ihe bo:i m such a way lliat die vibraloi hanimei pla^ mfiantof Ihe core and 
also Ilia I soldered comiec lions maybe made mside the bo:i wilhthe sciews usedui 
afSxing Ihe 'v'ibialor perls to tlieboi: Tlie coiulensei is mEide of foui sInpR of Ihm paper, 
2^ loi^ and 5 m wide, and a sufficient quanbly of liiifod When cutandlaidm one 
contmnous lenglh, each piece of tm-foil musi ov'erlpip Ihe Eid]oiimig pece a lialf incli, so 
as to foima conlmuous eleclncal circml Inshapi^ Ihe condensei, one piece of Ihe 
pepei islaiddown^ Ihenthe sinp of liii-fod, Ihentwo ships of ptipei Find anolliei layer of 
foil, Pind fuially Ihe fourlhship of paper This makes a condenser wluch maybe folded, 
beginning al one endaudbendu^ about d m alabme Tlie condensei is next wrapped 



geciiiely Willi bands of pepei oi lape, and bailed in pine peiEiiriiie wax foi one lioui, 
aflei wlucli it IS pe:3:3ed under canpiderable weighl until finu andhaid One of liie sheels 
af tin-fod IS to fonu one pale of the canden^ei, and llie oilier isheet, wliicli is insulated 
from the fusl, faniis the allieipole or lenmnnl (Tins condenseimalennl is purchasable 
inlai^ stiips, leady fai asseinbliDg ) 

The wimig diagram, F^ 3, slioi^s how the cannectiDns aie made Tlu^ metliod af 
comiecting is suitable foi all calls up to l-t/^ m s|:Qik, but fai laigeicoilbeltei results 
will be ob lamed by usii^ an independenl type of intemiptei, in which a sepaiete magnet 
IS used la miemipttlie circml Besides the magnetic vibraloia there aie se^'eial alhei 
types, such as tlie mercury dash- pot and lotaiy-camniulaloi types, but these will become 
belter known ta the ainateui as he proceeds mhis work and becomes iiiaie experienced 
in coil opera lion 

Combined Daor Btllind Ekclru ALnrin [114] 

This device consists of aballery andbell comiectionto an atamt clack which ako acts 
as a daorbell, tlie wliole beii^ momited onabaard 13 in long and I? in wide 

Referring to Ihe sketch accoinpanyu^ tins aiticle, llie letters indicate as follows A, 
bell,B, battery ,C, switch, D, V-sliaped coppei strip, E, coppei lever with l-in flange 
turned on one side, wliole lenglh, 4 m , F, spring to tlirow level E downui V-sliaped 
piece to make conneclion, G-, level to hold outE ^liien de\^ce is used as a daoi bell, 
lines H, go, ane tram bell. A, and one from battery, B, to Ihe dooi, I, shelf foi clack 

See Ihal Ihe ring in llie alaimkey af tlie clock works easily, sa llial when it is square 
aciass die clack it will drop down Faslena pece of copper about 




T m loi^ ta key, Ihen wind tlie ataimjustenai^h sa Ihatlhe key stands slra^hlup and 
down Place Ihe clock on the shelf and Ihe keyuiidei the flange of leverE PuUleveiG 
doivnoul of the way and close die lever an Ihe switch The alaimkey will luiii anddiop 
doivii, letlmg le\'erEdrop mto Ihe V-sliapedpece D and make comieclian 

For Ihe dooi-bellcoiuiectionclase level on switch C, and put G up so IhalD andE do 
not came mconlaci If aiiynne is ill and ]fl)u do nal want the bell lo nng, open switch C 

The wiimg for Ihis device may all be on tlie back af thebaard The swilchand le\'ei's 
are fastened wilh small screwbolls, wluch allows wini^ at the back ^aw two spoalsin 
half and faslen Ihe halves lo Ihe four comers af die boaid at Ihe back, and die apparatus 
maybe putupwiiere one likes 

To BuiU 3 SriAllBrqss Furnaie [115] 



Bend a pece of sloul sheet iron 23 in by I!! in. round so diatthe inside 




v;-^^-^:.::-^;^:' 



diainelei is 7 m , and Iheiinvetlhe seam Film a romid piece of sheet iidii fot liie 
botlDiii Mnkt a hole abDntlhe size nf a shilling in the side, 2 m ftom Hie boltDm This 
IS foi blowing 

Line the fUmace.bDllDni Find :3ides with fue-clay Id a depth aflO m Use charcoal 
tDbuinaiidanaiiimRiybelloivs foi bloffii^, says tlie fvlodel Ei^uieet, Loiidaii The 
beslblEislL^ ob lamed bylioldii^ the nazsle af Ihe bellows EiboulanuichfrDni the hale, 
iiisteEid of close Id it 

Avoid F^erLimp Skideic [115] 

Don't wrap pa pel aioiind h lEinipfDia shade You might go awayandfaigetitanda 
fue m^hlbe stalled fiaiii the heat Use a gla?s ormelal?hiide Tliatis what they Eue £bi. 

Why Gzavity BalterJM Fail to Work [115] 

MinyamaleuielechiciELiis and same professiDnalshave hadcansiEleipble tmuble 
with gravity bRltenes They 




&rElLiiS Up P GiB'Ll} BDlLrlr 

Setting Up a Gravity Battery 

follow diieclians carefully and liien fail la ge I gaod results Tlie usual trouble is not with 
tliebatlery itself, but with Ihe cncuil A gravilybRtteiy is smtpible anly fai a circuit 
which IS nannally closed It is Iheiefoie uiidesimble fbi eleclnc bells, induction cdiIs 
aiidall otheiapsn-cijcml Eippflmtu; Tlie circuitshauldako have a h^h restslance This 
inatLes iliinpaclical fai nmim^ femniDlais, f\s Ihe motor would hEive Id be waiind with 
fuie wiie and it would then require h large number ofbRltenes to grue a sufficienllyhigh 
voltage 

To set up a gravilybalteiy Use about 3-1/2 lb of blue stone, oi enough la cover the 
capper element I m Paiu m water suiTicienl to caver Ihe zinc 111 m ^hart-cucuilfor 
tliree hours, and the bfiltery is leadyforuse If desired for use mimedialely, do not sliort- 
circiul, biitadd 5 or d oz of zinc sulpliRle 



Keep the divuimg luie beliveeii Ihe blue aiid wlule liqiiuls Eiboiil IH in below Ihe 
botloinof Ihe siiic If loa low, isiphaiiofFisaiiie af the whiit liquid Riidadd Ihe ^aine 
aiiioiinl of walei, but do nalagilale or iiiik Ihe two saluliaiis Tlus iyps of battery will 
gR-e about 9 of a volt, EnidshDoldbe osedoaa cucuit of about lOD milL-oiiLpeies 

A Skido*-SkidHTri[k[116| 

hi a recent Ljuue aiPopulai t'lecliaiiics Ein article an "Tlie Turning Cprd Puszle" wbs 
described and lUiisha ted Outside of tlie scientific side ur^lued, heieuil describe a much 
betlertnck About the lime wlienthe expression "skidoo" fustbegpn to be iisedl Invenled 
Hie following tnck Find 




ft*' 



Ffr! 



Haw ta Cm lb> T4aUkH 

HnwtoCulIhe Nnlchea 

CEilled il "Skidoo" pnd "Skidee," uiuch created machroeninienl Unless tlie tnck is 
Ihoroughly understood, foraoine it will hinione way, foiolhers the opposite way, wlule for 
olhera it wtU not revolve at eiII Orte perain whom I now recpiU became red ui Ihe face by 
slioatu^ stidoo Pirdakidee alit, bultlie thing would no I move olall, and he finally fioiu 
venation thiew the trick into Ihe fiie and a new one liad lo be made Veiyfew can mate il 
toinbolh wa^ alwiU^ and therein is the Inck 

Take a ]aece of liaidwood 312 in sqanie and about 9 in long On one of Ihe ec^es cut a 
senes of nolches as indicated in F^ I Then, slighlly taper the endmaikedB until it is 
lucelyrounded as shown inFig If NeKt mpike an Eiimof a two-ami windmiUsnchpsbo^ 
make Make a liole thiDugh llie centei orlhis one aim Enlarge the hole slighlly, enough to 
allow a coimuonpuito hoki the Eum to the end B andnotuilerfere wilh Ihe re\'oK'ing ami 
Two oi tluee of lliese Eums mpy liave to be made before one is secured lliatisof the e^act 
propoilions lo catch thevibmlionsiight 

To operate Ihe tnck, grip Ihe stick fmiilyuione liaiid, and with the foiwaidand 
backwaid motion of tlie olhei allow the firslfu^eito shde along Ihe topedge, the second 
firmer eiIoi^ the side, and the Ihumb npul will llien vibmte alor^ Ihe notches, llins mpiking 
the Eum revolve in one duection To make the Einn revolve in the o^^Bsile due c lion- -keep 
Ihe hand moving all Ihe time, so Ihe observer will not deled Ihe cliange which Ihe hand 
makes -allow Ihe fuatfingei lo shde Pilong the lop, as m llie olliei niffh'emenl, tlie Ihmiib 
andsecond fingei dialling places e g , In Ihe firslmovemenlyouscialch Ihe notches with 
Ihe thumb npiil wlule tlie liand is going fioni Ihe body, and m Ihe second movement ^u 
scmlchtlie nolclies with Ihe nail of Ihe second finger when the hand is coming toward Ihe 
body llius producing two differenlvibralions Inoiderlo make il work perfectly (^) ^u 
mustorcom'se spy "skidoo" u^en^ubegmtlie first movement, pndtlien, no mallei liov 
fast Ihe hitle aim is levolving whenclianged lo the second movement yon must spy 
"skidee" and Ihe arm will uumedialely slop pndbeguiievolving ui Ihe opposite direction 
By using llie magic words Ihe httle aim will obey ^m commands inslantly pnd ^m 
audience will be m^lified If any or ^ur audience presmue lo dispute, or Hunk Iheycando 
Ihe spme lei them liyil You will no doublbe pc cased of bio wing ordrawu^ myiiir 
breath, andmanyolliei lliings morderto make Ihe pim operate At least il is amusing Tiy 
il and see —Contributed by Cliailes ClemenI Bradley Toledo, Oliio 

E flee tt ofEadhim [116] 

Radium acts upon the chemical constituenls of gipss, poicelam andptipei, imperfii^ lo 
Ihem a violet lir^e, clianges white pliosplioius lo yellow, oxygen to ozone, affects 



phDlographplpiles Pird producer iimiiyolheicinioija cliemicalchpiiges 

Nuql,^tFdRfcordlll6] 

Quits official Inal Inp Ihc Bntsh torpedo ba p I dcsliD^r "Mohpwk" atlamed the lecaid 
ipeednf aLtlle over 39 iiules Pinliani 

H<pw n EntiTge from Lifeintht Camtra [117] 

Uaaally Ihe amELleni pliotagiRphei gets la a poiiilmlus loaik leheie the 
iiuscellELiieous teku^ of e^'eiytlur^ m s^lit is isoiaeiffhflt uiisfltisfymg There are many 
ispecia] fields he laay enter, and one of lliem is pliotamiciogiapliy It is usually undei- 
istaod Ihattlusbiaiich of photography means eui eKpensive apparatus If Ihe loorkerts 
iidI after too h^ha iiiagiuficaliDii, hoivever, fheie is a 'v'ery simple Riid effeclive meEuis 
of making pliotomiciogiaplis tiiuchieqaiies no Eidditioiifll apparatus tlial cannot be 
easily fliid quickly constiiic ted ht home 

Repodiiced with tlus Riticle is a photogiaph of dandelion, seeds — a magiuficahon 
of nine diameters Dieighly-one times The apparalus iffhich pioduced Ihis photograph 
coiisisledof a cauiei'a of fRuly loi^ diaiv, a means for lioldir^ itveilicRl, a sliort-focus 
lens, and, if possible, but not essential, a meEins fbrfbcusuig tliallens ma minute 
mannei On top of the tnpod ls the foldu^ RiTflr^ement, ivhichis easily constiuc ted ht 
home with two hir^ed boards, hn old hipcd screw, an old bed plate fiom a camera for 
the screw to fil in, Riid Iwo shding bidss peces with sets crews Ihal maybe piuclmsed 
from, any hardware store under Ihe name of desk slidir^ braces To the front boaid is 
attached abo:i, catryu^ the lens and llie bed of Ihe slidir^ object earner, which can be 
mov'ed fonvard and back by Ihe rack and pinion, that also can be obtained fiam 
haidivare stores If the bedfoi Ihe objecl cameibe attached lo Ihe bed of Ihe camera 
instead of to Ihe front board, Ihe objecl camei need have no independeni movement of 
its own, focusii^ being done by the froni and 




back focus of Ihe camera^ but this is less satisfactory, particniaily when accurate 
dimensioiLS aie to be deteimmed, says the Photographic Times This onlfil need not be 
confined to seeds alone, but small flowers, eaith, chemicals, insects, andtlie tliousand 
and one httle thu^s of daily life— all make beauhful subjects for enlarged 
pliotographs These cannot be made by laku^ an ordinary photograph and enlaigir^ 
tluai^ha lantern When a gelatine dry [iate is magnified mne diameteis, the grains of 
silver m the negative will be magmfied also and podnce a result that will not stand 




Magnified Nine Diemeleis 

close e:iE[i[iuialiar[ Pliolagiaphs loade bypholomiciDgraphy caiihe exdDiined like any 
olher plioh^iaplis Riid slioiff no niaie leztuie tlian will any pnnl. 



Siccl P«L iiscA in Drafbmui's Ink Holik Cork [117| 

Asleel psmnEikes anideeJ ^ubsliliile for a quill in the stopper of Ihe diaftsnum's ink 

bolEle The Eidv'anlage of tlus isubsliliile is flml lliere is alwa^^ one Imiidyfa replace a 
broken oilastpeii^ wlule it is not so with Uie quill— Contribute d by Geaige C r^fed- 
uon. Bostnn, Mflss. 

H«w » Makf aFil>lB3lloan[118] ByE GoddE^rd Jo^erisen 

Unusupil interest L3 be mg displayed in bpJlDorm^, and as itrs fastbecoriur^ Ihe 

favorite sport mpiny peKonp loauld like to know lioio to canstruci a rnrruature balloon for 
making ezpenmenls The foUowir^ lable will give the size, as well as Ihe capacity and 
liflii^ power of pilot balloons 

Cap inCu. Ft Lifhng Pawei. 



Dranteler 


Cap in 


5 ft. 


55 


6 ft. 


113 


7 ft. 


179 


Sft. 


26S 


9 ft. 




IGft 


523 


11 ft. 


691 


nf^. 


905 



3S1 



41b 


7 lb. 


11 lb. 


17 1b. 


33 lb. 


44 lb. 


57 lb. 



24 lb. 



The rnaleiral must be cutrn smlpible sliaped gores or segments In this Euticle ice shall 
confrne ourselves lo a ID-ft balloon If Ihe balloon is 10 fl in diameter, Ihen tlie 
circumference will be approzimalely 3-l'7 times Ihe diameter, or 31 fl 5 in We now 
tpike one-half tins ler^th lo make the ler^thof the gore, which is 15 ft 7-1^ in Get a 
piece of paper 15 fl 7-1^3 m loi^ and 3 fl wide from whrch to cut a paltern. Fig 1 A 
Ime, AB, is drawn lenglhwise andezaclly mtlie middle of the pepei, and a line, CD, is 
drawn at nght aisles to AB andm Ihe middle of the papei lengthwa^ The rntersecln^ 
point of AB and CD is used foi a centei lo ascribe a ciicle whose diameler is the same eis 
the width of the pi^per, Dr3 fl Drvrde one-quarter of the circle 




PaUqni tor OutUnt Hid SumtnEB 

Patlem far Cutluig Ihe IJegmenta 

iiiId IQ equal perls Eind also divide Dne-hpilf af Ihe line AB in ID equEdpartu 
PeipeiidiculEU lines aie drawn paiallel willi Ihe liiie CD inlcrseclir^ the division poiiils 
made on the one- lialf line AB HonsaiilEil Eind pmallel hues with AB Eue di'awn 
iiilerjecliiig Ihe divisiDii pauila made on the one- qnmlei circle Pind uiteKeclii^ Hie 
per|KiidicijlEirliiie diawn paiallel with CD Aline is now drawn fiam B Id E Eiiidrmm E 
Id F, and sd Dn^ milil EdI tlie intersecting Imes aie louchedand Ihe pomlC is reached 
Tins will foiiu the prapei cmve la cut the patlem The pnpei is now folded ontlie line 
AB and then on tlie line CD, keeping the mpuked pail an Hie aulside The paltein is now 
cut, cutlii^ all faui quarlei;; at the SEUne time, on the cnived hue fiom B la C When Ihe 
paper Ls unfaldedyou will hove a patlem as sliowii in Fig 2 Tins patlemLS used to 
niaik the clalli^ and after inaited is cut tlie spime sliape andsiae 

The cloth segmenls Eue sewed tagethei, using a fme needle and No 7D Ihiead, makmg 
a double seam Eis sliownui Fig 3 ^Mien all seams Eiie compleled ^u will liave abp^ 
the shape sliawii m Fig 4 A small portion of ane end or a seam mustbe left openfai 
iiiflalu^ A small tube made fiom Ihe cloth and sewed uilo ane end will make a belter 
place for inflEilii^ and to tie upl^htly 

It IS now necessaiy la vaimsh the bpg in order to nipke itielainthe gas Procuie 1 gpl 
af Ihe veiy best he Eiv'y body, boiled Imseed oil and mimeiae Ihe bag ui it Tlie suiplus oil 
IS squeezed duI by luiinii^ the bag llirough an aidinmy clothes wiii^ei several limes 
The bag is now placed ui llie smi foi a Ihaiaugh dryii^ Pul Ihe lemainii^ odui a ketlle 
wilhl/Elb ofbeeswax andbail well iDgelhei Tlus solution is afterward diluted with 
tmpentine so it will waik well When Ihe bag is diy apply Ihis mizture by rubbing it on 
llie bog wiiha piece of flaruiel Repeat this operalioii foui luues. 




Reiving Segiuenls Togelhei 



beii^ sure of a lliaioi^h diying mllie sun each lime Fdi indoor cobIii^ and diyu^ use 
a small Einioiuit of plumbic ozide Tins will diy lapidly in Ihe shade and will nal niPile 
llie ail hard 

Fill Ihe b^ wilhairby usii^ a paii of bellows Eind lea\'e it o\'ein^hl Tliis lest will 
sliow if the bag is aulighl If it is nal t^lit then the bag needs anolhei nibbing The nest 
apemtion is to fill Ihe bp^ wilh gEis 

H^^lrogen gas is made fiom uonand sulphuxic Eicid. The amaunls necessaiy foi a 10- 



ft balloon aic 125 lb of UDnbDnnga and 125 lb of sulphuiic acid 1 lb of nan, 1 lb of 
uulpliunc acid and 41b of ivaler willmEile 4cu fl of gpis in one lioui Secnic two 
emplybEuiels of aboul 52 gal copacily and conned Iheni, as sliownmFig i, with 3^4- 
in ppe In the band. A, place Ihe lion boni^s and fill onc-lialf full of deal loalei Fill 
Ihe other banel, B, with loater 2 in Pibove Ihe le\'el of tlie waler mbpinel A This is to 
giv'e El water peuaiue liead p^ampt foainii^ wlien tlie generataiLJ ui acliDn Aboul 15 lb 
of lime sliouldbe well mixed with Ihe water m the barrel B. All 





FIG 5 - The Hydrogen GeiieiElor 

jDiiitu most be seoled withplpislei of Paiis Pour mone-lialf of the acid into the barrel. A, 
with Ihe mjiibDimgs The barrels aie teptt^ht wlule the geneiatiDnii; goii^ on with the 
eKcephonof the outlet, C, to the bag When the action is stopped in Ihe generEiloi baiiel, 
A, lei the soluliDn run out and fill again eis before with watei and acid on the iron 
bomigu The outlet, C, sliouldbe always connecled with the bag wlule the generator is 
inaction The 3/4-in ppe extending down into tlie cooing lank, B, sliouldnolentei intn 
tlie WEiler D\'erS ui When filled withgEis tlie balloon is ready for a flight at the will of 
tlie opeiEitor 

Hov»CbanaClDck[119] 

Uiu veiy umiple to clean a cloct, which roEiy sound rEither absuid Foi anamateui ilis 
not alwa^ necessaiy to take the clock to pecei; With a Ltlle care andpalience and 
using some benzine, a clean ivlute lag, a sable brush and some oil ei clock CEin be 
cleaned and put into first-claus miming order The benaine should be cleEinand free fioni 
oil You can tealbensine by puttii^ a htlle on Ihe back of tlie liaiid, if it is good it will 
dry ofT, leaving the hand qmte cleEiii, butif anygreaise reniEiins on the hEind, it is not fit 
to U3e 

The oil uliouldbe of Ihe veiybest that can be [Macuied VegetEible oil:3 should never 
be used Clock oil can be pocuredfioin y]ui dn^gut or jeweler 

All loose dirl sliould be removed from the wortu by blowup wilh bellows, oi ei fan, 
or dusting with ei drybrush,mllie latler caue great care sliouldbe exercised not to ui]me any 
of llie parts Dip llie brush m Hie benzine PindcleEin Hie upmdleu andupmdle holeu, and the 
teelhof the escapemenlwlieel After wasliii^ a pail, wipe the bnishonthe rag andnnse m 
the benzine, this should be repepited frequendy, until no more dirt is seen 

WTien Hie clock lias diied, oil Ihe spindle liolea CEiiefully, dua mpiybe done widia 
toothpick or a shv'er of woodcut to a fine pomt Oil Hie tooth of the eacape me lit wheel 
shghtly, using a fine brush 

Hmr t«Makf Blueprint Lantern Slid« [120] 

Lantern slides of a blue tone Hialis a pleasing variety from the usual black mEiybe made 
fiam spoiled or old plates which have notbeen developed, by fixii^, washing well Piiid then 
dipping five minutes m Ihe foUowu^ solution 

A Gieen Ironanimoiuuni. citiate . 150 gr.. 
Wale I I oz. 



B Polassium fenocyBiiide 



SDgrl; 



Wale I I oz. 

Prepere flie ailutmn? Mpamlelyandmix equal parte foi use, alflie lime of employmenl 
Diy Ihe pletes in the dpiik, and keep in llic daik nnlil nscd Piuilu^ is done m Ihe smi, and b 
vigDianp negetivc ninslbc used, sa^ llie Movti^ Picluic World E:ipo:3urc, 20 la 30 nunulcu 
WbsIi id mumles inruium^ ivbIci and dry Brown or pn ^ lanes maybe hpdbyqeiigiliELng 
wilh llic foUowTiig ailulian instead afllie above 

DisliLled water 1 oz ; 
lilmei lulinle 50 gr , 
Taitanc oicilnc: acid 1/2 oz 

Bethe llic plales 5 niinutea, beeping the fillers aalof the salulion, la evoid blackened 
ukin Dry m Ihe derk Print la bianzuig undei b sboi^ negpitive , fiK uiliypo, loning first if 
desned 

A Subititule for a, Ray Filitr [120| 

Not many eniBteui pliolagrapheis possess a ray filler A goad snbstitule is Id use Ihe 
orai^e gbss from Ihe luby lamp This cenbe held m pouitian m front of llie lens wiiha 
nibbeiband A bngei e:ipo:3iire will be necessary, bal good cloud effect can be piocmedui 
llup nipiiner 

ElNlric Lamp F?p«riin«itT [120] 

Incandescent eleclnc lamps can be mede to glowuo Ihal they maybe seen ma daik room 
byinbbuig Ihe globe on clothing ai wiiha paper, leallieror linfoil and uiimedialely holdup 
iieer b l/2-in Rulmikorffcorl which l; m action but not sparking Tlie mimatore 16 cp, 2U 
and22-valllamps willshowqmle bnllianllybnl Ihe IIQ-vollglobeu willnolglaw When 
espenmenlii^ wilhlbese globes everylhing slianldbe dry A cold, diyalmospliere mllgi^'e 
beslresulls 






11,, r ^- - ^ 




AjuiiielI Regatta, Port Melbourne^ Austraha 

How wMakt 4 SimpfeWirFlcKic Ttltgnph [121] 

By ARTHUR E JOERJN 



AnefTicienl wueless-lelegrapli leceiv'ii^ apparatus for distances up la I.DOQ ft may 
be conslnicled inllie following niamiei Altncha ivalchcase leLephone receiver lo a diy 
cell, oi batlery, of any make The negalp'e pcle, oi zinc, af the cell is comiected lo a 
giauiid itfiie Tins is done byatlaching to a gas oi i*aler pipe The pcsilive pole, or 
caibon, of Ihe ceEis cannected to Ihe aenaLline This aenpilcoUecloi can be made m 



venous ways, eitliei by using a screen wue di iiuineious wues 



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For DlnlBJlLCa Up lO 10M Errt 

Foi Distflnces up to 1000 Feel 

made man apen cail and hung in llie air File h V-sliaped grooue in the oppsr endof llie 
CEiibonof the cell Altacha small bent copper wue in the buidir^ posi llialis attached lo 
llie zuic of the cell In liie bend of llus wiie and Ihe V-sliaped gioave filed into the 
CEiibon, lay E[ needle Tins will campLele the leceiving gtaliDn Use a spark coilm 
connection with a lelegrapli key for Hie sendu^ slalion, makmg h ground with one wue, 
and have Ihe a lliei connected with another aeiiRl hue 

By connecting tlie leleplione leceivei lo tlie cell and at Hie same time liavir^ a short 
circuit El leceivu^ slRlianis made As the leleplione offers a li^h lesislance, ptul of tlie 
ciuienl will tiy lo lake Ihe slioilei lugh resistance tluough Ihe needle If the waves sinke 
aciass tlie needle, Ihe lesislance is less, and Ihusless cuiient ti'aveb 
tliroughtlie leleplione receivei If Ihe WEive ceases, Ihe lesislance between llie needle and 
llie caibonis uicieased, Emdas less cmieni will flow Ihe sliorl way, it is compelled lo 
Ipike tlie loi^ei melallic way tlirough the windings of the leceiv'ei, wluch will cause tlie 
chckmgs that can be lieaid 



To PrfUfive Putty [121] 

Putly, when left exposed lo Hie an, will soon be come dry and useless I have kept 
putty m good condihon for moie lliana ytpuby placing ilm a glass jar Pind keepir^ it 
enliiely covered with water 

Htm la M^kt % Snudl Sloroge Balttry [12 1| 

The cell of a storage batleryconsisls of two plRles, h positive Find a negative, made of 
lead and ploced m a dilute solution of sulphmic acid Large batteiies made of Ipuge cells 
liave a gieal number of plRles, bolhpasilive and negolive, of iiiuchall posilive pliiles 
are coiinecled lo one lerminal Riidtlie negative plales to Ihe olhei leiniuial The stoi'age 
cell, as desciibedbelow, is tlie r^hlsise to be chaigedby a few gmvity cells and is 
eosily made 

Secuie El pece of 1-3/4-in lead pipe, 5 in long, and cul both ends smoolh and square 
with Ihe pipe lioldei el cuculEudist of lead lo one end, forming a cupof Ihe pipe As 
tins cup musi hold tlie sulphuric Eicid it must be perfectly liquid- light 

11 IS Eilso necessary to gel another leEidppe of Ihe same lei^lhbulonly 3M-m in 
diaineler In this ppe sliouldbe bored as niEiny l/3-in holes 




fl? possible, e:iceplfDi abaal I m oneacliciid One eiidof llus lube is Jiarnmcredlogelheras 
uliawnal Am llie sbelcli la make b pocbellD holdflie paste Tlup, af canise, doe? iiolnecd la 
be walerliglil. 

Abo:i of waodismade lo hold llic laiger liibe or cup This bos can be squaie, and Ihe 
conieru lefl open aroimd Ihe cup can be filled willi sawdust A uuppoitis now made fnim p 
block of waodlo liold Ihe tnbe, B, ui place and Id keep iI from touching the cup C This 
uuppoil oibbck, D, IE cutcuculer with llie ueme diameter as llie lead cup C The lawer 
portion af Ihe block isculawayuo it will jusi fil upide af Ihe cup lo fomi b stopper The 
center of Ihis block isnowbaied lo make b hole Ihe same size bs the smallei lead pipe Place 
Ihe lead pipe in Ihe hole Biid immeise it m smakiiig hot paraffine wax, and leave il luihl Ihe 
ffoad has become lliaioi^hlyaaliuated with llie lial wax Uue caie lo keep the waK fram 
iTiiiim^ on the leBdat anyplace olhei Ihanthe endwitlunthe waod block Two bindii^-posla 
ulianldbe atlBclied, ane lo Ihe posiliv'e, oi tube B, and the olhei to Ihe negBliue, ai tube C, by 
uoldem^ llie joint 

A pflste foi the posilive plate is lUBde fioni 1 pait sulphmic acid and 1 part WBler with a 
uufficienl amount of red lead added to make af tluckdiycoiiaslency \Vhen mixing llie acid 
and water, be uiire to add the Bcid lo Ihe water and not Ihe WBlei to the Bcid Alsa lemember 
that sulphuric acid will destroy anythii^ that it cames m contact with Biid will make a painful 
bum if it laucheu Ihe hands ^lu Ihe mixliue witlia ulickand niiena gooddiypaule is 
formed, pnlilinio Ihe smBllertnbe and ram itdownnnlil Ihe tube m ahnosl filled The pesle 
that may have come lliranghthe holeu is sciaped off Biid Ihe tube uetBside la dry The iBige 
tube 01 cupij filled with adilaled solution of sulphuric Bcid This salulion should be about 
one-twelflh acid The cell isnowcomplele BiidicBdy forstoiing the ciuienl 

The cell maybe cliBiged wilhlhiee gravily cells Tliese aie comiected m senes and llie 
posilive temunalbuiding-poslon llie slor^e cellu comiecled la llie wire leadii^ fiom Ihe 
coppei plate m llie gravity cell The alliei pble l3 comiected la Ihe zuic The fiistchB^e 
slianldbe lonmlo llie cellfai about one week and bU subsequent chB^es should only lake 
fiam 10 la 12 hours 

Filting a Phig in DiEfeifni Slu^tdHoks [122] 

A certain king offered to give the pimce his liberty if he canld whitlle a ping IhBt would fil 
four dilTeie lit shaped holes, nBmely a uquaie liale, b loimdone, anablang ane and a tnaii- 
gulBi one, says llie Pallifindei Abiaomslick was used to niBke Ihe pli^ Biid il was whitfled m 
Ihe shape uhawn 




Fit^ Folu rhfTeienl Shaped Hole:; 

m pjg 1 The lialesuiflie differciitplacc^ as diDwiiinF^. !!, were fitledbyllusone ping 

Hov laM^kf^L^htningAiTtiEttr [122| 

Sccme apiece af wood eboul 3-1 J2 m aqnere flmt will fuinisli b nice finish end lound flie 
conieri; andiiipke a iJiiiall rounding edge as sliaimm llie skelch Fioma pece af braids 1/16 
m. thick cnl iwo peces alike, A andB, andmalch lliem h:gelhei, leavii^ about lA6in be- 
tween their uppei ec^es andfeijtendiemto the waodwilhbuiding-poijts The thud piece of 
bra:;?, C, l; fitted 




betiffeen Ihe pieces A EindB allowii^ a spnce of 1/16-m allaronndthe edge One bindii^- 
pDslaiidasniall^rew will hold die pece of brass, C, uipkce on the wood The 
connections are made from the line wiiei; to tlie two uppeibiiidii^-pDsl:; and pii'allel from 
the lawerbuiding-posti; to tlie mstnunent The llmd bmdn^-pDst on C n; coimected la the 
gromid wue Any heavy cliaige fioia lightning will]ump llie saw teeth pert of the bmss and 
IS giounded williaut domg haini to the inslmnienli; used -Contributedby Edwin Walker, 
Chicago, m 

A Homc-Madf FunI [123] 

Aflatbaltambaatiseaijy lo make and is one of Ihe safesi boats, as it is not readily 
CTv'erlumed It has tlie advant^e ofbeii^ rowed from eillier end, and has plenty of good 
ijeatmg capacity 

Tins punt, as shown inF^ I, isbmlt 15 ft lai^, about 20 m deep and 4 ft wide The 
eiirls are cut sloping for about 20 m back and under The sideu aie each made up fiam 
boards lie Id together wilh battens on the uiside of the boat near Ihe ends ardinthe middle 
One wide board sliauld be used for Ihe botlom piece Two pins aie driven m the lop board 
of each side to uerve as oarlocku 

Tlie bottom 15 coveied with mate lied boards not over 5 m wide Theue peces are placed 
together as closely as possible, uping u^te leadbelweenthe jamlu and iiailmg them to the 
edgeu of the sideboaid? and la a keel utnp thatiiuip the lei^tli of tlie punt, ;\s shown mF^ 
2 Before nailu^ the boaids place lamp wicking belweenthem and the edgeu of the side 
boards Ordygah'anised nails sliould be used Inordei to make the puntperfecUy watei- 
tightitisbeslto use Ihe dneut lumber obtainable Alone end of the pmila ukag and a 
mddercanbe atlachedas sliownmFig 3. 




Eb&v III BiJiLd a— 6 SifBln Ui« 

Easylo Build Eind^dfe To Use 
Plioto^iaphtrs' Piinling Fiune Stand [1231 

V/hciinsmg devclopu^ paiKR ilw alwa^bolheiaoiae lo build up books or 




Adjustable lo AiiyHe^ht 

small boxes lo niPike a [iacc lo sctihe puitu^ frame mfianlof tlie lighl Delails for 
making a small slandlhalis ad]uslpble lo aiiydesuedheighlaie shown in the sketch In 
Fig I IS slcwn Ihc conslructionof the shdu^ holdei Apece ofilA-m gas pps. A, iscul 
I ui. long andfilted wilh a Ihunibsciew, B The piece of ppe is soldered lo the middle on 
the back side of a pece of nielal Ihatis Pib out 4 by 4- 1 /If in with its lower e(^e turned up to 
foim El small shelf as sliownat C The mam pari of the sland is made bymserlmg a 5/16-m 
lad tightly mlD a block of hard niople wood lliat is 1 in thick pnd3-iy? in squEue (F^ 3). 
The ppe thatLS soldeiedto llie metal suppoil will shde up and down llie rod and the 
thumbscrew can be set to hold it Eilthe desired point 

H«3l uid E:i9ans>>n [124| 

Take Einelecliic light bulb fmin wliichthe eiu has nDlbeenej^hausledandimmeise it in 
watei and then break olf tlie pDuil As Ihere is a vacaummthe bulb it will quickly fill with 
watei ^hake the bulb genlly until Pi p^rtof the water ls out and then screw the bulb mto a 
socket wilh llie pomtalwa^ downwaid Apply the cunentandthe hepiledair insidE will 
sooneKpend Pind force llie water duI with great mpidity Sometimes this ezpsiimenlcanbe 
done se^'eral times by using tlie same bulb -Conli]buledbyCui"hss Hill, Taconia, Wash 

Photogiaipluiigi Stitik of Lightning [124| 




The accampoDymg lUushatDii is a lemaikable pliolagiapli of a slieak of l^htiimg Many 
inlcreslu^ pcluiea of fluskmdcanbc made duimg a aloiia al n^ht The CEUoem is seluia 
pkce wheic il will nal get we I and kfl atpinduig with the uhuHcr open and the plote lepidy 
far the e:ipoai]ie Should a l^htiiuig flieab appear within the miige of Hie lenp it will be 
made on Hie plate, uiuch can be developed ui the uaual mpiuier II will requite ainie atten- 
tion to that pwl of the sty within the range of the lena ao eis lo nolmate b double exposme 
by letling b second flpah enlei Hie open lens —Contributed by Chprles H Wagiiei. 



Borax maybe used as a soh/tnt for shellac gam. 

■ ••11 

Haw taMikeq Small Siiiglt-FliiseliidmtnnMoloT [12^ ByC H Bell 

The foUowii^ notes on a ainall amgle-phaae induttion motor, witlioat ainihEiryphiise, 
wluchthe wntei has niEide, maybe of uilereslto aome of ouiiepideis, uay^ the Model 
Er^uieer Tlie problem lo be solved wau the conatiuction of a moloi large enough lo drrue a 
uewiiig machine or 'h'ery light laihe, lobe snpphedwilh llO-volt Edtenmling current fiam a 
lightir^ ciicmt, pndto consume, if poaaible, no more cnnenllhiina Ii5-cp lamp In 
deu^imig, itliad lobe borne in mind thai, with the exception of inaulaled wire, no apecial 
materials could be obhiuied 





E^ll^^^E^z'ilSH^^ O 




U-i!-- 1 Fhi a I- H 



The piintiplE of an induclion mo tons quite different fioni tliatof the coimoatatoi motor 
The winding of tlie amialure, oi "lotoi," has nocomiection withtlie outside circmt, bultlie 
cmienlis induced uiitby tlie aclionof Ihe Edtemaling cuiient supphedto tlie winding of 



Ihe ficld-niagiict, ar "ulator " Neitliei commulaloriiarulipiuigu are reqmied, andEill 
upaiku^ isB^'oided Uiifoitimalely, iLos litlle machuic is iiolKlf-ulartmg, buta slighlpull 
on Ihebeltjuslaa the cmieiilis toniedonis dl Ihalis needed, and Ihe molaiiapdly gathers 
speed piDvidedrD load is pul an lutlil il isuislepwilhlhe Eillcmaliona of the supply It then 
iiuis at constant speed whether given much DiLttk cunenl, but slops if oveikiEidedfDr 
more Uiana few seconds 

The stetoihiis foui poles and is bmll up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove ppies, 
which runs about 35 sheets to Ihe inch All the peces are pJihe Eind cut on the lines with 
the dimensions as sliownm Fig I, with the dotted line, C, to be filed outaflei they Eue 
placed lagetliei Each layer of faui is placed wilh tlie pomled ends of the poeces 
altenialely lo tlie i^hland leflso as tobreakjomts as slioitfii m F^ 2 The laminations 
were carefully built upon aboaiduilo which lieovy wires liadbeendiiven la keep them 
in place until eJI were m position and Ihe lohole could be clarapied down In the middle 
of tlie peces ilA-m holes, B, ivere tlien drilled Pind IM-m bolls put inand lightened up, 
Iwge holes being cul Ihrough the wood lo enable this to be done The aimature tunnel 
was then caiefully filed out and all lakenapmrt again so that the loi^h edges could be 
scmpEdoffand the lamiiiatioiis given a thin coat of sheHoc vainish on one side After 
assemblir^ a second time, the bolts were coated with shellac aiul pul into place for 
good Holes 5-32 in indiametei loeie diilled in the comeia. A, andfJled wilhiivels, 
also'h'ainiahedbefoie they loeie put in When put togelher Ihey should make b piece 2 
m thick 

Tins peculiM construction was adopled because pnopei stampi^s were not availpible, 
and as eveiybit of sheet iron hod lobe cut with a small pflir of linners' siups, it was 
impoitEint to have a very simple outhiie for Ihe pieces They are not piarliculEirly occumte 
as it IS, and wlien some of Ihem got out of llieir propier older wlule beii^ varnished, an 
awkward job occurred mtlie niognel wluch was ne'h'erenlirely corrected No daub I some 
eneigy IS lost llirough Ihe la^e numbei af]ainls, all repnesenlu^ breaks m the magnetic 
circuil, but as the lamuiatioiis aie lightly held togelherand the circmt is Piboutas coin- 
piact as it could possibly be, pobably the loss is not eis greolas il would ppipieai at first 
sight 

The rotor IS mode of lamuiatioiis cul from sheeliron, as sliown m Fig 3, which were 
varmshed l^htly on one side and clampied on the shnflbelween two nuts in the usual 
way A 'h'ery sl^ht cul was taken m the lolhe aflerwaids lo true Ihe circumference The 
sliafi was lunied from l/2-in wrought uaii, no sleelbeu^ obtainable, Eind is shown with 
dimensions inF^ 4 The beam^s were cast ofbobbitt metal, as shown inFig 5, in b 
wooden mold and bored to siae with a twisldiiU in the lathe They Eire filled wilh 
oiEluiEiry wicklubncalois F^ures 6 and 7 aie sections showing tlie geneial airai^ement 
of tlie niEichine 

The statoris wound full with No 23 double cotlon- covered cop^Ki wire. 




about 2-1/2 lb beii^ used, and the connections aie such as to produce allemale poles-thai is, 
the end of the first coil isjomed lo the end of Hie second the begmning of the second la Hie 
beginnii^ of Hie thud, Eind the end of the Huid lo Ihe end of Hie fourth, while the begiimings 



of llie fiisl and fomHi coils cannecl la llie supply 

The iDlori? ivomid wilhNo 24 donbk CDtlDii-co^'ercd copper wire, each limb beu^ filled 
wilh aboul 300 tonia, and all wound m llic uame ducclioii Tlie fani coiiimencing ends are 
connected lagethei on one side af Ihc lalorandlhc fom finishing ends are saldciedlogelliei 
on llie othei Allwuidii^ spaces aie caie fully covciedwi Hi Iwd la^^rs of cambric soekcdin 
uliellac, Pind as each layer of wire was wannd, il was ivellaaluialedwi 111 vpniiah before the 
iieKl was put on 

This lype of matoi has diaobacbs, bs before stated^ bul if regular slampu^s ere used for 
the iBnunalioiis, il wouldbe veiy smiple to build, having no CDmmulaloi di bnislies, and 
would not easilygel out of order No starbng lesLslance is needed^ and as Hie niolai ninsal 
constant speed, dependu^ apon Hie number of allema lions of Hie supply, a regulahog 
lesLslance is not needed 

Cubabr A(UBurnrU26| 

The jHiii of caibaln: acidbnms cenbe reLevedprompHy by washing ■wilhakahol, if 
applied immediFilely If loa late fai alcohol lobe of use, brush wiHi water CDnlanmig 
sahirale d solution of pcnc ecid 

How uM^kt aP^^FTBoDkCoYFT 1116} 

Book covers become sailed in handling andespei^iE^IlyscliaolbDoks. VE^riiDS methods are 
applied fai making a lemporaiy cover that will protect the book i;a\'ei. A paper cover CEin be 
quickly made by using a piece of paper laigei than both cove is an the book when they are 
opien Fold Hie papei anlhe 1di^ dotledhne, asshownmFig 1 When the folds are made Hie 
paper sliauld Hienbe joslas wide ;\s Hie book cover is h^h The ends eie then folded on Hie 
sliaildaltedlines, which willmake ilappepir Bs shawnuiFig 2 The pepiei Hius folded is 
plecedon Hie book coveras showninF^ 3-Contiibaledby C E P.1cKinney, Ji , Newaik, N 
J 




ToPrutaelBDDlEOmrt 

Td Protect Book Covers 

How to Mikt Lant«n HMfs [127] 



The populanly of lantern slides, and especially of coloied ones, as a means of 
lEiislralii^ soi^s, lias caused so la^e a demand for this class of work thai almost any 
aiiiateui may lake up slide makir^ at a good profit The lantern slide is a glass plate, 
coated with slow and extieiiielyfine-giauied emulston Tlie size is 3- W4 by 4 m A 
lantern slide is merely a prmtona glass plate instead of on piapei Lantern slides can be 
made in two different ways One Lsby contacl, exacHy the same as a print is made on 
piaper, and tlie otlierbyreducttonm the camera In making slides by conlacl, select die 
negative and place it mtlie pnnluig frame and put the lantern plate iipnnit, film to film 
Clamp down the back and expcse just as mniakuig a print AgoodmeHiod of e:iposir^ 
IS to hold a hghled match about 3 m from Ihe frame foi tluee or more seconds accord- 
11^ to Hie density 
Developneiil is earned on m the same mamiec as widi a negaliue The im^e sliould 



apfeaim aboul el iiimule, aiiddevelapinenlsliouldbe D\'ei ui lliiee or faui imiiules If 
tlie expoisme hasbeencaiTect, the Iug3i3^hls will slay while tliiDughoiit the 
development and will came autai; c le eh glass eflec fixmg ItLsbe^l to use Uie developers 
recaminendedbythe manufactuieiaf the plalesused, tlie faiiiiulasbeu^ found m each 
pflchage of plates It is best, also, lo use a plain fixing bath, which must be fieshand 
kept as cqdI as passible in hoi weEilhei 

The lEintem-slide film lliatis new on the inatketcEinbe handled m the saine maniieias 
tlie glass-plate slide, e:iceptlhal the bmrliiig is different The resullsare the same and the 
slides aie nalsobultylo handle Being luibieELkable, they Eue much used by Iravelers 
The manner of biiidii^ them fai use m el lantern is described on the cucnlai enclosed 
with Ihe film 




Tlie Canieia as It is Anar^edui Front of tlie Wuidow foi Reducii^ tlie ^ize of a 
Picture^ and the Melhod of Buiding Ihe llliiles 



When Ihe negative is Laigei tlian tlie lanlem-shde piFLle, and ilis desirable to leduce 
tlie entire view upon llie shde, el htlLe eKlra woik will be necessaiy ^etecla looin with 
one window, if possible, andfila light-proof fiame into il lo beep out all l^lit with Ihe 
e:iceplianof El liole m wluch lo place the iiegELlive, els shown mFig 1 Unless Ihis liole is 
ana line with the sty il wiUbe necessary la place a sheel of while CELidboaidal ELnai^le 
of 45 deg on Ihe outside of the fiame la reflect Ihe l^ht Ihroi^h tlie negativ'e as ahawnm 
Fig 2 Make or secure anuiside kit la piFLce mlhe piFile lioldei af ^ni cameia to hold Ihe 
lanlemslide piFLle as shown mF^ 3 Diaw lines with a pencil, oulhiur^ on llie giomid 
glass of tlie CFLDieia tlie size of Hie IpinlEm slide plate, and mlhe piFice wlieie the piFile will 
be m Ihe plate lialder wlien placed in position m the canieia This will enpible jcuto facus 
lo tlie prapersi3e Place the cainem mfninl of Hie hole mthe frame, place the negative m 
the hole Find facus Ihe cameiPi for Ihe lantern shde sise Expose wiHi fl medium atop for 
about 2U secands and treat Ihe plate Ihe same fls wilh Ihe conlactexposme 

\Vhendiylhe lanlem slide plate niFiybe lulled any calar by meana af liquid colors 
These can be purcliasedfiom anypholo material sloie Incoloru^ Ihe slide plate it is only 
necessaiy la moislenthe gelatme film fram tune la hine wiiha pece of clalh dampened m 
walei The cabrs niFLy Ihenbe spread evenly with a safi brash, which sliould be keptm 
motianto jreveni spots 

The shde is pul together by placmg a mat made afblFick paper, as shawnmFig 4, an 
Ihe gelaluie side af Ihe lantern slide. A, Fig 5. andtliena plamglFLSS, B, over the niFil, C, 
and Ihe three baund logetliei wilhpeaaepflrloutlape, D Conlrastynegalives mate IhebesI 
slides, but Ihe lantern slide plate should be niFLde wilhaul any FLilempt to gFLin density 



HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [118] 



The malenal needed raiiiiEikmg Ihis porch swniig chau Ein Iffo pieces of round wood 2- 
1^ III in diBmeleraiid2Q in long, prdlwo pieces !-iy4m indiamelei and 40 in long 
Tlieue bngei pieces can be made square, bul for pppepiPince ilubestla liave them round or 
square wilhihe conieia rounded Apiece of canvau, aiodieisloutclalh, 16 in wideEuul^O 
in long, IS la be used for the ueat The two shoil pieces of wood Eue used far the ends of Ihe 
chair EindtwD I -in liales are boxed in eachendof llieni l-IO in from the ends, and 
betiffeen Ihe holes and the end? graoveu aie cut Enouiid them la make a place to fpisten 
lapes, PL? shown bIB, Fig 1 The Iwa longer pieces aie usedfoi llie :3ides Pirda tenon lu cut 
on eachendof llieni to fit in the l-in loles bored in the end pieces, ps shown at A. F^ I 
The cpinvau is now lacked on Ihe end pieces andtlie pieces gp'enone torn before placir^ 
the nioitisu^ togetliei 




The chpu is iioiff hung up to the poich ceding withiopeu attached to a laige sciewejfl oi 
liook The end of Ihe cliairtobe used Ibi Ihe lowei pari is lieldaboul 16 in fioni the floor 
with lopes duect fiam Ihe grooves m Ihe eiidpeces to the hook The upper end lu 
:3upforledbyuEuig a rope in the form of a loop orbpiil, eis shown inF^ 2 The middle of 
the loop or bail should be Pibout 15 in fiam Ihe end piece of Ihe cliaii Another rope is 
attached to the loop and tluoi^hthe lioot and to ashde ;\s shown This will allow foi 
adjuptmenltpniake tlie device into a cliaiiora hnmraock— ContribuledbyEail R 
Hautu^s, Connth, Vt 

How 10 Find tlie Blind ^atinlheE7« [129] 

Make a sniPill block circulai dot l^in m diameter on p piece of caidbopidandaboutB 
in from the cenleiof this dot diaw a utar Holdtlie cprdboard so tliat Ihe star will be 
diiecllymfiontof one e^, while Ihe dot will be infiont of Ihe olhei If the stai l3 m&oni 
of the left eye, close the r^hte^ and look steadily p I the utar while ^umoh'e Ihe 
cprdboard unhl Ihe pomtw reached wheie the dot disappears Tins will prove the piesence 
of p blind spot in a peison'u e^ Tlie olhere^ cpnbe given Ihe same e:ipenmeiitby 
tmnu^ the cardboard end for erd Tlie blind spot doeu notuidicate duepsede^s, butit 
uimply marks the pomt wlieie the ophc nerve enters Ihe eyeball, which pDint is not pro- 
vided with the necessaryvisupl end oigansof the s^ht, known au lad? and cones. 

Brcw^x Subslltule [129] 



A wa:i from the lafie pflhu of Ivladagascai lu being usedpsa substitute foibeeswa:i 
HoMt-Madv Water WheelDo« Fikmil; Washing [129] 




The MCDinpenyiiig ukclch illuplrales p\'eiyiiigEiiiou5 device which does Ihe fEimily 
wauliing, p? ivelles lo opeiPile olliei houseliold niacluiieu A disk I in in lluctiicuu and ID 
111 indiameler wau cutfiam opcce of rough boaid, and anils cucuiiifeiencc were npiilcd a 
number of cup-uliaiKd pcces culfrom old lincEuis A. hole was thenboiedthiaugh Ihe 
cenlei af Ihe disk and an oldpece af iionrod was dn^'en Ihmugh Id foim a uliaft Two 
lialeu weie Ihen bared opposite epch DlherlhiDugh Ihe sides of a wooden box ui iffluchlhe 
dipk was placei pJlDwing Ihe sliafllo [HDjecl Ihioi^hlhe lioteu A small grooved wooden 
pulley was diiven l^lilly on one of Ihe piojecling ends of llie uhafl Tlie lop of Ihe box was 
Ihen bghlly closed and ohole, laige enough lo Eidniilihe nozzte of b gaidenhose, wau bored 
uo llial Ihe jel of water would floiff upon Ihe bnbuckels Ihol weie nailed lo llie 
circumference of Ihe wheel or disk Anolherliole wau bored inlhe boHom of llieboK Ipi^e 
enoi^h lo allow Ihe waste watei lo run a way freely A bell, made from Pin ordinary uash 
coii was rmi fiam Ihe small pulley on Ihe wnlerwheel lo b large pulley, au uliowninFig I 
Apibnan was allaclied lo Ihe large pulley, which opemles Ihe washirg machmebyite 
lecipiocaling mohoii, Firdlhe lei^lh of Ihe siroke m adjusted by moving llie position of Ihe 
Im^E jomlon Ihe armof Ihe washing machme, psshown m F^ If The pressure al Ihe 
nozzle IP aboul 2U lb per square inch, and is sufficient lo dnue the waterwheel mideiall 
ordmpiy circumstances -Contributed by P. J O'Giiii, Auburn, Cal, 

An OpIkolUluiian [130] 



When bokii^ etthe accompflnying skelchyou will say thai Ihe lelleia are allemately 
inclined to Ihe r^hlandlefl They are not so and can be proved by nieasum^ Ihe distance of 
Ihe top Biidbotlom of any veihcal strokes fiamthe ei^e of llie entire block. They will be 
found to be eKacllythe same distence Oi teke eny of Ihe hoiisontelstiokes of the foiu letters 
and see howfai llieu e:ilienulies are from Ihe lopaiidbotlom of llie entue block 11 will be 
foundlhala line joining Ihe exbemilies of Ihe shakes are strictly peiallel to Ihe lop oi botlom 
and thai they are not on a slant at all II is llie slant of Ihe nmiieious slioit hnes thai go lo 
nieke up llie tetter as a wliole Ihal decer^'es Ihe eye 




Hom^-MTidF MkroBFler [13V] 



H DflciibecDiiicu iieccuMry lo fmdilic fluckiicKof iiiPilcnpil uo thin, or uicoit'eiuenl lo 
mesisuie, lliala mle di alliei measming dcice will iial seme llic poipose A simple, fpuly 
accniale, and easily iiiedc appaialus of IIie micromelei formiiiBybe coiisliiicleda? shown by 
Ihc accomjHnyii^ skelch ^eciuc a conmiDii iron or brass bolt aboul l^^-in in diameter end 
about 2-1/2 ui loi^, Lvilbasfiiie p Ihiepid aspouuible, and the llircadcal Id willun a shoit 
dislancc of Ihe lieed of the boll Tlie hcadof llie bolls should hav'e a ulalcalfoi Ihe nse af a 
ucKwdnver Cbmp logethci tivD blocks of waodwilhsquaie comers which are about I in 
wide, 3/4 in thick and 2-1/2 m loi^ and fasten Ihcm logetlierwilhuiiiallpeces muled across 
the ends The width of Ihe blacks will Ihenbe about 2 in Boie a l/4-m liale tluough llie 
center of Ihe blocks ui Ihe 2 m direction Remove Ihe clamp and se I Ihe nut into one of the 
blocks, so thai the hole will be continuous wilh the hole in Ihe wood Cnlanla pece from Ihe 
block combinaliDn, leaving ilsliapedlikc a bench, end glue Ihe bottoms af Ihc legs lo apiece 
of llunboerd ebout 2-1/2 in sqnere fai b snppoil 

Solder one end of a sliifwue Ihal is about 2 in long lo Ihe head of llie ball etr^hl aisles 
lo Ihe sliafl, and fix b di3c of heav-y pasteboard with a ladiuj equal lo Ihe lei^lhof Ihe wire, 
and Willi lis cucumfeience gradualedmla eqnel spaces, la serve mmeasuiii^ re^'olulions of 
Ihe end of Ihe wire, lo llie lop af llie bench Put Ihe boll m Ihe hole, screwing il through Ibe 
iiul. 



^^ 


y% 


^^r 




/(-- — <• 


i% 


£ ^=- 


=^ 


1"-^^ 


^ 


^^g 


^k 


H-'-^B 


ipn 


^^B 


^m 


%^d-J^ 


r"^ 


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9^ 


fa^ 


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1 



and the cansliiiclion l3 complete Thebese is improved for the meBsiirii^ workby fpslemng a 
uiiiall pece of wood on llie baaidbelweenihe legs of the bench A small piece of nielalu 
glued on llus piece of wood at Ihe pouit wlieie Ihe boll meets il 

Find Ihe nnmbei af threads af Ihe uciewlo Ihe inch by placing Ihe boll an e^ meBsiim^ 
nile^ Biidcomitu^ llie Ihiead? manmchof its length Tlie ballinmaku^ one levolalion will 
descend a dulance equal Id the dislpince belweenthe Ihieads 

The device is iisedby placii^ llie objecl whose Ihicknessis la be meE^suiedonlhebase 
under llie ball, end ucie wing the boll down until ilu end]U3l louclieu Ihe abjecl, Ihen 
lenuning Ihe abjecl, andsciewii^ Ihe boll down imhl its end jnsi touches llie base, carefully 
iialing wlule doing so llie dish^nce llial llie end af Ihe wne moves over Ihe scele The part of a 
rotahanof llie ball, or Ihe niimbei of lolalions willi any additional parts of a lalalion added, 
divided by the nmiiber of threads to the uicli, will be llie thickness of Ihe objecl Qmte 
accnrale measuiemenlu nieybe niPide wilhlhis uiplmmenl, sa]^ Ihe Scientific American, and 
m Ihe absence of the e:ipeiisn'e micrometer, itsep'eu a veiy useful puipose 



Anotltei Eltilric Limp E:^CTim«il [131] 

Bicak a porliDii af IIie endolTframa Ifl-cp globe llialhea been IhiDwii away as nseles:^ 
IJIiake Ihe globe mibl ellthe filBiiieiil is broken away, leevu^ only llie ends of llic plalinmn 
win CKpoMd Sciewlhc globe inlo aaickel Ihalsels upi^lil and fill itwillisBll walci Meke 
one CDimccliDntD Ihe aickclfn)m llic positive wiic of a llOvDllcucmlandthe olher lo a 
ground \Vlienllic cnneni m tonied on small slais wnllbe seen in Ihe globe, which show up 
fine aln^hl —Conhibulcd by Lindsay McLliUan, IJanIa ^■1alla, Oal 

Rtnaving Ink Sloin^ [HI] 

Two or lluee applicaliDnsof iiiilk Hiuchoie wiped up wiUia diycloth will remove mdia 
lilt spDts on caipela 

Ftal of B^Lnncingon Chairs [HI] 




Feat of BaldDclu^r on Cbalrs 

Among the numerans pli^icalcKeicises ls Ihe fcal of balancing an Ihe iwo lepr legs of a 
chau wlule one faolrcsis anilie froni perl of llie seal and Ihe oilier an Ihe back of llie cliau 
This may appeal lobe a liaid tiling Id da, ^1 witiia liUle piaclice itniaybe accDmphshed. 
ThisexercLse ls one afmanypraclicedby Ihebo^ of abo^' home for an aimnal display 
gruenbylhem A dozen of Ihe bo^ wtU nioiml chaus allhe same lime and keep Ihem m 
balance al llie word of a commanding officer 



How W M^kf % Mfriy- Go -Round ^ing |131] 

A flbyi5-m piece of wood 12 fl loi^ ls used for tiie ceiitei pole Boie a 3'4-m hole in 
each end Id a depth of 6 m Place a 3/4-m. bolt m each hole, the boll being long enoi^hlo 
protiiide 2 m beyond the end of the wood iliorl pieces of woodaie nailed an the center pole 
about 3 fl fiDin tiie end thai is lobe osedfoi the bollam Tins should faim a hub on which to 
place llie innei ends of Ihe e:ilending spokes that liald the platfoim The spokes are made 
fiamtweh'e pieces of I!by4-m material 12 fl Idi^ 

Usually a wheel can be found ma scmppile suitable to place on the pin lliatis m llie tap 
endaf the cenlei pole The wheelshouldbe open 




Bid* anil Top VIh 



IJidc aiid Tap View 



or liav-e spokes This wheelis upedlo attach wires forgu^^ The boltoiii pnin llic center 
pDle IS pipcedma liole tliattj bored mto a block of wood about i^-in square Eind3 di 4id 
thick A piece afuhe el metal uliouMbe drilled and placed an the pinbetiffecii the block and 
eiidof tlie |nle to niPike b smooth bcaiing The center pile isDDwplacedm.pDsitioiiand 
gu^d with ui:! wires Ihatare EibDut35 ft loi^ Stakes aie driven iitlo llie giomidand llie 
wires fastened to llieni and lo the wheel at llie topendof Ihe pole Care should be taken 
when attaching the wiieu to get the center pDle to stand perpendicular TweK^ hootu 
sliQuldbe placed at equal dislances Piroundthe cenlerpDie about I ft from the lop end 
Wires Eire festenedto these hooks Emdto the twelve 2 by4-in pieces usedfbi Ihe spates 
The wires should be lied around each spDke about 2 ft from the ends ^pflce the up^kes 
with equal drviaiDiis and CD^'er the autei 2 fl of the ends wilhboaids, ps shown in Ihe plan 
sketch on Ihe nghthandeiidof tlie drawii^ The boaids nipybe nailedarbalted Ifbolted 
and Ihe wiies made in p loop at the hooks^ the swing cpnepsilybe taken opart and changed 
from one place to anather.-ContributedbyA O Giahpm, Foit Worlli^ Tex 

Haiiw-Madt Aif Lin^ [132] 

The fmme of the lainpis made from barmelal 3/4in wideandl^in thick, bent Picd 
welded to make ocaiitinuouE loop in the sliape ;\s shown at Gui the sketch Tins frame 
sliauldbe about lD-l/2 in. long with the uppei or wider part 4 in long, and Ihe lowerpeirlfl- 
1^ m long The widlh should be pbout 5-114 m. ol 




Ihe lap and 4 in at Ihetotlom. Acroaabpr, L, lUEide of the same material, is fitted uilo Ihe 
off-selmtlie frame andiiveted Holes are drilled through the finme and brass bushings, H 
and J^ Eire fitted forbeam^s to receive the adjusling bmss rod, B, wluch sliouldbe 1/4 m 
m diameter Abmss curiam rod CEin be usedfoi Ihe rod B, and on its lower end a socket, P, 
IS soldered 

A piece of brass 2 ui long, lO m wide and 1/3 m lluck is used far the Eirmatme, A, la 
be operotedbylhe magnelcoil, C The coil, C, is made ui Ihe usueQ manner by wrapping 
Na. l4coltoii-coveredmE^net wue on a woa<ien spool Ihatlias a sofl iron core The spool 



IS Pibout 2-1/2 ID lor^ The amipluic. A, is diilled^ iiiatir^ a hDk]ijata littk kigcr lliaii llie 
lad, B, and 13 adjuplEd m pipce by Iwo uelucrews, Daiid E A uoflpece af iidii, F, is fpisl- 
eiiedto Ihe opposite eiid of tlie aniiPiliiie with a screw, which should be placed duectly 
imdei Ihe end af Ihe coil's core Tlup end of the amialuic maybe kepi fiani swinging 
around by placLT^ it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to Ihe cioss pece L Allhe 
botlDiaeiidof the frame, and dine llycenteiing Ihe lioles H and J, a liole is drilled Id 
lecerue a liaid rubber busliu^, R, for msolating the brass feimle, S^ Ihpilliolds Ihe lower 
CEubon 

One CDimeclionis made fiom the nipui lo Ihe upper binding-posl, iduchis ui him 
CDimecled to one temunal of Ihe coil, C, Ihe other coil lemuiial being attached lo Ihe fiame. 
The oilier mam coimeclion is made Id llie lower bmding-posl, uiuch is also connected lo 
Ihe biauu feiiule, i,bysalderu^ The Iwobuidu^-pDslu are misolated from Ihe fmnie Ihe 
uanie as the feiiule li When using on a 11 D-volt circuit there must be some resulance in 
CDimeclion, which maybe hadby uping German silver wire, or a water rheoslnl heretofore 
described --CanliibutedbyAi+liurD Bmdlev Randolpli^ Mass 

Irr^atBik [1J2| 

The PvleKicangcTv'emmenlhiisaEprDjBialed $25,DQO,D0Q for in^Eition work 
H«w nHuig VourHaranaLFqdFVncil [133] 

Take a sinoolh hexagon lead pencil, one witliouletlhermbbei oi melateiid, and ^iace 
it against a door or wuidow casing, then with a firm, lieavy pressure slide Ihe pencil 
sonie3or4m andil ivillslay as if glued lo tlie casing Vou may now liang ]mir hnlon 
tlie end of die pencil 

When^ushde Ihe pencil along Ihe casii^, do il wilhout any appaient efibrt, and il 
will appear to y]iir audience as tliough you had hypnotized it This is a veryneatltick if 
perfoiined right F^uie I shows the pencil on the casing EindFig 2 die hat lianging on 
It 




TyingaKnorfbrFoodiillx [1J3] 

One of the most prominent English football clubs kept Ihe tyii^ of lliisknolon the 
rubber liose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how 
it was tied This lie can be used on graui sacks, and in numerous other like instances. 
Pvlate one loop in Ihe coid and then anothei exactly the same way, as 




A Secure Knol 



shoivii mF^ 1, placing llie end of Ihe cord under Ihe fiisllaop, Ihen pulling al each end 
of tlie cord as in Fig. 2 — AE J 



Slovt palish [133] 

Slave pok^li CDru^Lsl? of 2 p&iis giEiphile, 4pflits cappeids and 2 peiTsbDiie black, 
iiii:ied wilh ivaleito faimapaisle 

How n GiveuiElHlric Shock While Shaking H^nds [133] 

Theie is iiotlmig qmie ^o gfaitbiig a^ lo receive anelectnc isliDck uiiexiKcledlyand 
^acha sliock maybe given Id a fiieiid wliile sliakuig liands iiponmeelu^ The shack 
piaducedK nalhaimfuland Ihe appiiatiis can be earned in the pocket Ilcoiisisl^ of el 
:3mall mduclioii coil Ihalcaube constmcled Rlhaiiie 

The CDie af the coil. A, Fig I. in coiislniclediii Ihe usiiaL manner, af smEiil :3aft-aDn 
wue lo make RbuQElle about 3^16 m m diameter E[iid2 m long The coil ends are made 
frDQi CEiribaEiri about 1 ui m diametei, with h 3/l£l-in hole mihe center Tlie liole 




Dclnilb or Liid(i«.liVn CqlL 

Delail? af Indue lion C nil 

isliDuldbe cut as sliownui Fig 2, so a^ la have fbui sniEill piece:; tliatcanbebenlout, 
leaving Ihe pro]ections as slioitn Aflei inappu^ tliree or foiij turns of pepei around tlie 
bundle of iviies tlie cardboard eruls Rie piilon ivilhthe piro]ecliort3 inside, so the coils of 
wue ffill hold Ihemm place About 70 turns of Na 24 gauge double co\'eied magnet 
wue IS fust placed on Ihe coie, fai the pmnary, Enidlhen 1,500 turns of No 32 ai34 
gRuge double -cave red wue is inappedon lop of Ihe prunary, for Ihe secondary Suf- 
ficient lenglh af wire niuslbe Leftautside ateRchend of both windii^s lo niEike 
canneclions The vibrator B, F^ 1, and Ihe suppoitC aie niEide Qani tlmi spnr^ steel, 
about lySin wide, beni as sliown and securely fastened lo tlie canlbaaidendaf the coil 
Tlie EJinatnre is made fioni a softpece of iron, about 3/l£l m ui diametei and 1/I6in 
lluck, which IS soldered lo Ihe end of Ihe 'h'ibralDr directly opposite Ihe end of Ihe care A 
small screw IE fitted in Ihe end of Ihe aupporl, C, foi adjushneni, uhich sliouldbe lipped 
with plplmumand Eilsa a small pece af plalmum placed wlieie the screw will laochlhe 
vibraloi, B 

One of Ihe [mmaiy wires is connected la the screw suppoit The ■.ibratar, is comiecled la 
a flpsh lampbpllery, D The other piiiuEiiywue is cannectedto a switch, li, which ui lumis 
CDimecled la Ihe other leiniinal of Ihe baltery Tlie swilcli^ S, maybe made frani a 3'S-in 
CDik with Ihe wues put lliraughEibDul3/ldm apaitpnd alia w them la project about 1/2 in 
The plale E is culabaul l/2in square frani p pece of ca^^KrandLS fastened lo Ihe heel of 
one slioe and comiecled with a wire from tlie secandaiy cail wluchmustbe conccEiled 
inside of the trousei leg The alliei secondmywue is caimecled through the capt sleeve to a 
firmer iing, F The vibia tor screw niuslbe piaperly Eidjusled When the vibialarisnol 
working tlie amiplure should be Pibout l/ldm from the care Eind due clly apposite 

The call when complete will be pfcout 2-1/2 m long pnd I ui m dipmelei The coil can 
be placed mEinaldboK that has been used for Ipilcnm powder or shaving stick The space 
around the coil in IlieboK can be filled wilhpepei lo keep il tight 

The call EindbEilleiy Eire earned in the pockets Eind Ihe cork bulton pal mIhe ou&ide coal 
pockel, where it can be pie ssed without atlrac ling attention 



E?]ifrinunl witli Heat [134] 




Place a small piece af papei, l^lited, in an oidinaiy water glp\ss \Vhile Ihe papsrii 
bunuiig lumlhe glpiss over and Mtuilo a SEiuccr jrevmuply filled wilh water The walei 
will lapcllyrue in Ihe glpsa, as shown ui Uic skclch 

How 10 Attach a CombiiutiDn Trunk Lock [1J4| 




A small combmaliDn lack for chesls can be purchased for a i^inall smuof money and 

altacliedlo a tmnkccp'eiaftei firsi removing Ihe old lock as shown m Fig 1. II isnecesuaiy 
lo add 1/^-m Id the Ihicknesof Ihe Irmik hdorcouei This maybe dortebyplacuig ebmss 
plate 1/3-ui thick an the Duluide pndabaprd3^-in Ihickanlhe mside Tlie lock.biaus 
plate, boaid and liiuik ca\'ei aie all Mcurely riveted lagelher. The suppoit for Ihe dial is 
uoldeiedto the brass plate 

The hasp, if Ihalbe Ihe name far Ihe double toolliedarrangemenl that catches uilo the 
lock, WBU lobe secmedbyanly three brass screws, which seemed to be uisuificienl, says a 
CDiiespondentof Ihe t'lelal Worker, theiefoie a piece of hea^'ytui was formed over Ihe 
front of Ihe trunk, whichu only 3S-in boaid, Ihe hasp limiedanduDldeiedto tlie back of 
the nowU-shapsd tin, and Ihe Im placed over the board and all festenedm position The Im 
IS 4 m wide, 16m long and when placedo^'ei llie boaid, it lapsdownaboulS ui between 
thebopidj, and the same distance inpide of Ihe newboauL as shown by Ihe heavy luie m Ihe 
ciDus uecliDii, Fig 1 WiDi^hl iiaib are used which pass twice Ihroi^hlhe Imendbolh 
boerds, and then well clinched The lluee screws were then palm Ihe hasp 

Tlie knob on Ihe dial CKlends out too fai, winch mey be filed olf and two lioles subsli luted, 
as shown, wilh which lo opeiE^te llie dial An old key is filed down m tlie shape shown m Fig 
3 Id fit llie two holeu 

As the dialu convex il wdl need potec lion to peventmjury by rough handling Alealhei 
ulueldmeybe osedfoi this pmpose, which is cnlwilhtwo lioles, one for Ihe key and Ihe 
othei lo pemul Ihe operator to observe the nimibeis on Ihe dial The shield an'^weis a fuillier 
purpose of pevenlu^ anyb^landei fiDinnotu^ Ihe nmiibeis on the dial 



ANELEClBICILLUaONBOX [UF] 

The accampaiiying enginviiiga uliawa iiioslinlerestii^ formof ckcliicallyopemled 
illiraoii coii?i?liDg of aboK divided cliBgonally piid each cIivieioii allemBlcly l^hled with an 
electnc lamp By meeiisof anaalamalu; thenuaslat E^neii^ed m llie lamp cucnit caupu^ Ihc 
lamps la l^hl successively, an aqiwnmn apjHienlly willionl fish one momeiil is ui the nesl 
iiislanl awaiming wilhlive goldfish, an emply vase ■viewed lluanghthe Dpenu^ m llie bo:i 
suddenly IS filled with floffeis, di anemplyc^aibox ls seen and iimnedmlely is filled wilh 
ciganj 

These electnc magic boxes e^s slioLvneiie niede af melalandoKidEedcappei firiislied,bal 
for Diduiaiyuse Iheycenbe made of waadinthe same shi^pe and size The upper magic 
bases as ere sliawnuithe ei^nivTi^ aie about 12 m square and S-l/2 in highfoi pailoi nse 
and the bweiboKesaie 13 m square end lO-lHui h^hfoi nse m window display There ls 
a jHililionan'angeddiPigonallym llie bas e^s slioivnui llie plan^Tcw, which complelely 
divubs the box nito two jwrls One-half the pailitian is fitted with p plani, clear gipss ;\s 
ihown The perbtianpndinlenoi of the box are lendeiednon-Kflecluigby jHiiitu^ with a 
dull, not shmy, black cobr Wlien making af wood, b doormuslbe provided on Ihe side ni 
leer la make clianges of CKliibits If the box ls made laige enoi^h, ai m Hie larger sise men- 
tioned, openii^s maybe niede m Ihe bottom for llus purpose, and pIso used mease of 
peifaiming Ihe m^ic Inck of allowing two persons to place their 




Construction of Magic Boxes 



liesds m Ihe box end chaise fiomone to llie other 

Tlie electnc globes pre inseiTedas shown at LL Hirough llie lapaf IheboK, one inepch 
drvision When the rearpeilisillimimaled, anyaiticle arranged wilhm llial perl will be ■vis- 
ible lo Ihe spec lator looking mto Hie bas Ihioi^h Hie fi'onl openii^, but when Hie fianlpartis 
illominpted, piid Ihe back leftdaik, anyaiticle placed tlierein will be leflecledin Ihe glass, 
winch tpkes Ihe same position to Ihe observer as Hie one mlhe reai Thus a plam aquanum is 
selmlhe repr p^ and one wilhswunming fish placed in 




Four ElEizliIc H^glc Bdjjib Caniiplfitv (\ir Uii 

FnuiElectiic Mj^ic Boxes Complele for Use 

Bw fiDiit, ^md Willi l]ie proper illimuDBbanonc isclmnged, as it appears, into Ihe ollici Wlien 
iismg as a window display, place llic goods inoiiE part and Hie prrce in Ihe othei Manyallier 
chi^i^es cenbe made al llie wiUaf llic operator 

Electric lamp? maybe coiitiolled by venous means to produce diffeient effects Lamps 
nipybe connecledm parallel pndepchtoniedanor ofTby mepiisof a hand-aperated swilch 
or llie bultonon the Ipinpuockel, arif deuireda liand-operaledadjnslable lesistence maybe 
included m the cuciul af each lamp foi gradually causu^ the object ta fade awayorieappeai 
ulawly 

Instead af chaining Ihe cunentopeiatedby hand, Ihis maybe done autometicallyby 
comieclii^ the Ipnips mpflipUelonIhe l^hting circmlandeachconnecledmuenes ivithe 
thermostatic switch pli^ provided wilh a lieetii^ cail Hiuchopsi'ates to eulomabc ally open 
and close the cucuit Ihianghthe lespechve Ipnip 

Wlienlhere is no elecliic cmient available, malcheu or candles maybe used piid inserted 
through the holes H, as shown m the sketcli, allemBleLy 

Rr^laceDEy Putty [116] 

Paintii^ ovei pnttythet has not become diy will cause scaling or cracku^ aioimdlhe 
edges of the patty 

PlntaPrmlWuliingT3nk|136| 



The Bccampanying sketch shows a simple fomiof a print washii^ lank thai tips from side 
to side by the weighlof llie waler. Foi prmis 4by 5 and 5by 7-m b lent 2 fl loi^ and I ft 
wide will be abaat llie I'^htsize Tlus tank is then divided with a pflihlion placed esactlym 
the cenlei This partition should extend 3 oi 4 m above the lop of the lank Tlie pflittionmay 
also extend below Ihe lank abaat 1-1J2 m, oi b piece of this widlh pal on the bottom, as 
sliownal Aiii llie sbelch. 





1 ^ 


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1 



Kb*di Frinb ConHantli Hovl<w 
Keeps Piinis ConslantLyMnvmg 

A laitfof lialesabaal 1/^ m ui diameter is boied lluanglieBchendof Ihe tent, asshoLvnalB. 
These liales will allow llie walei la spill oul while Ihe opposite uide is filling Tlie tpiiit may 
be iiiBcle fiom 1/2-m material aiid whencampleled pu sliawn, lined with oil c la 111 Id make il 
waleil^hl The tpiiik ispkcedwillithe jHithondiiecllynndera weter lap and the flow of 
walei will cause it to lipfiDiii lime la lime^ keepi^ llie pmilsconstanllymavu^ about iii the 
walei 

Homt-Mqdv SaUFiing Cluvqis [137] 

Take a cotlei pin and bend ilovei a smell lad to bm^ the points logelher, as sliawniiithe 
uketeh This will make b spiu^ cleimp thai is opened la sLpovei Ihe artictes la be clamped 
logellierby inseilii^ a scratch pwl di sciiber between the legs at llie bawedportian To make 
a maie positive clamp before beiidii^ llie legs to a bow, shpa sliail coil of wire o\'ei Ihe pin, 
passii^ it down to the iiiig end Wiie 1/31^ m m diamelei wound a^'ei b wire sl^hlly larger 
m diamelei Ihan Ihet of Ihe callei will do Insoldem^, uiiioke llie tegu well lo avaidsalder 
adhenr^ la llieni. The clamp is tightened by pushing up llie coil iing lowBrdlhebowof the 
legs and then twislu^ it like b nut, llie coilbeu^ womidnghl-lianded, sa Ihalil will have a 
uciew effect 




A Tclef hoiw rjqmimenl [137] 

If the smell apparatus, au uliawniiithe Bccompanying sketch, isatlaclied lo the midei side 
of en Didiiiarydiiung lable, it will, if cannecled lo a telephone ciicmt, selihe leble m^-ibiB- 
lioii, so that eny nimibei of peaple wlia pul llieir ears flalapon llie lable will hear Ihe voice of 
a peison speaking from b distance, epperenlly coming oulaf Ihe table, seethe Model 
Engineei 

A small piece af wooi A, F^. I, is culaboulS in squaia, hi tlie center of wluch is 
allacheda small piece af sofiiranwiie, luchesasedfoi coies 



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LFfeclianic Ell Tabic Talk 

of uidaclmn coils, eboul 4 in loi^ aiidbenluilhe fonii of a liaok alflie lower end, au shown 
alB This wire L3 aHacliedtD the blockof wood. A, au showiiinF^ 2 Tlie endaf Ihc wuc is 
uoldeicd lo a aiiiBllbiasu plele which l; sel in Ihc black ai il wnllbe level oi flush with Ihe top 
of tlie block andlheii feslciied with two uciem? Tlie block A isfeuleiiedto the midei aide of 
the teble wathtwa arieiv? A small caiL C, i? made by winding Na I!4silkorcDtlon co^'ercd 
win around a small tube, cilliera pece of glnss, a uhorl ulmw oi b qnill The coil is made 
lapenng as shown wilhoul using wood ends This coil is slipped ovci Ihe iviic B preplans la 
inldeiii^ it la Ihc siupillbipsu plpite The ends of the coil are caniiected lo twa buiding-posts 
wluchare fastened to Iheblock A. A small lead weight iveiglm^ 2 oi3 oz. is hnng on Ihc 
liaok made in the lowei end of Ihe ivue B 

When all comiectians ere niedc, au shown m Fig. I, and Iheblock fastened lo Ihe nndei 
side af the Ipible, the appaialusis leedy fornse, and hus aniy Id be connected to an ordinary 
telephone transmitter and batteries as shown Tlie apparatus will waib la a ceitaui extenl even 
if llie weight IS ienia\'ei though not sa clear 



WixWeodScRwMin] 

Some workmeniiae lalloitfonlpg or waodsciews Trybeeswax fai llus purpose llis 
muchcleanei la use and isjuslas gaodif nalbetter 

How w Make an liid.uc[ian Coil [1J8] 

A smpiU shocking coiL suitable foi medical purposes, maybe constructed of mate rials 
foundmneBrlyeveiyamaleiirmechamc's collection of adds andends Thecore.A.F^ I, is 
a piece af lonndsaflironiodaboul IHin in diameter end ebout 4 in long Asliipof shff 
paperaboulBMin wide is covered willi glue and wrapped aiannd one end of the caie, as 
sliawnal B, onlillhe diameter is about 3/Siii The portion of Ihe core remainmg unca\'eredis 
Ihen wiapped wiiha piece af p^per about 4 in wide No glue is used an llus pece, as ilis 
ienio\'edlalei lo fannthe spflce, C, after llie papei sliell, D, has been wound upon it This 
paper sliell is made afslilf paper and glue Ihe same asB and is made about 3/64 in lluck. 
Two pecesaf liardwoad, EE, l-3Min square andaboul5'lflin thick, aie drilled m llie 
center and gined on llie ends of Ihe paper shell as shown 

Tlie pnmaiy winding consislsof 4or5 la^isof Na IS or 20 single cotton-coveied 
magnet wiie, Ihe ends of which maybe passed llirough small holes mihe woadenends If a 
drill small enough IS not available, llie liales maybe made with a holkmlling needle or a 
pece of wue healed la redness After Ihe pnmaiy cail is waoodilsliauldbe lliaroughlym- 
siilaled before wmdii^ Ihe secondaiy This maybe done by wrappu^ wilh4ai 5 Ihicknesses 
of paper 

Tlie secondary coil should be wannd wi III single coveiedwue, preferably silk-coveied, 
allhoi^hcaHonwilldo Tlie more turns there aie anihe secondary Ihe h^her Ihe voltage will 
be, so llie wire used must be fine Nmiiber32 la 36 wiUgiv'e good results, llie latlei gr^ii^ 
more voltage but less ampiei'^e Eachla]y?i of Ihe secondary winding should be insulated 
fiamihe olheisby a piece af lliiii pBialTined paper wiapped over eachlayei as it is finished 



It IE well not la wniid lo llie e:ilieriie ends of llie pflpei msnklionp, but to k^'e b space of 
about lyS-in aleBchendaflhe winding to pp'cntllic wuea af one Ip^rulipping o^'ei the 
ends of llie pai^aiTm 




pfl|KrandcDmu^ uiconlact wait the Ib^i bEncalh, thus causing a uliailciicnit The 
secondary WTiidiiig slionid have at lea::! a dozen Ib^ii: andslionldbe carefully iffomid la 
prevent short circnrting 

In order lo ledoce the strer^lhof the cuirenia pece ofbiBSi: tabmg, F, l: pushed uiIo the 
ijpflce, C, smioundu^ the coie, or if nobiBss tubu^ af the required siae is aniiand, idU a 
paper tnbe, cwei walli4ai 5 thicknesses of tuifoil end then wrap with more paper, using glue 
lo hold the Imfoilm place and lo keep the lube fiom nnwindu^ \Vlienlhe tnbe is poshed bU 
the waym^ Ihe cnnenlpiodoced 



F 


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will be almost mmoliceable, but wlienitis willidrewn the cunenlwillbe sa sirong that b 
peiijoncamialletga Ihe handle:: mihl the CDilisshulolT After llie jjecoiidarycaili: iffoimdit 
ijlianldbe coveiedwilh stiff paper, piidihe wliale cnil^ uicludu^ Ihe woadeiids, ulianid llien 
be enameled black 

Ills thenreadytobe mounledona waodenbase au uhawnmFig 2 Theuecandaiy 
lemunals Eue cannecledlD the bmdii^-pDslu, AA, which maybe fpisleiied on Ihebpise if 
deuued One wire fiDiu Ihe piiiuEiryis comiecled with the bindii^-pDsl, B, and Ihe olheiis 
CDimecled wilh Ihe aimatuie, D, which moybe taken froin an old electric bell The canlaci 
screw, E, alsa fiam Pinelectiic bell, is comiecled la Ihe birding-posi, C The contact spiing, 
F, shouldbe belli against pndsolde led lo Ihe amiptuie m Dider la make Ihe 'h'ibratianp loare 
lapd 

If a false botlDin L3 used ontlie base, all Ihe wuu^ maybe concealed, which pdds gready 
lo the pppsaiaiice and if desueda small switch nioybe added The handles, winch nipybe 
oldbic^le pumps arelecliic lighl caibonj, aie comiecled la Ihe bmding-posls, AA, by 
lueEuis of wues about 3 or 4 ft Idi^ This coil when opKialu^ wilh Ihe tube pulled all Ihe 
wayoutpind connected lo a single dry cell will give a cunenlstiaiigertlianmostpiersan; 
CEin stand 

Hani«-M3d« Toqsltr [139} 



Epch outside fmiiie af the lapster is made from one piece of wue 30 in loi^ Tliese are 
bent ma pie ifec I square niptmg eoch side 7-m lor^ This will eJIow I m on each end for 
tying by twisting the ends logelher Tlie first twa wiies mside Eind on each side of each 
frame aie S in Idi^ E^hl wiies will be le quired fa rlhis purpose and as they are 3 ui long 
l^m IS allowed on each end foi abend aiannd Ihe aulside fimne, as shown in llie skelch. 
Tlie two middle wues are extensian? af Ihe handles Each af these wires are niEide from a 
poece about 26 m long andbenlinihe shopie of a U Tlie ends of Ihe wue are bent Pinjund 
Ihe fidine mlhe same manner 




as Ihe olhei wiiea This will lepive Ihe handle kyir^ acroH llie alliei adc aflhe frame The 
fiaLoe IS fastened to the heiidle on this side by giving tlie liaiidle one tumaiaund llie fieme 
The inpide edges of tlie frame aie iidw lied together wiiha small ring of wire which is loose 
enough 1o allaweEichhiilf lo swirg fieely. —C D. M 

H«ni«-M3d.« ^ikhockiiigMacliiiLt [139] 

All Didinaiyelectnc bell maybe caimectedupinsocha wsyai to pioduce the same 
le suits as ane:ipensR'e 




Iiiexpeiisi\'e and Effectual 

uliacking machine The conneclmns aie made fiam Ihebottenes la the bell m the usual 
niamiei Two other wires pie Ihen camiected, one to the binduig-postof Ihebell that is nol 
insuloted from the frame and tlie other to the Fidjnstu^ screw on tlie make pnd break 
contpictof thebell eis shown m the skelch Tlie other end? of the wues aie comiected each to 
a common lable knife This will give quite a good shock and p nine hla^ei one can be had 
by placing one knife ma basin of water and while holding the otlier knife mane hand, 
dippi^ the fingers of the other liandui the water -ConliibuledbyD Foster Hall 

Mahogany Wood Piiltj'[n*] 

Mix 'h'enEtianied with qiute thick arable muscilage, makuig it into a pulty, and piess this 
well mto tlie cracks of maliogpny before finishirg Tlie putlyslouldbe calaredto smi Ihe 
finish of the wooi soys the Mastei Pamtei, by adding such diy color to die gmu as will 
give the bestiesoll 

How » Make a TlitrmotltilTic Billtr)' [14(1] By Arthur E Jnenii 

A novel way of producuig anelecliic cunent by means of liotandcold water, heal 
from a match or alcoliol 




I)«lalli ■H BjIIxtv 



Details of Batteiy 

lELiLip, IS abtmnedfioiii a device canstiucled as shaifiL in llie skelcli Take Iwd haidwood 
boards, iiiaible, or glRle plales, about 3 or ID in loi^, plRce Iheiii togelhei, f\s inF^ I, 
aiidniELik einddnll about 50D lioles Tliese two pieces sliouldbe isepeiRled aboulS ui 
aiid fRsleiied wilhboands acioiss Ihe ends, es sliowiimFig IT 

TEike sofl copper ffue, nolsmallei tlianNo IS gai^e, and cutm lengllis to pass 
tlinjugh the lioles in the IwoboEuds, leEivii^ sufficient eiid to make el lie IT will requite 
about 70 fl of wire to fillone-lialf the iiuiiibei of lioles Also, cut Ihe saine numbet of 
lengths fioiii llie same gauge galvanise d- iron ^vue to fill Ihe reniEiiiung lioles Tlie wiiea 
aie put lluai^h Ihe holes m the boaiiis alleniately, tlialis begin wilh copper, Ihe iie:il 
hole withiroii, the iie:il copper, liie ne:iliroii^ aiidso oii^ twisting the ends logether rs 
shown inF^ 3 The connections, whencoinplete, shouldbe coppei foitlie fiistEind 
nan foi tlie last wire 

Wlien the whole apparalus is liius stiiu^, Ihe conneclions, which must be Iwisted, can 
be soldered Connect one copper wiie to Ihe bell Riidthe otiier lemunal, winch niiisl be 
an uonivire, to Ihe other posi of Ihe bell The apparatus is then slioit-ciicuited, ^^tliieie 
IS no cuiientin Ihe mstiuinentunlila lighted niRlc It, or, better still, the flame of Ein 
akolioL lamp is ploced at one end only 

Best results aie ob lamed by putting ice oi cold water on one side and a flanie on Ihe 
olhei Tlie e:ipenmenleriiiay also place the whole apparatus imdeisink faucels wilhthe 
hot waler luiiiedon at one lenmnaL and the cold water at Ihe other Tlie gieateithe 
diffeience of lempeiatiue mtlie two lemimals, the moie cuneiit willbe obtained 

Vetymlereslii^ ei:psi]inenlsniay Ihiisbe performed, Eind tliese moylead to tlie 
soKing of the great thermoeleclnc problem 

H<pw m Make a Hygrameier [140] 

MjDiila iFue on a board which is used for a base arid shouldbe 3^by 4byS m , as 
shown in the sketch Apece of ca^ut~a slung used on b viohnwilldo~LS suspended 
fiom Ihe bent end of Ihe wire A hand or pomtei ls cutfioina pece of tin and seemed to 
tlie catgutslrmg about ]f3m Sam Ihe base A small piece of woodand some glue will 
fasten Ihe poinlei lo tlie siruig The scale is 




Simple Hygrometer 



luaiked on a piece of caidboaid, which is fastened lo Ihe base and protected with a piece 



af glass -Contiibuledby J Tlioi; Rliainstine 

Sofltning Ltallif r in Glotts and Boats [140] 

The leather m Il^Il- lop boots Euid gauntlet glove:; maybe isoflened aiidmade 
watetproofby Ihe iise of plain oiultoii tallow Apply hat and ruh m well with Ihe fillers. 

How Id Makf q Mi««ian Lflirary T^ble [141| 

The nupuianlibmiytiible, Ihe dmivuigs for wluchare heie given, has been Ibiind well 
propoihoned pnd of pleading appeaiance It can be niPide of any of the several fniiutoie 
wood? mtommon use, nuchas selecled, quaitei-seiived white opik winch will be fomid 
eKceptionpiUy pleading ui Ihe effect produced 

If a plpinirg null is fiI hand the stock can be oidered ui such a iffayau to avoid the liaid 
wort of plpining and sand pflpenng Of couise if null-plane dutoct CEmnolbe had, the 
following dune iisiDiis must be enlarged sightly to allow foi "squaring up the rough " 

For llie top, oidei I pece l-l/Sm lluck, 34 in wide and 46 in long Hp\'e it ^-4-S 
(surface onfouruides) pnd "squared" lo lenglh Also, specify tlml it be sandpapered on the 
top surface, Ihe edges and eidp 

Foi llie uhelf, order I piece 7/3in lhick,32m wide and 43 in. long, with tlie four sides 
sur£iced, squared and sandpapered the SEinie ai? foithe lop 

Foi llie side rails, orders pieces 7/3 m. thick^ 6 in wide and 37 in long, ^-4-S and 
sanded on one side For the endrpols, 3 [meces 7/3 m. thick, 6 ui wide and 25 in long 
Othei specific? lions as for the side mils 

Foi llie stielchers, mto which the slielf tenons enler, 2 pieces 1-1/3 m thick. 




In TniB Article 
This Pictuie Is from a Pliologiapli of tlie ML^ioii Table Desciibed 



3-3Mm. wide and 25 m long, surfaced and spnded on four sides For the sIbIs, ID peces 
5/SKiiL thick, 1-1/3 in wide prd 17 m. Idi^, surfaced and sanded on four sides Foi llie 
ke^, 4peces IIAm thick, 1-1/4 in wide and 3-7/5 m long, i-4-li This width is a htlle 
wide, it will allow Ihe key to be shaped as desired 
The drawings cbviole Piny necessity foi gou^ mto detail ui the 





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dcucnpliDii Fig I gives an assembly diewing sIiowti^ llie lektoiiaf llic pails F^ 2 gives 
IliE dclailaf Biicnd The lenoiis forihe ade imls aie laid off and llie iiiDilues pkcedinflie 
postasaie Ihoue on llie ciid Care must, be taken, liowevei, not lo cutany maitiMS on llie 
post, belaw, as iva^done incattmg the sbelchei moiliseu an the ends af the table A good 
plan L3 to uelllie posts upi^htinthe pouitians llieyaie lo accupyielatr'c to one anothei and 
niaik wath pencil Ihe appro:iiniate posilion'; of Ihe marliseu The leg? can then be laid flat and 
the mortises accuiatelyniaiked out with a feu degiee af assuiance Ihaldiey will not be cut 
wliere llieyaie not wanted and lliat llie legu uliall "pair" propedy when elforl is made la 
assemble the parts of Ihe lable 

The lable ends ulianldbe gloed iqi fnsl and the glue allowed ta harden, aflei which the 
tenansof the shelf maybe insaibd end the side I'ail? placed 

There is a reason for the shape, uce and location af each tenon di mortise For lUuplration, 
the shape of llie tenon on Ihe lap rails penuili; the surface of the rail to extend almost flash 
wilhthe surface of Ihe post at the same Imie peniuttu^ the moi^hpe in llie post to be kept 
awayfiamlhatsiirfece Again, Ihe shape of the ends of llie ulats is sochllial, llianghlheymay 
vary uhghdymlei^ III, Ihe filling of llie jainb wiUnalbe alfecled. Caie must be lokenin 
cntlu^ llie niDrtues Id keep their sides clean and uhaip and Id size 

Inmatii^ llie niDrtues for the keyed tenons, Ihe length of moitije must be sightly m 
esceus of the width of Ihe tenon — about l^-m of play to eachuide of each tenon With a 
ulielf of the width specified for tins lable, if such allowance m nalmade so that the lenoiis 
maymo^'e sideways, llie ulinnhage would sphl Ihe shelf 

In cutting aciassthe ends of the shelf, belween llie tenons, leave a hole uithe wasle so that 
the tmiiii^ saw DI compass saw can be uiperled Haw wilhuione-sirleenlli of the Ime, aflei 
wluch this maigm maybe lenur/ed with chisel and mallet 



Ill Fig I iP uliawii livD views of Ihe keyed lenDiiaiid llie key The mailisc forihe key is la 
be pieced in IliE middle of the lenoii II will be iialedlhetllup iiiorlise is laid out l-l/ldm 
fiamihe shouldei of the tenon ivbde the slietchci is l-l/Sin thick This is la msoie llie keyi 
pulling the shelf tghlly against llic aide of Ihc atietchei 

Ke^ maybe made ma variety of aliapea The one shaivnis simple and stnictoi'ally 
good Whpileveraliape is uaed, llic impailant thing to keep ui mind la lliat the siae of the 
key and the slant of its fonffaid aiufpce where itpassea thiangh the lenonmustbe kept the 
same aa the morlise made farilm Ihe tenon 

The topis to be fastened ta the mibbymeanseitiier of wooden buttons. Fig 4, oi small 
angle noiia 

Tliere aie p bewnldemig nmiiberaf nuaaion fuushea upon the maikel A^'eIyaatlsfactory 
one IS obtained by applying a coat ofbiownFlemish watei atain, dilutedbytlie addition of 
watei ui the piopDition of 2 paits walei to 1 paitstam V/lien tlus hpsdiied, SEmdwith 
nunibei DO pflpei, being taieful not to "cnl lluough " NesI, apply? coat of dark biowii 
filler, the directions for dou^ thia wiUbe fomidupon Ihe cpinin wliichthe fiUeiis boughl 
One coat usually aofficea Howevei, if an especially smooth auiface is desired a second 
coat maybe applied in a aimilEU inamiei 

Afleithe filler lias liaidenei oveiy Ihincoat of ahellac la to be pulan Wlien llus haa 
dried, itsliouldbe sanded lightly Pind then one oi tiffo cqpIs of ivpz sliouldbe properly 
apphed Eird polished Directions for iffaxirg aie upon the cpiis m iffhichthe vmx isboughl 
A-beaulifnl dull gloss so much soi^htbyfuu'jheia of inodEm furmture will be the leault of 
c Eire fnlly folio wu^ tliese directions. 

A Hangfi ibr Teouscts [143] 

Ijecuie Iwa clothes pans of the metpJapm^ kind for the clEuaps of Ihe liai^er The pins 
aie fastened one to each end of a looped galvamzed wire Thm wiie shonldbe aboulfi m 
lor^ piflei a coilubenlin Ihe center as sliawnm llie sketch The diPimetei of tlie wiie 
alianldbe abaat 1/Sin 




H<pw to Make qn AdjustibkNtgaliirv Washtr [141] 

The skelchherewilh sliows Pi ivpiahingboK farnegativea made from an aidmary wooden 
boK As can be seen, Ihe £Ioo^'ed partition. A, isiemovpible, and eis se'h'eral places are 
provided far 




Wi4thliig Box 



Washir^ 3ox 

lis inaeition, the tank cpinbe made to Eiccommodate Piny^ne of several sizes of [ia lea, sa^ 
Camera CrafI Tlie other stalionEuyparlilion, B, ivluchdoes not reach quite to Iheboltom of 



Ite laiit, IS plEicedimmcdialely iicxItD tlie eiidof Ihe laiit, leavii^ acliEuuielbeliffeenlhe 
two for Ihe inflow of Ihe ivpish iffaler A iiaiiow, Ihin i^lnp, C, is fastened lo Ihe boHoiii of 
flie laiit lo keep Ihe plpiles shghllyraisci altlie uame hmc alia wing a clearer flow a f Ihe 
water fiDiB the ballDia upwards Id the discha^e 

The water ertleis Ihe nanawparlitranal Ihe erid, flows under the partrlroris B and A^ then 
upwaid between Eind parallel la Ihe surface of the plpiles, escapr^ allhe oppourte endouei 
Ihe lap of Ihe lank end, in whrch Ihe upper pert lias been cut away far thai purpose The 
depth of this cut, ui Ihe upper pari af Ihe lank end, should allow Ihe overflow to be a tnfle 
liigher Ihan Ihe widlhof the largeslurze pkte for whrch the tent rs friled ParlitranB being 
utetranary, can be nailed in position peinianeiiliy, pJlDwing Ihe botlom e(^e la clepr Ihe 
batlDiaof Ihe lank Uie desrred distance Paitilion Abeing ina\'Eible sliouldliave attached lo 
lis botlDiu e(^e a couple of narls, D, or better sliU, wooden pegu, which will keep tt pIso 
above Ihebotlom of Ihe tenkal Ihe desired he^hl 

A coal afpflraiTinpeml should be applied, and, just before riselu perfectly liard, any 
rangh spots tnmmed down wrth a krufe ai chisel and a ueiBiid lightei coet epphed If llie 
wood IS very dry and porans b pelmunarycoalof Ihe painl should be epphed and allowed la 
soak into llie pores 11 rs also well to apply a caal of the pflinl lo llie jomis allhe comers and 
aioundlhe edge of llie ballambefaie narhng logelhei 

Turn-Dtnvn ShfOf for a Smill^acv |I44] 

The aver'^e eniBteui phalogiapher does not have very much spflce m which lo do his 
work The kitelienrs llie room nsedordrnanly for finijhing llie phalogipphs Inmeny 
inslances Ihere will not be space enoi^hfor eny extra tables, and so a temporary place is pie- 
paredframboKesora chau on whrch la place Ihe Ir'a]^^ endchemrcals IJIianld lliere be space 
enoi^honone of Ihe walls a slielf canbe ruede to liar^ down ani of Ihe waywhennotmnse 
A slielf consliiic led an llus order maybe of anylei^lli lo suil Ihe space or of such e length for 
Ihe purpose inlended Ahea^'ypece af wood, aboul 




Tnin Down ^helf 

1-1^ in lluck, Biid4 lo d in wide, is firstfaslened la Ihe wallalllie piaperheighlwilhnails^ 
or, much better, leige screws 

Tlie slielf is cul and planed smooth from aboard 12-in wrde and ebaul 1-m Ihrck This 
baprdis fastened lo Ihe piece on llie wall wilh two lungesas sliawninF^ 1 A small cleat i> 
nailed la Ihe oulerandundei edge of IheboaidandinIhe mrddle as shown Thrs is used to 
piece a supporl under llie ouleredge of Ihe shelf Tlie support, A, F^ 3, slionldbe long 
enoi^hla exlenddi^onally la llie floor or lop af Ihe baseboaid fioru Hie mnei ec^e of Ihe 
cleat when Hie shelf is ap in lis piapei place — L L 



HaiTiF-Mqdv rkrtrii Ballery Massage [144| 
A simple and cheap etectnc mess^e device coil be made byosir^ three oi 



fir^ 



Electnc Massage 

four cells of diy battery connected lo Iwo aidinery siK'er tablespoans, asdiDLvnm Hie sketch 
The hendleu of Hie upoans should be insulated or the operpitDi can wear eithei kidoi rubber 
gloves 

How to Make Tint LqiiHrn S\ida [144] 

Pmchase some knlem slide pletes andfiK Ihem m hypo walhout e:ipo:3m£, mthe usual 
niBimei, same as ^u would en e:ipD:;ed plete, sa^ the Pvlo^ii^ Pichire World Tlup le^'ea a 
timi, perfecllytraiiapaient emulsion fiLii on the glass, which will leadily take colai Mix a 
lalliei week solution of cleer Biuline dye of the desired colai end dip Ihe plate mil, wiping 
the pkte side clepn If notdaik enoi^h, dip again and again until deuued lint is eltamed, 
letling itdrybetipeeneachdij^ing A^'eiyl^htblue tint slide will biighten a yellow fihu 
considerably, bul Ihe Imlmu'jtbe very hglit, jnslabaie tint 

A Bicjcle Catunorui [145] 

The accampanying photagiaplis sliaw a bicycle boat made ta carry Iwo persons. 




This Catamaran Caiiie? Two People 



Thisboalis canslmctedbyiisii^ two geluanEed irantnbes IS fl long and 12 in indipmeter, 
tapeiedatihe fronlenddawnta casl-uon pomis, and the rear end shaped lo atlachmddeis 
These tubes are placed 3d ui aperl, givuig theboataneKtreme width of 50 ui 

Tlie c^dinders support b platform and on Ihe rear end of Hup plelfoimis cansliiicteda 
paddle wheel 51! in indipmeter with 16 spokes On the endof eechupoke is fasleneda 
gah/amzedsheel metal blade fl m wide eiidS in Idi^ A large guard placed ovei the paddle 
wlieel fomis e^ seE^lfor one psisonanda chi^ir in front an the platfoini piovides a place foi a 
second peison 

Tlie peiaon m front lielps lo propel the boat wilh hand le^'ers niuchare coimectedwilh 
lads to sprocke I wheels on each side of the platfomi The occupant of Hie rear seal 
contdbntes his paitof Ihe pDwerwilhhis feet on pedals of the sliafi Ihalcames tlie sprocket 
wlieels This shaft and sprocke I wheels dir^'e Hie paddle wheelby side champ of Ihe bicycle 
kind TheboalissleeredfiDiu Hie learseatby ropeu attached to double rudders Thisboal 
will mn ale Diisideiable speedandu very steady in roi^hwaler as ilgoes duecHythiangh 
laige wav'es inslead of going o^'er Hie m— Contributed by EmesHJchoedsack, Comicil Bluffs, 
Iowa 



How 10 MakFaL«dPeiuilRlieoitil|145| 

Take an orclinBiy lead pencil end cal seven notches aleqiialinlcivalsondie pencil down to 
and aKiund Ihe lead, leaving ilbere A aeven-poinl swilchisconsliiicledanaboaniof 
smiable size maku^ llic pomlsbynsu^ saevis IhalwiUgo Ihioi^h die boaid A^mallpiece 
of ImorbiaK will do foi a swalcliand is fastened a? duLvn The connections aie made on llie 
back side of llie baaidas sliowoibythe dotled lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts dawn la 5 
or ID volts foi short lengths 




Sititple RJieostat 

of tune -CanlnbutedbyRoyNcwby, San Jase, CbI 

Honunudt Shot R^ck [146] 



Tht ELCCompiaiyir^ sketch explEiuis howaboycanmobe his own shoe rack that can 

be placed on Ihe wall in 



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the clothes closet F^nie I shows the CDnslmction af Ihe batloni to permit the diitto 
falllluai^h TwD boards, 9 in wide and aboutS ft Loi^, wifhsix pfliiitions between, 
as sliowii, loiUmake pocket? Eiboat if m Loi^ Tlie widthof the pockets Rt the bottnm 
IS 2 in and at the top 5 in-CanliibatedbyGay H. Harvey, Mill Valley, CeQ. 

How to Waterpnaf C'qnvQS [146'] 



The melhodnaedby the British imvy^ids for wnteipiaofu^ and pain1ir\g canvas 
so it will not become sbffand cracked w els foUaios One onnce of ^llow soap and 
lOpt of liol watei ELie niiKed with every 7 lb of peintto be uped The mii:1ijre is ap- 
plied to the canvas withabnish This is allowed to diy foi two days andtlien a coat of 
the saioe paint, without the soap, is laid on When this last coat is dry die canv-as may 
be painted any color desired After tluee days of dryuig the canv-as maybe folded up 
without stickir^ togelhei, and is, of couise, wateipioof Canvas wateipiioafediiitliis 
inaniiei makes an excellent cov'enng foipoitabie canoes and canv'as boats Tlie color 
mixture for the soap and second apphcalian is made from 1 lb of lampblack and 6 lb. 
of ^tlowocher, bnthinod, Ihe finish coat maybe any coloi desued When no paint is 



to be iised an Ihe canvR^ itoiEiybe waleipiDofed with a mixtuie loede from sofi sohp 
dis^aivsd uiIidI iwaler, and a solulioii of iidii sulphFile added lion sulpha le, or fenous 
sulphale, is liie green vilnol The vitnol caiiibiiies iviQi the palesti of Ihe soap, and Ihe 
uanoKide is piecipilaled with the fatty Rcid Eis uisnloble uousoap. This precipitste la 
then washed^ dned Find mixed with hoseed oil. 

Building a Houst in 4 TEe«T<pp [146'] 

The accaiiipfliiying tJiotDgtaph shows a small house bmll ma tiee lop 2D ft from the 
giouiid The house is 




Lofly Ijenliy Box foi Guaidir^ Walermeloii Fritc_i 



5 fl wide, 5 ft 1 m long, and d ft d m high A siaallplELtfoiin, 2 ft wide, l^ bmll on 
the fiont Tliiee wiiidowR aie pnrhided, one far epich side, and a doai in front The 
entrance m made throi^ha ti'apdooi in llie floor of Ihe house Tins lionse w;\s constructed 
by El boy 14 years old Eind made for the purpose of ivalching over a melon patch — 
Contributed by Mack Wilson, Colnmbus.O 



Uovi Id Mqht a Lan^ Sluid and. Slaie [147] 

A libjajylighlslpindof plepsing des^n and easy construction is mpide eis follows llquaie 
uppi piece of while oat so thpilitshpiU liave a width Pindtluctness of 1-3/4 in with a ler^th 
of 13 ui Squaie up two pieces of the same kind of mate iiPil to tlie same width and 
thickness, bul with a lei^th of 12 in each Square up two pieces lo a widlhaiid lei^th of 3 
in eachwilha lluckness of l-l/S ui 

If a plpining null is nepii, time and patience will be saved by aide iing one pece I-3M m. 
square and 40 ui long, Iwa peces 1-1/3 m thick and 3 ui squaie, all planed and 
sandpapered on all surfaces The long pece can then be cut al home lo the ler^llis specified 
abo^'e 

The 13-in piece is fortlie upi^ht and sliauld have a l^-in liole bored the fall length 
thioDgh Ihe centei If the bit is not long enough to reach eiilirelythioi^h,boie from each 
end, Iheituse a red-liat iron to fuush Tlus liole is for tlie electric wire or gas ppe if gas is 
used 

The Iwo peces for thebpiSE are Pilike except llie groEJve of one m cut from the lop and of 
the Dlherfram the underside, as sliown Shape llie undei sides first This can best be done 
by placing llie two pieces uia'h'ise, undersides logelher, Pindboiuig Iwo holes with a l-m 
bit The cenlerof eachhole willbe 2-1^ UI fioni either erdandin Ihe ciact between the 
pieces Tlie pieces canthenbe latenoat, lines gained on each side of each, and Ihe wood 
between Ihe holes removed with luimng saw and scraper sleel 

The widtliof tlie grooves must be deterrmned by laying one pece upon the olliei, a 
tr^quEire shouldbe used to squaie the hues across the pieces, however, gai^e foi depth, 
gai^n^ bollipeces fiom llieir top surfaces Chisel out the grooves and laundofi'the cor- 
nels as sliown in llie sketch, usuig a 3/4-m radius 

These paits niPiybe put logelliei and fastened Id Ihe upightby means of two loi^ screws 
from the underside, placed to either side of Ihe 1/2-ui. liole This liole must be continued 



fluaugli llic [aeccu fomiing tlie baue 

The braces are easier! made by lakii^ Ihe Iwo peces iffhich wcie planed to 1-1 JS m 
thick Eiiid3 lit squaie anddiawmg a diF^Diial dil each Fiiid the middle af this diagonal by 
diawir^ the ceiitmlpDi'IianDf Ihe olhei du^Diial; al this point pLoce the ^puiof Ihe biland 
bare b 1-in hole m each block 

Saw Ihe tiffa blocks bfmT. sowing 











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DelBllH ot ConilrucElon or LlDrdry Lamp SEand 
Details of CoiL^lniclion of Library Lamp Sland 



alaiig s diagoiiPilaf each Plane Ihe surfaces on tlie uaiff cut smooth and SEindpapsr Ihe curve 
made by the bit Fallen Ihe braces in place by means of romidhepid blued acre wa 

To mEike a slude nuchas l; shown m Ihe lUustrahon is rallier difficult The shade is made 
of iffoadglnedupandhasarlglass fitted iniabbets cut on Ihe umer edges ^uchsliades can 
be purchased repidylD atlach Tlie sketch shows one methcMiaf altpclui^ Foui uniall peces 
of shap iron are bent to the shape slioivn and fpislened to the fouruides of tlie upi'^ht Elec- 
tric globes— two, three or four maybe attacliedas shown 

The kmdaf wood fuushfaithe sland will depend upon the finish on Ihe wooden shpide^ 
if uhade is piKhased Blown Flemish l3 obtainedby fiistslaining the wood with Flemish 
watei slam diluted by the Piddition of Iwa parts wpiteito one paitslpiin Wlientlus isdiy, 
uandpeper Ihe "whiskers" which were raised by the water Pind fill with a niedinm dark filler. 
Duections wiUbe found on the filler cans When the filler hau liardsnei apply two coats of 
wax 

The metal sliade au uliawninthe sketch is a "la^ut" for a capper or brass uhade of p size 
smtable fortius peirliculai lamp lluch shades Eire frequently mEide from one pece of sheet 
metal Einddes^ns aie pierced m them as suggested ui the "la^ut " Tlus percing is done by 
dnvu^ the point of a niul Ihroi^hthe nielal from the underside before tlie parts Eire 
uoldeiedarirveted logelher If tlie pails Eire lobe nveted, enough Eidditional nielal mnsi be 
left an the laut panel lo EiUawfora lap No lEipis needed wlienjouitu aie soldered 

A be tier way, Eird one which will pemiilthe use of lie Eivier metal, is to cut eachuide of 
the shade separately Eird fasten them logetlieibynvetu^ a pece of metal aver each ]oml. 
The uhape of this piece canbe made so eis lo Eiccenluate tlie rrvetlieads and llius give a 
pleEising effect 

Foi ait-glEiss Ihe metal panel? are 




The Coinple led Lamp 

cut Dul, the giuss isiru^eiledriam llie andeidde and held in place by^maUclip? soldeied Id 

Ihe fiaiiie of die uliade 

Pleasing effecls are ablained by using one kindof nielaL asbiaiss, and reinforcu^ Pind 
iiueling Willi aoDlhei me lal^ such as coppet. 



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METAL ^HADE- Conslniclionaf ^hede 



lUumimting a Watch DM al Nighl [149] 

This picture allows p ivpilcli holder, wilh b device lo receive an oidiiisiiy electric pockel 
lamp Pirdbatleiy Tlie batteiyis uelmabiPickctmideiifflucha reflector ex lends dDwiiwaid 
to tluowthe l^lilonthe dial of Ihe watch and to protect the eyes fioia the diiecll^ht The 
eiitue standaiidbreckelaie made fiam sheet metal The base is fanned to make a tray lo 
liald puip and collar button? It is not necessary to ueek inthe daitness for a piishbultonor 
uwitcli, as ui Drdinaiyde\'ices, bnta l^lit presume with the palm of the hand will niPike llie 
lamp glow 



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Hanu-Mide Flia»«r^lLk Copying Sluid [149] 

The diiTiculties of badlightu^ on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of j 
umtable uuppoit for the cainem, the object and llie bacl^iomid 




Secures Good L^ht on ^ mall Ob]ects 



FoiiUnstratioM itw often an. adv^antage to show an object with a perfectly 
piam bacl^iound and no deepuliadows Vnlienusu^ the sland ps lUusliated thi3 is a very 
simple matter Figure 1 shows the side, and F^ 2 llie fnint'.iewof llus stand The stand is 
veiy easily constructed from pipe and pipe filtings Tlie mamppe of Ihe stpind will need to 
be of proper length to suit Ihe focns of y^ur camera This CEmbe determined by findir^ the 
length from the lens to Ihe object after the bellows are CKtendedto Iheirfulller^lh The 
anus lioldii^ the glass, as sliownm llie sketch, sliouldbe set at b pomtaboulthe middle of 
the niEiui lube The cross thatholds the middle amis shonld be 3Mui one way and I/? in 
the other Tlus will allow foi adjuslmentof the glass lable A small set screw povide dm 
Ihe back of llus ciass will hold the table inanyposilion desned The ppesandotliei 
connections are eiII l/2-m and the lengllis of the pipes pre made suitpble for tlie si2e of Ihe 
cpmere V-Tien p small object is lobe pho log ra plied it is placed upon tlie glass table prdthe 
bactgromid fastened lo Iheboaid In this manner smpU objects cpnbe photographed 
without any deep shadow on one side The bottom cross pndeUs sliouldbe coikedso as to 



prcvcnl any slippi^ Pind dEimage lo tlie floDr. 
Hanu-Mide Foihtt Lui^ [149] 

A simple andaife pocbel lamp thai will IeisI for abaul 6 iiidiiIIis witliaale:!!]^ expense 
CEinbe made Pilliome foi a few cent 

Hpi^'e yDuidii^gisI late a slrong vml of cleai glass, or a piUbotlle wilhscreiff aicoik lap 
andpul inia il a piece of pliospliaiup aboul llie size af a pea Pird fill the battle ane-lhird full 
of pure alrue oil lliatliau been he Bled for 15 minules— but not boiled Cork t^hflyEmd the 
leuull wnllbe p luminous light m the appsrpoitian of the bottle If llie l^hl becomes dim, 
imcait and lecait again The lainpunll lelam ilubiilliancyforabaulfi monllis This makes 
a peifecllysafe lamp la cany Tlieue lamps aie iisedbywalchmen of powder magazines 
CEae should be exeicised in handling the pliaupliaiiis, eis ilis very poisaiians 

How to Mikt a TangFnl Gahfuiom^tcT [IFO] 

Secure a pece of wood 1/2 m Ihick and cut oal a ns\% wilh an outside diameter of 
lO-lO in and an inside diameter of 9 m and glue lo enchside tivo other iingi; IM m 
thick wilh tlie same inside diameter eis the fiisliing and 1 1 m oulside diametei, tlins 
forming n liA-ai channel m llie circumference of llie lu^ If a lathe is at hand tlu:3 ring 
CEinbe made from a sahd pece Eindthe chminel turned out Cut another cuculEupece 11 
in m diametei for abEise ^lEite a liole mtlie cenlei of tlu:3 pece 1 m wide aiidfl-5/Iif 
in loi^, mto which the ring fiist made sliould fit ^a that lis iniiei surface is just even 
with Ihe upper surface of the baseboard The iii^ is held upr^lit in the hole by a small 
strip scieived to the baue as sliawn All screws aitdbmdj tlml Eue used must be of brass 
The cutlir^ of Ihese circular pieces isnol so difficult if a band saw dnvenbypoweris 
used They CEinbe cul by means of a tey-liole saw if abend saw is nol accessible 

Before mounting the ring on tlie base, Ihe groove sliould be wound with E luiiis of 
No 16 double colton-coveied magnet wire The two ends maybe tied togelher with a 
stiing to hold lliem temporarily 

Faslen two strips of wood W4-UI thick ^/S-m wideandllm long across tlie sides of 
tlie ring with llieii u]:fKi ei^es passing exactly tlirough Ihe center of Ihe iii^ An 
oidinary packet compass, aboul 1-IMin indiamelei, is fitted m Ihese strips so llialthe 
center of Ihe needle oi pomterwillbe ezaclly intlie center of Ihe ni^ and its zero pioint 
mark at the half-way poinl between the two strips Put the m^ in place on Ihe base, as 
sliowninthe sketch, and connect the Iwo ends of tlie wire to two binding-posts Ihatare 
previously altached to the base Coat the entire suiface wilh brown shellac Any 
deviation from the dimen'Jions will cause errors ui the resulls obtained by lis use 

RemETh'e all peces of iron oi steel and especially magnets in the near^icmityof the 
instrument wlien m use Place Ihe galvanomelei ana level table and turn il until Ihe 
needle, pointing iiorlh andsoulh, and swii^ir^ fieely, hes exactly m the plane of the 
coil, as shown in Ihe cut Tlie needle Ihen will paint lo zero if Ihe diiections have been 
fallowed closely Conned one 




Tangeul SalvanomcHr 
Tangenl Gatvanome le r 



cell afbatleiy to Ihe iiiatnuiieiitand eiUdw llie cuncnl lo flow thioi^li tlie coJs The 
needle of Ihe campaus will be deflecled lo one aide Dilhe olhei, aiid will fuiallycome In 
ie:3l al a certmii ai^le-letus say 45 deg The diiiieiisioiis of the mslnuuenl aie such Ihal 
when Ihe deflection is 45 deg tlie cmieni flowing lluoi^h the coils nponthe nr^ is i!2 
anipeie The anipsre is the uiul cliosen to des^nele the slienglhof Ihe eleclnc ciuient 
Foi Dlher Eingleu the vpilue af tlie cmieni maybe fannd fiom Ihe following table: 



Angles Degrees 


Current Amperes 

osa 


20 

3D 


.1S2 
.2S9 


40 


.430 


45 


.500 


50 


.600 


55 


.715 


60 


S55 


.^o 


. 1375 



As Ihe magnetic force fliatacls upon a mp^net needle 'h'Eiiies mdiifeieni places the 
value:; given for Ihe cuneni willnalbe tine mall parla of the comiliy The table gives 
collect values for Ihe mimediEile vicuuty of Chicago and Ihpilperlaf Ihe United ilales lying 
epistof ClucE^o, and north of Ihe Ohio nver The leijulls given sliould be multiplied by 1.3 
farplpces ijoulh of the Ohio nver Emdepislaf Ihe h'lissLJiJippi 

Hain^-MadF X-Rq; IinElFiuneiil |151] 

Tffo c^nderR, AA, are niomiledanabai^e, B, pnd mirrors, CC, aie filled al an Pingle of 45 
deg iiilo these c Riders ConeijpDnding niinars, EE, are pulin Ihe base iHndlel with those 
in those c^iders An opsning e:iler[ds down wpird from D of eachc^inderso lliatl^hl 
enleruig alone end of Ihe 




□rlzllB or X-Ray HqcULlia 
Detail? of X-RayAlacliinfi 



c ^inde r IS refle c led down at iighl aisles by Ihe firsi minor la Ihe second, from Ihe second 
lo the third, from Ihe thud la Ihe fourlh iduch reflects Ihe l^htlo Ihe eye Thus tlie light 
iievei passes Ihiangh Ihe c^mders and Ihe observer does not see tluaugh,bulaiaundany 
obje c I inseitedalX between Ihe cjduiders 

How to Mitkt a q Nan-Palanzin^ Battery [LS1| 

BiclironiEile batlenes aie very ezpsnsrve lo mamlain pnd dry cells do not funush enough 
amperp^e for some tmds of experimental work A cell of abalterythat will ran 10 lioma 
with pn output of a\'ei I anipsie CEinbe made fls follows Secure ajar Eibout4ui in 
diametei and 3 m liigh and place mthe batloiuaf this jar Ihe lowerlialf of a tinbakir^ 
powder CEin, to which a wire lias been soldered foi conneclions Place m llie CEina mixlure 
of 2 oz blact azide of copper, I oz black o>:ide of mai^Einese and some ironfilu^s 

Purchase a small crowfoot zmc and liaiig it pboul I m above the lialf CEin. Piepaie a 10 
per cent solutian of caustic sodp Emd fill tlie jEir willim 1 in of Ihe lap Place on lop Ihe so- 



laliana Ihin laycraf keioMiic aipumlTin Tlic cell will only coul about 50 ceiib lo mate 
and 15 cenis for each le lie wal \Vhen renewing, Pilwa^ remiTh'e llie ail willi oapliDn — 
Coiiliibuledby RoberlCanfield, UiuuenjityPark, Colo 

A HciriF-M3d« Boranutrr [1S1| 

Take 1/4dz af puluensedcampoi, 62 gi of pnlveiised mirale of potpssium, 31 gi 
lulnile of ammonia anddiaaah'c in If dz alcohol Putllie solalionina long, slender bodb, 
closed Ell the lop with a pece ofblEiddei' conlamii^ a pnliole to admit air, sa^ h'lelal 
Worker WhenimiiLJ coming tlie uohdpeiticles inll tend giadiially to mount, little crystals 
fonniiig in the liquid^ iffluch otherwise remauis cleai, if lugh wuids pie appioaching llie 
liqnid will become Pisif feimeiitu^, while a filmof uolidpaiticles foimp on the suiface, 
dumig fair wealliei llie liquid will remain clepr pndthe solid paitic leu wiUieslat Ibe 
bottom 

L«chLubric4nt [151| 

A door lock nipybe lubricated by using some lepid scraped from tlie lepid ma pencil and 
put in llie loch Tlas maybe done bypulting the scmpmgs on b piece of paper ard blowup 
them mto the lock lluoi^hthe ke^iole 

Riul Proofing Balls J151] 

Where bolls are subject to tost, Ihe tlireads should be painted wilh pure while lead, then 
they will not rust fast 

Fainting VtOtvi Pine [151] 

Whenpflmling yellow pnie exposed to the weather add b httle pine lar with Ihe priming 
coat 

RflolvingaWkevlwithBaal Saib [1S2| 

A novel windmill 01 revo King wheel canbe madebyplacii^ a l^hl wheel so il will 
turn freely on die end 




Ad Unjiaal IjP' i*' WlfiiEDIiJI 

An UnusuBl Type of Wuidmill 

of a post, andplacti^ fboi small sailing bo flIs at equal points on the dm of the wheel II 
makes no difference which way Ihe windbloivs, the wheel will re^-olve moiie duection. 
InF^ 1 (he direction of the wind is sliownby the anows, and liow Ihe sails calch the 
wind and caiwe Ihe wheel lo re^-olue Figure 2 sliows liow Ihe wheel will appear when 
complete Tins device makes an altiachve adv-eilKU^ sign 



A Floating ElMtromogiut [15 2^ 



Apiece of iiDiL placed ma coil of wire canyu^ a cnnent of elechicify becomes an 
elecfiomagnet If gucha coil and uancoiebe inade small eooi^li Iheycanbe atlaclied 
to a cotk and Ihe caik, flaahi^ on b salutaii, i*ill allow Ihe magnet Id paint iiorlh and 
:3onth Tlie skelch sliows liow to mpile ^ucliamiislninienl A coil of insulated wiie is 
wrapped MQunda small iion core, leaving a few mches af each end free for connections. 
The insulation is leinoved 




from these ends and they aie run lluDugli a pece of cork AltachtD Ihe wires, ontlie 
luidei side of liie coik, a pece of zinc to one endaiida piece of copper to Ihe a Ihe i Tlie 
caik IS Ihen floated on a solution of acid, wilh the suic and copper hanging intlie 
solution If zinc and copper are used, the solutionis made fiani ivatei and blue vitiiol If 
zinc and carbon Eire used, the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water 

The floEit will move abonlon the solution until Ihe magnet iion wiU paint noith and 
south If two of tlieni Rie floRluig on Ihe same solulion, Iheywill mo\'e about and finally 
aiiange themselves end to end wilhSie coils and magnet cores pomlir^ norlh and south 
— ConlribuledbyC LIq^aIKiids. 

AFishB3ii[lS2| 

A very effective fishbolt is made byinclasing Pi Irve minnawin h sliorl section af 
glass lube, which is filled with water and balh ends closed wilh corks Tliisis used in 

place af the spoon 

Homemadt Air Thermometer [1^2] 

The illustralion shows the complele themiomeler Tlie water mtlie glass tube is 
caused to use and fell by the exptiiisian and conlracbonof Ihe Rir m Ihe Imbox 
A papei-fRsteneiboj;, abaul l-lJ4m 











3 

r^ 






h= ■ 






1 1 


'F 




V 


f^n'J 




^^ 



Air Tnaraianie lar 
Air Themia mete i 



deep and 2 in indiamelerwill serve very well far Ihe bos A Solder in Ihe side of Ihe box 



l-ui pec e of l/4-m bins lubing, B, aiid Ihcn soldeiDii Ihc cover, C, so llialtlie only 
escaps fai the pu m thiangli Uicbmss lube Secure opcce of 1/4-m gbiss tubing - nol 
sliailei lliaii IS ir[~Eiiidbciidila:3 uliaimalD in the sbelch Hold the paitof Ihc tube lobe 
bent in the broad side of a gai^jet, and ma mmnle aitwo the lobe will bend wilhils own 
we^lit Ally Eingle can be given gloss lubing in Ihis vmy Coimectlhe glass tube to B with a 
uliail piece of rubber lioue, E If the houe is not a lighl fit, bind with a slioil piece of fine 
copperwire The slandprd, F, i? made fioma piece of No 10 wue about 10 m long To Ihis 
ulaiidaidsoldei llie suppDrling wiie,G~No HwirewiUdo Onoiie ade bend the wnre 
aioundthe tube B, and on the odieraiDund Ihe glass tube, D 

The base, H, can be made of oak, slauied Eind'h'Pinished The ballDiu of Ihe box, A, is 
c Due led with Ipmpblpck so ps la repidily absoib all heal Ihatulnkes Ihe surface Tlie black 
sliauldnolbe pnl on until ju'jI before yju paint Ihe supports, covei and nmof tlie box wilh 
gold orsih'er paint Hold the batloiu of Ihe box lobe blockenedovera litlle burning cotlan 
uatuia le d with tuipenline 

The scple on Ihe glasu cpinbe etched wath hydrofluoric ocid, or made wiiha LUle black 
paint The walercanbe put m with a medicuie dropper This instrument will me asuie Ihe 
amomilaf healgivenbya candle some 30 or 30 ft away - Conlnbuled by J Tlios. 
Rhamsline. 



HoTn«-M3d« Balttry VoUmFtFT [1^3] 



Secure a pece afbrasu tube I m long Ihatliau aboul 1/4-m hale Fulends, A, l-iy4m 
square and cut from heavy caidboaid on this lobe Make a liole in the cenlerof each 
cpirdboard just large enough lo aUowIhe biauu tube Id fil hghl Pulontwo orlhiee la^ia of 
ulout paper aiaund Ihe brass lube and between Ihe cardboard ends Wird evenly aboul If oz 
of No 26 cotloncDveied magnet wiie on Ihe paper between llie ends and leave abaul 1 in 
of wire on each end extending from the cod Use aboard l/3-m Ihick, 3 in wide and 6 in 
lor^ for Ihe base andfaslenlhe cod Id it, as shown m F^ I Bore holes foi bniding-pouls, 
B, one on each side of the boaid^ and connect Ihe two wires fiom Ihe cod la Ihem Altlie 
olherend of tlie board and ui Ihe center drrve a wire nail andatlacha small spring, C, lo il. 
Tlie upni^ sliouldbe aboul I m long Take a small piece of soft iron, D, lO-m long and 
ju3l large enough la shp freely Ihiaugh Ihe 




Battery VDllmeter ConslrucliDn 



lobe and solder apece of copper wire lo il, Ihe olherend of Ihe copper wire being hooked 
lo tlie spnig, C The cappsi wiie must be ]ustlang enough la allow the pece of iron, D, lo 
hai^ part way in tlie end of Ihe coil andslill liald Ihe spring in place A circiilai pece of 
cardboard, E, is shppedovei Ihe spdi^ lo wlieie the spm^ jams Hie wire Tlup cardboard is 
lo serve as Ihe pauiter Apiece of papsi l-IO in wide and 2-1/3 m long m glued lo Ihe 
board SD llial it will be direcHy under Ihe cardboard ponile rand fitsm^lyupp^ainslthe lop 



of Ihe coil 

The paper can be calibmled by connecting one cellofbatleiy la Ihc bmdini-pouls The 
iiDnplungci, D, is diawnuilo Ihc liibE and consequently Ihe pointer, E, is diawnneEuci lo 
the coil Mpikc a mark ducctly under the place where the pointei camea to leat At the ploce 
mark the iimiibei of volts Ihe cell leadp whencannecled with a voltmeter Da the same with 
two or three cellu and niprk doimthe lesullonthe scale By dr/iding off the ^pacebelween 
these meiks yDU nipybe able to obtama auipiisu^ly coiiecl leadii^ when connected with 
the batleiy cells to be le sled- Contributed by EdwpirdM Teasdale, Cuba, N Y 

How to Mikt a FoUiii* Camas Cot [154] 

All the raalenEil required lo niPike Ihe colas sliowninFig I con'Jislu of wood 1-1/2 m 
square of which two pieces are 6 ft long, ti*T) pieces ] ft 3 in long, two pieces 2-112 fl 
lor^.foiu peces 1-1/2 fl long, four lunges, some slieet metal Eind 2-1/4^ of S-oz 
CEinvas 

Make a reclar^le of Ihe two long pieces and Ihe two 2-fl 3-m pieces of wood fls shown 
in Fig 2, iiailir^ well the comeis together pnd remfoicu^ with a ship of 
slieet me tpil as sliawnmFig 3 The four pieces 1-1/2 fl Idi^ pie used for the legs, and two 
of Ihemaie nailed lo one of Ihe pieces 2-1/2 fl long, making a supporias sliawiimFig 5 




DcIakLf or Ciinv4i Cot CanitrucElon 
Details of CaiivEis Cot Coiislnic lion 

Make two of Ihese-one for each end The hinges are Eiltacliedas sliowiiuiF^ 5 and Ihe 
wliole support 15 fastened jusi under the end pieces of the fiaiue by hinges Four pieces of 
slieet metal aie cut as shown ui F^ 4 and faslenedto Ihe body of the fianie wilh llieir 
lower endshootmg ovei pus driven m each leg at Ihe propei place The can^'ps is stielched 
as tight as possible ffh'er the Iwo bng side peces and fpstened on the outside e(^e of each 
piece withla^e hepided tacks The legs will fold upas shawnbylhe dotted hue and Ihe cot 
CEinbe stored in a small space --Contributed by R J ^niith, t^waukee. Wis. 

How to Makt a ^v'liull Gtusfer Tubt [1^4] 



Al first this would seem lobe a difficullpece of work, \ela goodandbepuhful Geisslei 
tnbe CEinbe made Pilhome in the folio wu^ niamiei 

Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 fl long hp^'ing a hole throi^hits center aboul 1/3 oi 1/4 
in mdiameler, about I m of No 3D platuiimi wire prd enough mercury to fill the tube and 
a sniPillbowl Aboul 1-1/2 lb of meicuiywillbe sufTicient Tlie first Ihn^ lo do is lo seal 
1/2 m of plaluiuin wire uione end of Ihe tnbe This isdonebylioldu^ the end of the lube 
with the i^hl hand and taking lioldof the lobe with Ihe left liaiid about 4 m fromtlie nghl 
liaiid Hold Ihe tube uia flpme of a bunsen burner in such maimer Ihptihe flEuoe will stnte 
Ihe tube mid way between Ihe hpiids, as shown m Fig 1, Piudkeeptmnn^ Ihe tube so as lo 
gel Ein even heat \Vhenlhe gleiss becomes sofi. 



w 


"^ 


jj^p^ 




y 




g^ 


t 




^ 








P., 


^ 


1 




Pll 


1 B- Fi< 


i 3 r- 


a 4 Fii 


.;^ 


e 





ConHlruEllBn or eenalKr TuDs 
Conslmctinn of Geissler Tube 



leiiiDve the tnbe from Ihe flame Pindqaicklydmiff iloutmlo Eifme llinad Bieak this IhieEid 
offaboull/3in fiom Ihc Idi^ peil of Ihc tube aiid Ihe Eiid will appeal as uliowaiiiiFig 2 
Tpike 1/2 111 af Ihe platmmii wiie and slip il thiough Ihe fme hole madebybreatir^ Ihe 
glass Ihiead so Ihalone-lialf of Ihe wiie will be inside of Ihe 1di^ tnbe If Ihe end of Ihe 
tnbe IS nowplpcedinthe flpme af Ihebimiei, Ihe glass will adhere lo Ihe plalimmi wire and 
liie wue will Ihupbe sepiledinthe tnbe Tlie finisliedend will pppsaras shown, in F^ I 
This td)e Eis desciibedwillbe 3 in long, allha ugh neailypiny size could be inpide in. Ihe 
same way 

Measnie S in fiointhe sepiled end and place the tnbe at llial pouitinlhe flame, holding in 
Ihe left liand At the same tune lake tlie piece af glass Ihatwaubraken offal Ihe end m Ihe 
first opeialion and hold ilm Ihe flpme wilhthe light liand VnlienbDlhlhe lite and piece of 
glass pre safi, lauchlhe uoft perl of Ihe lube with the end of the glpss and draw Ihe tube out 
into a pomtlike llial shown in Fig 4 Bieakolf the piece af glpss, llius leaving p small 
aperture m the laiig tube Seal Ihe lemaining 1/2 in of platmum m Ihisaperluie in Ihe same 
mamieraubefaie being cprefulnotlo heal llie tube toa suddenly The lube is now ready for 
filling and Ihe upper put willappepips showninF^ 5 

The pu IS expelled fiDia Ihe tube byfilbi^ wilh mercuiy Tlop maybe done by nipkmg a 
papei fnmiel andpouru^ Ihe mercuiy islowly into Ihe tube IhiDi^hthe funnel When tlie 
tnbe IS filled lo wilhni 1/2 in af Ihe funnel remove Ihe fnmiel PEdtapIhe side of the tube 
gentlyinardeila leniove any small air bubbles Ihpl maybe eluding to Ihe uidesof the 
tnbe The aiibubbles willnse andcame to Ihe lop The lube now muslbe filled 
CDinplelely, eKpelhi^ pU Uie aii Place a fuigei aver Ihe end of Ihe tube la keep Ihe mercuiy 
in and ui^'erl llie tube and set Ihe erdinthe bawl of mercury The meicuiyin Ihe tnbe will 
uink until Ihe level will be at about 30 ui , leaving S in afvacumn al Ihe top The next 
operation IS lo uepl the tiiie altlie lialf-waypomi between the lower plplinum wue and Ihe 
mercury level 

As the lower end of tlie tube must be kept al all limes in Ihe bowl of mercury unbl tlie 
tnbe IS sealed, an auuislpnl will be necessary fbi Hup IpsI operation Hp^'e tlie assislpnl hold 
Ihe tube in Ihe mercuiy al a sl^htpngle, uping care lo alwa^ teep Ihe lower end mihe 
mercury, while ^uhold Ihe bumei in Ihe left hand and allow Ihe flame lo sliike the tube at 
Ihe staled pouit The pert of Ihe lube above this pomi will gradupllybendoverof its own 
we^htps Ihe glauu uoftenj Whenilieaches Ihe ai^le of pbouti5Q deg , F^ 6,tatelialdaf 
Ihe tube with Ihe nghl hand still keeping Ihe flame on Ihe tube, andgiadnallydiawlhe 
saflened portion out until ilsepamleu fionilhe main tube 

The tilie is now finished aiii when Ihe plaluium wires are attached lo the lermuials of a 
upaikcoil a beautiful blue l^htwill appear in the tube wilh adoikspece allhe negative end 
or cathode — ConlributedbyDavid A Ke^ Toionla^ Can 

Laoimiiig RuEted Nuts [1B5] 

Nuls that are rusted fast cpiioflen be loosened by givii^ p haid lumm Ihe hghlenmg 
due c lion 



Cle^idng GrtQicy ^nes [IFB] 



Greasy uloves maybe cleaned with a sIidi^ sdIuIioii of lye aisoda 
How to MqIlF a TakF-DownBacJ^oimd Frame [156] 



It 



I 



Manyamatem phologia pliers wlia de?ue to do porlrail ivDikalhoiiie have left llie si±i]ecl 
alone for the want of a smiable bact^round Afiame such as ls uaedby Hie profesiDnal i? 
enluelyoulof llie question ui most hoiiies, sa^a CDiieapondenlof Caniei'a Crafl The frame 
as showai in the sketch iffas demised and its chief aduanl^e Les mihe fact that when not in 
use it can be c DmjHctly tied togelhe rand stored away ma closel 

Almost eny wood maybe used in cansliiicting this fipine.but ^llawpme is the besi, 
IE epsily obtained and etthe same time very well smtedfoi such waik AUpecesaie to be 
dressed on all sides 

TwD upi^hl pieces are cat from 3/4 in mBlenal2 m wide and 5 ft 9 m long and two 
blocks ere fastened on Hie ends of each Ihalare la be usedfoi the botlom, as shown uiF^ 
These blocks eie eBch2 byfi-ni and l/4m thick The base is made from b piece 3/4m thick, 
3 in wide end 5 fl 4 m long Aciasapece 3/4-m thick, I in wide end 12 m loi^, cutinihe 
sliape shown mF^ 2, issciewed oneechendof the beae wilh3-m waadsciews, as shown 
m F^ 3 Fanr blocks l'4m thick, I m wide and 3 m loi^ ere nailed la the sidea af the base 
pece paiPiUelwiHiandat b diatpiiice of 2 in from the end af seme Tlus forms a slot, F^ 4, la 
receive the pieces nailed la Ihe ends af Hie iipnghls To aecuie a ngid frame il is essential thai 
this, ]Dmlbe accuietely pultogellier 

Piacuie a piece of thick tin ai brass Biidmeke two pieces like the patlemsliawniiiFig 5^ 
wilheachpDjeclian3-iii loi^ The widlhof Ihe crosspiece is I m and the sii^le pro]ection 
3Min Tliese aie bent end nailed, one on each end of a pece of wood thai is llAm thick, I 
m. wide and 5 fl lai^, as in Fig 6 These will fann two pockets that will fit over Ihe tops af 
Ihe upr^hls Tlie fianie is piitlagellieras shownuiF^ 7 Anybact^iound Ihal will liai^ 
slra^hl without need of be n^ slielchedcanbe hnng anilus fiame 




FIG 6 — Detfiils of Bacl^iound Fiame 
Homt-Mqdt Kilt Rttl [156| 



This kite reel is canstiiicted from two aid pulley and a few ppe fitlings The laige pulley 
IE about 14 m m diameter, on Ihe face of which E^re nueled flat ships of iron with e:ilendu^ 
aims Tliese anus are leinfoicedbynveling smaller pieces from one lo the 




OJd pMll*y» and Plp» Fltdngi 

Old Pulley and PLpe Fitbi^s 

othei, ffluclicoimecia all aims togelhcronbolliadesof Ihe wheel Mannlcd on Ihe shaft wilh 
Ihc polle^ IS B guide for flie kite wire or sliu^ The photcgraph shDWi? llial llus guide penuila 
of beu^ mo^'ed entirely over Ihe top af the leel Tlie sniallei pulleyisatlachedtD the sb&ft 
and used as b bi'ake The bipke is used only when luiuung aal the wue di stiuig, fusl 
lemcTbiiig the crank 

Atbuhing RiDincTS ta a Bkyclt for Winttr Uw |157| 

Instead of slarn^ eway ^iirbic^le foi Ihe wnnler, etlach luimeiij and use it on Ihe ice The 
ninnerscanbe made from 1/4-m by 1-ui uon endfaslened lo the bicycle fmme e^s shown in 
Ihe sketch The lue isiemovedfrom llie iimof llie leer wheel and laige screws himed mto 
Ihe run, leevu^ Ihe gieeterperlof Ihe sciewcKlending Cutoff the head? af llie ucieiffu end 
file Ihein lo a point Tlie leer rmmeis shanldbe set so Ihe run of Ihe wheel will be abaal 1/^ 
m. ebove Ihe mmier level — ConliibuledbyC R. Welsh, Pvlanliatlan, Kan 




Bicytrle Filled wilh Runneis for ^now 

AFqptrThalMikFs i^tf«i F-rinR [1F7| 

A coaling for ordinery jHpei thai m ueid lo give green piinls is made wiiha two percent 
uolaliDnaf gelatine, sa^ffl Phologiaphy, and sensitized with llie folia wing uoluliDn 



Pntnssium Bicluomale 15 gi 
iVlagnesniiti ^nlphale 25 gr. 
Water 1 az. 



TIlis miKtoie m spread over llie paper in llic usual way and the pepei dried in llie dark 
Prinlmg rs canred rethei far The pruil m washed, llieriuiirfecc diredorblDtledoffona 
andlpirdfihii upwards an a sheet af glass, and the following developer is applied wilh a wed 
□fi:allcui wool wrung oul 



Pyrocalecluri 

Water 



5 fir 
laz. 



Tlie piclme assumes a rrch green color wiien developed, andu then washed for frve ai ten 
riimules anddrredqurcklybyheat 



Copki Madt from W^x Maids by Eltclro-DtposiliDn [1F7] 

Fine copes of ffa:i uiipressrons can be made in the following niamier Procure an ordinary 
tumblei E^ndfiUit with e^ stioi^ solulran of sulphate of copper, whrchis ineide by dissat/ing 
two cent^ WDithofblue vihiol m 1/^ pi of walei Aflei this is done niPike a poioiis cell by 
lalhng a pece ofbiownpaperaiounda slrckandfestenrng the edge wrih sealing waK,alsa, 
fix ebotlom to the cellinlhe same way Meke a solalronaf one pari of ail ofvilnol and 5 
parlsof walei E^nd poor this nimtme mlo the porous cell Windihe end of a coppiei wire 
aiDundthe endof aprece of zuic and piece llie zuic m llie poious cell Atlachthe otiiei end of 
the wire Id the wbx impessron 

Tlie w;c£ impessionis made bypouiu^ melledbeeswe:! on the aitrcle ^^awishto 
repodoce and removir^ after the WTi:i gets cold The wax mold then should be coeted with 
bleck lead and pnhshed This is done witlia camel's hair brash A fine copy can be made on 
the was mi pession after llie battery has been rnmiing about 12 hr —Contirbuted by Edward 
M Treesdale 




How n Mikt Skaliii" Slioes 11?B| 

Remove Ihe clamp pari, as shown in Fig I, finm an ordinary clamp skate Drill hole! 
m the lop pari of the skate 




SlifllLn^ SKdfi 



Skalir^ liltoes 



forsciews Piuchase a pair of high slices wilh heavy soles and fasten the skales to Ihe 
soles wrth screws, as sliowri in Fig 2 When completed the skaling shoes will have Uie 
appearance shownonF^ 3 These will mate as goodskalrng shoes as can be piui- 
cliased, and\'eiyriuch clieaper —Contirbuled by Wallace C. Newton, Leomuislei, 

Mass 



H<pw 10 Make 3 S«If-Stlting Robbii Tx;^ [l^S] 

Secnie a gaDd-sizedhoz, soy, 1 fl h^h^ 1-U2ft wide, and 3 ft Inr^, and Id Ihe 
bDHam, Eihoat ID HI fiaiiione end, faisleii a 2-m square pece, A^ Fig 1, extenEliog the 
width af Ihe box Place h ID-iii boaid sloping fiom Ihe end of the box fa the cleat A 
The swing dooi B, Fig I, la made as sliDwn 







^^i 








n 






^J^ 


i-^^ 




ii 






■^ 


M m 


m% 




^ 


F4B,I 


m 




F-ta 







3fll-£rllii] j Tcjp 

Self-^etliiig Trap 

in Fig 2, iwhich repiesenis Ihe back side Dfllie dooi Slieel melfll ai linis catia the 
piopeisize and lacked around the ei^e of the liole This pevenis the riuqielI ftom 
gnpwii^ lis iway oat, also provides a iway la make Ihe hole of different sizes foi 
squineL; Di other animals The hale in Ihe daorsliouldbe aboat2 in wide and 4 in 
lugh for rabbits The door is mRde to swing fieely an two laige nails driven tluough 
the sides af Ihe ba^: The hole ui Bie door being aiily kige enough to admila small 
poitionof the mbbifs liead, the rabbil will push lis way through Id Ihe bait, causing 
the dooi to swir^ back and up, and it will close by its own weight when Ihe Eniimal is 
inside A small daor is piavided in Bie olhei end lo remove the animals caught 

The ad^'anlage of tlus trap is Ihat where one animal is caughl oJheis are liable Id 
follow, and several rabbits will be bappedala lime Then, loo, Ihe rabbits are no! 
haimed many way as they would be if cai^htinanoidinary tiap — ContiibutedbyH. 
F Church, Ale xandiia, V a 

How n Mike 311 Annrner [IFS] 

Secure a good-sized test tube and fit il with a coik Take two glass tubes, wilh about 
l/S-m liole, Eindbend them as sliDwnin [lie sketch This is done by liealuig them at 
the proper p]into\'ei a gas flame uiihl Ihey are sofi Two liotes are bored tluough the 
coik and the bent tubes uiseitedintheni, Eis shown m Ihe sketch, so Ihat one of Ihe 
tubes will e:ilend nearly lo the boltom 




of Ihe test lube and Ihe olher just pro jectir^ lluough Ihe cork The spiay tube maybe 
made with a fine hole by first seciini^ a tube longer Ihan necessary and lieatii^ ital 
the proper p]mtaiid drawii^ Uie tube out mio ofine lliread The lliread is broken olf at Ihe 



propsi place to make a uiiiall liole 

Homt-Mqdt Kils for Iht Camvrq [1F9| 

Ifyou liTh^ a 5-by7-iii camera Eind wish lo use amie 4- byS-iii plotes, mpike a few 
simple kits lo hold llic amalleipkles and fit the laigeiholderu, aa^ Cpimeia CrafI Tpike 
tivD pieces af pasleboaid^ A EmdB, black smfacedif posable, pnd exactly 5 by 7 in inaae 
The piece A will foim the back af the kilaiid should have anopemi^ calm Ihe center 4by 
5 111 m siae Paste a piece af strong black paper, C, ouei llie underside of it la keep the 
plate fioiii fallmg tliraugh Cut an opemr^ in llie atlier pece, B.bulcutil H4in slioitei 
Tins opeiui^, being I /Sin sliaitei at each end, will retain Ihe plate m posihon and cut off 
only that small amounlaf plale surface wlien llie plate is exposed ui the 




canieia Cut a pece of lliin black cloth, D, 1 m wide and 5 m long Lay il down on a piece 
of newspaper and ca at one ade with gum di mucilage iland Ihe two pecea of 5 by 7 in 
black caids on end together so that Ihey willbe square and tine andbuid the other erds 
with the shipof clath so as ta foim a hinge The two cards faiin a thickness about equal la 
a thick glass plate, and ga in Ihe holder in the same way Lay one of these kits downp^ainsl 
the giannd side af the focuair^ screen and draw a hue aianiii inside of the Dpeimig This 
will be a guide as to just what will be seemed upon Ihe smaller plale when Ihe kits aie used 

HoH t* Mqht a MiiLBnirc Stagt J159] 

A goad smooth boK, sayS in wide, IQ in high ard 12 in loi^, will serve the puipose for 
the mam part of this small Iheater Out two leclangnlai holes, F^ I, one in each end and 
exactly opposite eacholher Place a screw eye atout 1^ m from tlie ei^e on each side of 
these openings Fitana^le m Ihe sciewe^s and fasten a spool lo the middle of Ihe axle 
On one af the Iwo spools attach anothei smaller spDol, F^ 2, to be used as a driving 
pulley Cat oulthe fiantpflrtof the baz dawn to a lev'el with the tap of the spools Comiect 
the spools withabellmade fiom lape about 3Hm wide On llus belt fasten figiues cat fiom 
lie Bvy paper and made m Ihe form of people, automobiles, trolley cars, horses and dogs A 
pamledscenerycanbe made m behind the movable lape The fiontpflilof the box maybe 
draped withcurlains, making the appearance of llie ordmaiystage, as shownmF^ 3 A 
small iiioloi will iim Ihe spools anddnv'e the lape on which Uie f^mes are attached ~ 
Contributed by William M Cnlly Ji , Chic^o 




FlStnC^ ONfFC 




DeifliJi of iiVD Mini£iur« Medidnfcai aijgo 



A Fbating Can^asj Needk- [160] 

Wliena llioioi^hlydiyandcle en sewing iieedle i^ caiefiillypkcedDnllie umfacc of ivalEi 
llic needle will floal even if llie denpilyof sleel m 7 orS limes llialof walei A uewing needle 
llinp flaalu^ apon WBter maybe nsed e^s a compeuu, if it lias previa uply been megnelized. The 
needle wnlllhen poinl norlh and saalli, end will mainlam llus poaitDnif Ihe conlaiiung vesMl 
IE moved abanl, if llie needle m displaced by faice il will retom lo its posihon aloi^ Hie 
meignelic meridian e^s soon as llie lesli'amt is removed 

Homt-Mqdt D«< Cart [160] 

The accampanyuig photDgiaplislioivsaboywilhlii? "dogmabile ■ The photcgrapli w&s 
taken when they we re on a newpevemeni wluchliad2 m of uand 




Ooa-Powtr Cart 
Dog -Power Call 

left by the jHV'era and a gn^de of 6 percent The maclune tj nallung moie thanaboy^ nibber- 
tiiedw^on on which are manntedabas fai a seat and a wheel sleeiing device eslending 
above and below the boeid of Hie w^^n The front wheels pre guide d by ropeu attached from 
each end of Hie axle and a feivhimsaiannd Ihe lawei end of the sleem^ lad A pair of shafts 
aie attecliedtD the leai, into winch die dog is harnessed 

How toMqht aDryBqtRry Ctll 11601 

Diybetle rye ells are composed of the same materials foi the pDlea, bat instead of Hie 
liqmd commonly used a pasle is fomiedbymiKing aalammoiuBC andothei SEilla wiHi water 
and packed m Hie cell so il cannot upill. 



Ci^hH ■40] 



Fton 



A cell of this kmd can easily be made, end to make it the poperuise b aheelof zinc 2-ii2 
m. long and 6 m wide will be reqiuied This zmc is tolled mio a C]ylir[der2-l^-m m 
dipmeter This will allow foi b lap of 5/3 in , which is l^hHy soldered only on Ihe outside of 
the seem Close one end of Hie c^iiindei by soldering a disk of zinj; ovei it, making a 



waleil^hl receplacle All aildciuig slianldbe done anllic an&ide aiidnoiie of llie uolder 
alloived lo imianllic uipidc af IIie sepiii All i^eam? an the uipidc slianldbe peinlcd walh 
Bsjdultum ID oidei lo ca\'er any jHitcles of aildci Do iialpflinlanysmfacc, only Ihe jauib 
Secuie thiee caibDniDda 1/3- ui uidiamelei and 6 in. long which are copper pleled Caihani 
used in ere Ipnips will do File llie lads lo remove Ihe copper plete, leevu^ abanl 1^-m of 
Ihc pkle Blonc end Tie llie Ihrec lads in b close bundle wilh llie coppei-pkled ends logellier 
and make a conlactwilh eEichnjdbyaoldeiir^ p wire Id the plated ends, allowing one end 
of Ihe wire Id [HDjecl Eiboul2 in far acanneclion The plated ends af Ihe caibona shouldbe 
CDveiedwilh paraffin. foi aboul I in Tlup is danebyunmeising them in p dish of smoting 
lialnielledpmiiffin until the pDie^ are tlioroi^ lily uatuiPi led 

The sallu foi fillir^ Eue IMlb sine D:iide, I lb sal pmmoniac, 3Mlb plaster of pems, 1/4 
lb clilonde of zmc mixed mlo a paute byadduig ill pi af watei Fonn a l^-m la^i of 
paule m Ihebotlomof the cjdindei and place the ends of the caibonrods an this wilh llieir 
plated ends up Holdtlie lods in the cenleiof Ihe c^mderand put the paste maiaund Ihe 
lads with El slick Pack the paste in, closelyfiUii^ the cinder lo withiii3Min oflhetop 
This space al the lop is filled with a miKture af l'2 lb of rasuiand2 oz beeswax melted 
logelhei This vmx ueEdp the cell prdpie\'enls puiy evaporation CDimecliDn is made ta Ihe 
zmcbysoldeiing a wire to llie onteide of Ihe c^inder 

How 10 PaiaffiiL Wire [16 1] 



The foUowing descnpliDnof liowto make an apparatus with winch lo paraffmwire ais 

needed makes clepua melliadof conplmcliDn Ihatis simple and easy Id pot lagelhei ma 
sliait hme 

Seciiie a pen la be used far this purpose only, one lliatwill liald about I ql The delails of 
Ihe conpliuclion aie gi^'enmlhe diagram, m winch P is the pan, B is abaue of 1 m [ine, Ij 
IS Ihe spool of wue supported near one end of the baue by nailing onstendanij H and H, F 
IS a spool, wilh narrow flanges, supported neai tlie bottom of Ihe pan by Ihe slandaids T ard 
T These maybe made of two slioit pieces of a roUei filled uilo Ihe holes bored m llie base, 
At3 ablock of 1-in pane with apece of leathei tacked onone side Foui nails sliould be 
driven m llie base ]ustDulside of tlie ei^e of Ihe panto keepil fiom sliding ofTlhe pan 

Bore a hole m llie base between Ihe two spools and pass Ihe wue Ihiai^h lias hate, uiidei 
Ihe spool m Ihe peraffui, then Ihiai^ha small liole in Ihe tealher ard a notehin Ihe block A, 
and a nolch between the base and the pen Tie a slmig around Ihe wue belweentlie leather 
and Ihe peraffui, making the kiiote so Ihey will iiolpuU through Ihe hole ui Ihe leather This 
makes Ihe wire smooth^ and by making llie slimg t^liler oi looser you can regulate Ihe 
thickness of the peiaffin^ sa^ Electrician and Mechanic Place Ihe pan on Ihe stove, when 
Ihe pamfiinis melted, pull oulthe wire as needed To keep the pan fiom sliding place a 
flahron or some olher weight on il 




t^ome-MuIfl AppsrBtuifor Purallliilna win 
Home-Made Apparatus for Paiaffinmg Wire 



Ui« «f Peal |1«1| 
Peal IS used mGemiany foi bedding, foddei, fillei, fuel and pecking pmposes. 



Scvntifir Ej^lqiutBnof a Toy [162] 

In a receni Insue of Popnlai Mechanics on article on "Tlie Tumir^ Card Puszle" 
was described arid. lUustm led Outside nf Ihe scientific ^ide imih'ed herein I 
describe a much belter tuck Aboul Uie tune ivlieii the eKpie^sinii "skidno" fu^l 
began to be used I invented the folio wii^ tnck and called il "Stidoo" and 
"^kidee, " ivluchciedted much nieinnient Unless the Irick ls tlioiouglily 
undeistnod, for some it will lum one way. for others the opposite wfly. while for 
others il will nol levalve al all One pei'son wham I now re call became red in the 
face by shoiitJT^ skidaa aiid skidee al it, but the thir^ would not move at all, and 
he finally, ficm veKatiaii, Ihrew the tiick inlo tlie fjie and a new one liadtn be 
mEide Very few can make il turn both way^ al will, and tliereui is tlie tiick 

Take a piece nf hardwood 3/S-m square and about 9 in lor^ On one of tlie 
ec^e^ cut a series of notclies as indicated inF^ 1 Then slightly lapei Ihe end 
marked B until it is nicely rnunded as ^hown inF^ 2 Nest make an ami of a 
two-Eirm windmill such asbo^ make P.^ke a hole Ihrnugh tlie center of Ihis one 
arm Enlaige Ihe hole sl^hlly, enough to allow a common pin tn hold tlie arm to 
the end B and not uileifere wilh tlie levalviug aim Two oi tluee of Ihese arms 
may have lo be made before one is secured Ihal is of Ihe exact piopcilious to 
catch the vibralions nghl 




Ho'H i^ Cue Iht NaUh«E 
How to Cut Ihe Nnlches 

To operate the tiick, grip the stick firmly in one hand, and with the forward and 
backward motion of tlie atliei allow Ihe fust firmer to ^lide alor^ tlie tap edge, Ihe 
second fii^ei aloi^ the side and die thumb nail will then vibiale aloi^ Ihe 
nolches, thus inakmg Uie aim revoh-e in one diiection To make the arm levolve 
in tlie opposite due ctioii-- keep the hand moving all the lime, so tlie ob^eivei will 
nol detecl the charge ivlucli the band makes— allow Ihe fust fii^ei to ^lide alor^ 
the top, as in the other movement, die dnmib and second finger char^ir^ places 
e g , in tlie fust movement you scidlch Ihe nolches with the thiuiib nail while tlie 
hand is goii^ from Ihe body, and in tlie second movemeni you ^ciatch tlie notclies 
with die iiad of die second fii^ei when the hand is comir^ lo^vaid the body, Ihus 
producir^ two different vibrations In order to make it work perfeclly (") ■^u 
must of course say "skidoo" when youbegui the firsl mo\'emeiit, and then, no 
mallei how fa^l tlie little arm is re'^'oh^l^ when chained to Ihe second mo\'ement, 
you musi say "skidee" and tlie arm will immediately stop aiidbeguiievoluii^ in 
the opposite direction By usir^ the magic words Ihe little aim will obey your 
commands instantly and yoia audience will be mystified If any of yciu audience 
presiune to dispute, or tluiik Ihey can do Ihe same, let Iheni Iry il You will no 
doublbe accused of blowup oi diawii^ in ycur breath, and many other Ihings in 
order to make Uie aim opeiate Al least il i^ omusu^ Try it and see --Coiitiibuted 
by Charles Clement Bradley, Toledo^ Oluo 



The foregair^ prticle deucribu^ tlie "SkidoD-Hkidee Tuck" appeared ma lecenl issue of 
Popular Pvlecliaiucu I have beentald thnla uimilai piraiigemEnt lu usedbya tribe of Indians 
mthe state of V/aulungtoii^by Ihe Hindoos uilndiEi, Pindane fuend lells me lliat they were 



uold on llie slieels of am Ipige citieu many ye prs ago 

Tins loymleRsledme so much Ihatl hp^'e made anui^'est^Eitianinto the cousesof lis 
action, audi Hunk Ihc results nioybE af mteiesi 

Ta opeiatc, one end of the no Ic he d sticks hcldfiimlyinthe left hand, while with Hie 
iighlhpuida nail ainiEilch slick is nibbed alor^ Ihe notched ei^c, at Ihc same lune pressing 
with the Ihuiiib aifmgei of Ihe mavuig handagamsl Ihc oblique fpce of llic stick The 
diieclionof lalalion depends upDn which face is pesMd A square stick with notches on 
edge IS best, bul the sectionmaybe cucnlai oreveninegulai m shape 
The eKpeiimenlu were au follows 

1 Aieclangulaislick liad notches culonone fpce V/henlhe pressore was oppliedapon 
a face noinial lo Ihe fust, no lalalion resulted If Ihe pessuie was upon an edge, rolahon 
was ob lamed 

If liregolarspflcii^ of tlie notches didnotmleifeie with the Eiclion Tlie deplhof the 
nolclies was also mumpoilant, although it sliouldbe suited lo Ihe siae of Ihe nail for best 
le sill Is 

3 Tlie liole mtlie levolvii^ piece niuslbe la^er than Ihe pm, if there is a close filno 
lalalion is obtpiuied 

4 Tlie cenlei of giPi^'ityof Ihe revolviiig jaece moslhe wilhmlhe hole If Ihe hole l3 not 
well centered Ihe trick cannot be peiioimed 

5 If Ihe slick be clampedina'hTse no lesulls are oblamed, with this esceplion ifihe 
slick hpisenongh spiiig, pud the end clamped is fEuerDi^hawayfrom Ihe notched poihDn, 
Ihe rotpi lion maybe oblamed 

The above ezpsiimenis led me lo the conclusion Ihnllhe operelion of Ihe device is 
dependent upon b circular motion of Ihe pni, pndthis w;\s confuinedby Ihe following 
expeiiiiienis The aclion is somewhat suuiIeiiId swinguig Ihe loy known as a locust aromid 
wilh El shghl circular mo ton of the liand, II is necessary to slio where that a sl^lit 
cuculai molionis sufficienl lo produce the lesulland, secondly Ihalsiichmcdoncanbe 
produced by Ihe gr^'enmo^'emenls of Ihe hands 

6 A pece of brass rod was clamped m Ihe chuck of a lathe, and a depresionmade mihe 
end slighlly eccentric^ by means of a cenlei punch. If Ihe end of the pm is inseitedui Ihis 
depression. 




The Laihe Expemiient 

fflule Hie liand holdup Hie olher end of Hie shckis kept as neailyas possible mIhe aKis of 
Ihe lalhe, lotation of Hie laihe will produce lalalionof Hie revolving piece IJpseds between 
TQD and 1,100 I p m gav'e Ihe beslresults 

7 A tuiymmoi was attached lo Hie end of Ihe pm, and Ihe liandheldm Hie smil^hlso llial 
a spotof sunl^hl was reflected upon Hie wall The nolches were Hien rubbed m Ihe usual 
way The spoloflighl upon Ihe wall nyr,'edma way wluch disclosed two components of 
nioliDn, one cuculai and one due to the inegulai mo^'emenls of Hie liand holdup Hie stick 
Usually Hie oibitwas loo inegulai to sliowa conlmuousand closed circular path, bul al limes 
Ihe cucularmobonbecanie very pronounced It was observed and Hie direclionof rolalion 
cone cHy slated by a man wiio wasunawaie of Ihe souice of Ihe moHon 

Tlie production of the circular motion canbe eKplainedmllus umy. 
When Ihe rubbing nail comes to a notch Ihe release of [leEEnie sends the sHckupwardi this 
upward motion againsi Ihe obhqiie piessme upon Ihe (sa^ nghl hand side gr^'es also a lateral 
component of mo Hon towards Hie left As Hie nailslnkes Hie opposile side of Hie nolchlhe 
shck Ls knocked down again, Ihis motion re heves somewlial the oblique pressuie from Ihe 
I'^hl hand side, and, the reacHon from the holdup (lefll hand moves Hie stick lo Hie r^hl 
shghtly so thai it LS back m Hie old position foi the nesi upward moHon Thus a cuculai or 



elliptic iiiDtDrLi? lepealed fai each notch, piidlliE duectmnof thismotianis the miiic 
fflielhci the nail be rnbbcd forwaid ai back Fdi abhqiie uidc pre?siiie from the i^hUnotchcu 
assumed upwaid), the motioiiof Hie stick andhciice of the revolving pece will be comiter- 
clockwise.if the presaiiic is from the lefl, it will be clockwise 

Tliat llie moliDiiaf the rcvoh/ing piece js doe to a uwuiging action, end iiolto fiictionDf 
the pminthe hole, is proved by expeiimenla 3 and 4 -ContiibuledbyH. G Lloyd, PhD , 
WBshuigtDii, D. C 

Hoin«-M3d« Lanltrn [163] 




Tin Cin LuitFm 



Tlic accDinpenymg picture shows b lantern which can be made almost piiyfflieK for 
immcdiBte nsc AlUhetis needed is anemplytoniBtD oi coffee can, p piece of wiie eiide 
candle Make a hole b hitle ?mallei than the dinmelei of a cpiidle end aboul one-third of llie 
way from the closed end of Ihe can, as shown A wire tj lied promid llie can, foimn^ a handle 
for caiiying This kindof lantern cpn be earned aganist elmost eny wuid and llie lighl will not 
beblDwnoat — ContibutedbyG A Sloan, Dululh, Mimi 

AStudyaf^lashK [1«4| 

WhenaiDi^h, or greasy, oi dusty spliere fells into b hqmd, the liqoid is foicedawayfiom 
the sphere If the sphere isqmie smooth Ihe liqmdiisei; uparaandand enclosii^ it ma slieslh 
ua^ Knowledge and Scientific News 

Reproduced heiewilhaie a senes of photogiaplis sliowing successive stages m the enhyof 
a iDi^h spliere nito milk and walei, and Ihe lesullant 'basket splash " The diameter of llus 
spheie WBS abDul3/5 m, and Ihe heighlof Ihe fallabant6 m EspiimialiDn of Ihe 
|)liGlagmph3 shows that llie liqiud, inslepdof flowii^ Dverand weltii^ 'lie surface of Ihe 
spliEie, isdrr'en^iolenllyaway, so far as can be seen from Ihe phslcgmphj, the apper 
portion IS, alfirsl, nnwelledby Ihe liquid The grBdnBlthickemi^ of the cmlei wall and llie 
coiiespondii^ leduclionmlhe nambei of its lobes as Ihe subsidence poceed? is beautifully 
sliown Thereefler lliere rises fiamlhe deplhof the cmlei Bne:iquisile jet which m obedience 
to the law ofsegmenlational once splits upm itsappei portion mio htlle diops, while allhe 
same lime it galheis volmiie from below end rises ullimalelyas a lall, giacefulcolmiiDlo a 
lie^hl which maybe evengieatei then lliatfrom which the sphere fell. 




Splaslies fioin a liphere In Milk and Walei 



Hou<toMakF3StkkPm[L64] 

A fine slick piiaibuHancaiibe made from b new onc-cciitpcce CiucfaUyfile out ell 
IliE melBlaiDimdIlic Indian head and uliglitlyiomid llie edges Soldci a pinto the back af the 
lieed whenil is lobe usedfai a shckpm. If a callai butlonbase issaldeiedlo IhebE^ck af tlie 
lieed instead af the pin it can be used for a batton Thci;e can be gold plalcdbya jeweler and 
then you will have a neatpinorbutlon^ oi a good emblem foi flie Oidei of Redmen 




How Id MqIv a Miniature FlFrlrir LocomotiBV [165} 

A miiuatiiie eleclnc mdioayis a tlung tliaf altiaci? liie atlenlionof alniaul any 
peisjii The cost of a loyelectnc laconialive is beyaiid the leach of manyboy^ who 
could ]upta:3 loell make such a toy witliout much expense and be poud to say they 
"bnillillhemselves " The eleclnc locomotive desciibed lieiewilhuses for its poioeia 
small balteiyiQotoi coslu^ about Si The fust Hung to do is to make the wheels and 
a:iles If one has no 




ThB DilEiKnl PbcIb Idc MnkinR Iho Errclric LcoDroabTD 

Tlie Different Pails for rvlaku^ Ihe Eleclnc Locomotive 

lathe, Ihe wheels can be lamed at some machine shop Foui wheels are made from a 
roDitd bai of metal, as shown in F^ I Each wheel is IMin. Ihick and I m m 
diamelei, wiiha 1/16-m flange anda 1^4-in. hole diiUedmlhe cenlei Eachpeuof 
wheels IS filled an a U-4-m axle, aboat 2-5^3 m toi^ One of the ai:Ies sliouldbe fiHed 
wiiha gioovedbell wheel, eis shown Mhkc the frame from Iliiee peces of lieavy 



biass, as isliDWDUiF^ 2 

Tlie fu^tpece, or iiiampflilof the ftaiiie, is mEide fiDm brass, 3/4 in wide and 16 
III Idt^, bentinlo anoblor^ shape and tlie eiiEls :3oldered ai boiled logethei Ifihe 
eiiEls are lo be soldered, before dou^ sa drill four l/4-in holes 1 m from flie ends and 
iiiseitEhe ends of Ihe axles The olhei tivo pecea ore l/?-in wideandofEhe 
dimensions sliDwninlhe skelch These pieces Eue nveEed in the middle of the oblong 
frame, eachm lis piopei place The niotoiis nowboUed, bottom side ap, to the top of 
the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise Alrolley,F^ 3, is made from el [mece of 
clock spiii^, bent as shown, Riid a small piece of Imsoldeied lo the top end for a 
biiishcomieclion A gioove is mnde m the tin to keep Ihe trolley wue m place 

Tlie trolley wue is fastened lo supports made of wood and of the dimensions given 
in Fig 4 The tiolleyshould be well msulaTedfrom the frame The ptiils, put together 
complete, aie shown in. F^ 5 Run a bell from llie pulley on the motoi lo the giooved 
wheel on tlie a:ile, as sliowiiuiF^ d, and the locomotive is ready for riumii^ 

InmEikii^ tlie coimections the trRvelof tlie locomoliue maybe made more 
complicated by placing a rheostat and conliolhi^ switches m llie hue, so thRl the 
engine can be slatted Enid slopped elI will from a distance and tlie speed regulEiled 
Aulomalic switches can be attached al Ihe ends of Hie line lo bieak Ihe cucnil when 
the locomotive passes a ceilain point 

One connection from Ihebatteiies is made lo the trolley wire and the other lo a rail 
The comiectionfoi Ihe nioloi runs fioni one bindii^ past lo tlie tiolley and this 
connection must be well msolaled lo avoid a shoit-ciicuil The other bmding-poal is 
connected lo Ihe frame 

Tlie cost of making Ihe wheels andpotchasmg Ihe tmck will not be a\^r$l 5D The hack 
CEmbe made fiom ships of luiputma saw cut made m pieces of wood used for hea This 
will save buying a track. -ContribatedbyMaunce E Fuller, San Antoiuo, TeKas 



Dvmignrtizni^ a Walch |l(i£| 

A test can be made lo know if ^m watch is mp^nelizEd by placing a small compass on 
Ihe side of the watch nearest Ihe escapement wheel if the compass pomler moves with the 
escapement wlieeltlie watch la magnetised A mp^nehzed watch must be placed ma 















f V 


"" 


^J- 




ff-H 




^C/^-foadnn 




■ 


VWl. 

F- 


Z^^c- 








■ 3 


} 



WUch D« ffijgr EElFrr 

Watc h Demagne Ii3e i 



CDil that has analteniatir^ cniienlofelectiicity flowing IhioughiltD remove the 
magnetLsm A demagneliseicanbe made as sliownmtlie illnstration Two endpeces&r 
the coil are made aa shown in F^ I from ilA-m wood These ends are fastened together. 
Fig 2, witli caidboaid 3 m long glued to Ihe mside edges of tlie lioles cut m them Wind 
upon tlie spDol thus formed Piboul 2 lb ofKo Id cotton-coveiedcopperwiie Asilwillbe 
necessaiy to place a Ii5-cp lamp m series with Ihe coil, both Ihe coil and lamp can be 
lUDunted ona suitable base andconnectedas sliownmFig 3 The cuiient, wluchmuslbe 
IID voltalteniatu^ cnnenl, is tinned on the lamp and coil and the magnetised walch 



slowly diBwnthioi^litlie opemng mtlie ccnieraf Ihe cail -CanliibuledbyAilliui 
Liebciibeig, Cincuuiflti, O 

How to Makt a Packet Skale Shaiptner [166\ 

Weenie b squaie file aiid bieat offa piece. Fig I, llic length af a papsi clip, F^ 2 Daw 
Ihe leiiipsi III Ihe ends of tins pece of file,buldD iiolheatihe ceiilei This can be done by 
wrapping a wel piece ofclolhor psbeslos aioiuidtlie middle pndliolding ilin llie ]eiws of a 
pairof langs which will only lea\'E tlie end uncovered PEdpajeclmg fiom Ihe tongs Piboul 
1^ in Hold this prajecting end in a flame of b plumber's torch until ilis a dull led Allow 
this la cc»l slaifflyiffhile in llie loi^s \^liencold liepittlie olherend m Ihe same way TIas 
will dinwlhe lempei in only Ihe ends iffliichaie filed, as shown uiF^ I, and lioles diiUed 
in them Also dnlla hole in each end of the spii^ on Hie paper chp to molchtliose dnlled 
inthe pece of file Fasten Ihe file ui Ihe chp withsmallbolls, as shawninFig 3 V/henIhe 
file gets filled with filings it CEin be lemovedand clepined Place the iimnerof Ihe skote in 
Ihe chp and hold flat on tlie surfpice of Ihe runiiei If the pece affile is filled la Ihe same 
width as Ihe stale iimiiei Ihe sides of the papei chp will hald Ihe file level with tlie surfoce 
of Ihe immer withanl any trouble Posh the chpback and forlh until the skate is sharpened. 




Shjrptrur tor SKiiEui 
Shaipenei foi Skates 

Old-TimeMa^ic [167] 

Trirkwilha Coming WIilf GLl^s [i67| 

The accompenying sketch shows a tnck of remaving a dime from Hie bottom of an aid 

fasluoned wine glass without louc lung Ihe coin The dime is fir^l placed m the boHoin of 
the gipss and Ihena silvei qoailei dioppedinon lop Tlie quailei will not go all Hie way 
down Blow hard mlo Ihe glass in tlie position sliown and Ihe dime will fly out Eindslnke 
Ihe blower art Ihe nose 




Untying-a-Knot Trkk [167] 

Tie El double knot in a silk hpinElkeicluef, as sliowninihe accompanying sketch pnd 
lighten Ihe Ipisltie a little by shghllydiPiwu^ Ihe two upper ends, then continoe lo lighten 
muchmaie, pullu^ ■.igaroualyal Ihe firsi comer of tlie liandkerchief, Eirdas this end 



belongs la Ihe same coniei il caiinDlbe pulled iiiucIiwiIIiouIIdomiiii^ Ihe Iwiuledluie of 
the tiiol lo become a ulimghl line Tlie othei comer forms a slip tiiol on tlie eiirl, iffhich can 
be drawn oul wilhoul distmbu^ Ihe form, oi appereiilsecuiily of tlie knot, altlie moment 
wlienyDU cover Ihe knot with the mrapedpailof Ihe himdkeicluef 

When Ihe Inckis lobe perfonned, lie two orthiee veiyhani knots that are tighlly drawn 
and show your audience that they are noteauyto imtie Tlie ulip knot as deaciibedllien 
must be made inappiientlylhe same way 




and untied with the thumb while Ihe kiiolu mthe folds of the handkeichief 

Gtu-CutringAlcxiJunfiubr SnullL^thts [167} 

When m need of small gepis for e:ipenmeiilal or model machmestlie amotenr usonlly 
piirchnses them, ne'h'er Ihinku^ Ihnlhe could niPike Ihemonlus own lathe A small 
attaclimenlcanbe made to fasten m Ihe loalposl of a lollie and Ihe atlachmenl niPide lo lake 
a niPindiel on which la plpice Ihe blank for cutting a geai The fiame is made fionia 1/3 m. 
square iionbentas shown mthe sbelch with the 




30« 



Qear-CiillLnD AtUdififlnE Tor Lulllot 
Geai-Cuttu^ Atlacliinenl foi Lathes 

projEclu^ end filed la fil Ihe tool post af the lathe A.paii af centers aie fitted, one of which 
sliauldliave a screw thread ardlock nulfbi adjustment ui putlii^ m and lemcrh'u^ Ihe 
mandiel. 

All Ihe old clack wlieels tlial can be found sliould be saved and used far iiide:i wlieels 
AH of these wlieels sliouldbe filled to one end af Ihe mandrel The blank wheel is pal on 
Ihe oulerendof the mandrel and a clack wheel having Ihe number of teeth desued placed 
on Ihe other end When Ihe mandrel l; pnluibelweenlhe cenlers a small pawl is faslened 
with a screw lo Ihe frame with lis uppsi end eng^ing ma toolhof the clock wheel One 
clack wheel willuide:! nioie Ihanone numbei of leelhanablank wheel Foruislance ifthe 
clack wheel has IS teeth it can be made lo uides 6, 9 or IS teeth to llie blank by mavu^ Ihe 
nuiiiber of lee Ih each time 3, 2 and 1 lespsclively 

In Ihe skelch, A shows Ihe end of the cutler and B tlie side and the shaps af Ihe cultmg tool 
Vnlien Ihe cutlei A, which is in a mandiel placed in the cenlers of Ihe lallie, has fuiislieda 
cut for a loolh, Ihe jhwIlj diser^ aged and the mandrel lumedto anolliei loolhmlhe clock 
wheel 

In Older la get Ihe desued heighl it l3 samelunes necessaiy la block up Ihe laihe head ard 
Ihe final deplli of tlie tooth adjusled by Ihe Iwa screws ui Ihe ]HO]eclu^ end of the frame 
winch rests on Ihe rackerinihe laolpost IJIiauldloo much spiir^ occur when cutting iron 
geaiij the fiaine can be made rigid byblocku^ up Ihe space between it ardthe lallie bed 

The cutlei mandrel is placed ui Ihe centers of the laliie, or should Ihe lathe head be 
laised, a shorl mandrel wilh Ihe culler near Ihe end can be placed ui a chock, and adjusled 



lo nintnie The fnime lialdii^ Ihe maiidieL geaiblaLik and clock wheel is uiserled id the 
IddI pDflaf the lalbe Emd adjusted foi depth of Ihe culter The lathe is Plaited PiEdlhe geai 
blant fedoii Ihe cuttei slowly nntil the tooth is cut The paifflu released aiid the maiidi'el 
turned lo Hie proper nmobei of teeth and Ihe apenilion repeated In llup manner gepiisB in 
indiameteicEin be made ona 6-in swing ktlie -Contributedby ^PimuelC Bunker, 
BiDoklyn, N Y. 

Wir« Terminak for B^tttry CoiuLFCtioni |l(iffj 



'=1* s 



Cottar Pin Wlr« Tflrmlnala 
Collei Pill Wue Teiminal 



Goodcoimectmnp on the end of wires foi bfilteiies can be made froiacoltei pins^ 
Fig I, Piboul l-iy? in Idi^ Each endof the wire iu put llimi^hlhe eye of a cotlerpii^ 
twisted around itself and soldered Tlie coimectionande^ aie thenco^'eled withtppe eis 
uliowninFig 2 V/henconnecling lobaltenes, spead tliE pm and push the parts mider Ihe 
nut with one pfliloneach side of the bindu^-pDsl When the nuts are hghlenedthe 
CDimection will bebelter llian with tlie bare wiie -ConliibuledbyHowaidli Bott 

^In^lF Aift 4iLd Crafls Ltalhtr W»k [1£8| 

Veryinteieutu^ and useful pieces of leather work canbe done with iialliii^ more for 
eqmpinentthnna c^^) pointed nail selsuchas carpeiiler use, and onutpck 

The acGomponymg lUushations sliowsome of Ihe things tliat canbe mpide Beginnu^ bI 
the left andieadu^ to the i^ht they are -Case for court- planter, compulse, kd^s card 
CEise, eye gkss ckpnerorpenwi|Ki (hpis chamois skin withm) Second row -Two boot 
marks, note book, blotteibock, book mark Thudrow -Pinball (liau uaddkfs feltbelween 
the two leather disks), leo cosey, gentleman's card case oi bill book Fourth mw -Needk or 
pin case, lea cosey, Ipidys belt b^, watch fob readyforfasteim^s 

Etecuie a piece of Russian calf modeling lealher (I ) ^kke onpflpeithe design wanted 
(2 ) MotJten the back side of the leather wilh sponge di cloth with as much watei as it will 
take yelnot show lluai^honlhe face side (3 ) Place Ihe leather on some liaid non- 
absDibent material, such as brass oimaible (4) Pkce Ihe paper design on the katliei and, 
lioldu^ il in pkce with the leflhand, trace the oulline, of the objecland the decorahve 
design with the nulpict so as lo make a V-shaped groove mthe leather (5 ) Take the piper 
ofT and working on Hie leather due clly mate the giooves deepei {6 ) V/ith the cup-pomTed 
nail set sknip Ihe bacl^iDund promiscuously This is done by making an effort to hold Ihe 
pDmlof the set about 1/4 m abffh'e Ihe surface, at the same tune slnkir^ hghl, mpid blows 
on the lop witli a hammer or mallei 

With such objects as com purses and card cases, a sewing machine will be needed to fasten 
the parts logelhei An oidinary machme will do Fiequendylhe pails ^le fastenedby punch- 
u^ lioks and kcing throi^hlhese wilh leather thongs oi silk cord 

In making synuiietncal designs such as are lieie shown, diaw center hues 
across Ihe requued spflce, dividing it into as many p^rls as desued Lfeke fiee-handDne 
quaiterof the des^ii, if four parts aie to be alike, orone-lialf of the des^n, ifbultwo pfliTs 
Fold o^'er along these cenlei lines Put a piece of doiibk-surfaced carbon paper between the 
pails and hace o\'ei Hie design alieadydiawn 

This Work Is Done wilh a Nail Set and Nut Pick 




Thia UVQj'k Ea Dene WIFH a m\\ S»(and Nut Pli^k 



How 10 Mike 3 Sii^k SdO [170] 

AsQll to dislill iwaler can be mRde fiDiii a lesl tube, sorne heavy rubber lio?e, Eindjai 

aidiiiarybDlUe Seciue 




DmllliJit Wairr 



Disblling Walei 

a sloppsifbi the te^ttube, and bore a hole tluai^hllie ceiilei, inia wliichfit h ^loell 
piece of lube The bottle is elIsd fitted with a sloppsi caiilainmg h pece nf Eube^ and 
both battle and fe^ttube cnnnected with, a rubber tube 

The test tube m perUy filled with water aiidsupp]ited or heldovei an Edcohol lamp 
The batUe should stand in a basin of cold watei When Ihe leatei in Ihe leisttube 
begins loboil the sleam psisses aver to the bottle, wlieie it condenses The basin 
should be supplied with cold water as fast rs it begins to get wami The rubber lube 
will not stand the heat 'v'ery long Riid if the still is to be used several times, a metal 
tube sliouldbe supphed to connect the test tube and battle 

Homtiruide M^riiui's Can^^ss [1^0] 

Mj^netise an oidiiiary kiultir^ needle. A, Find push it tlnai^ha cork, B, Riid place 
the cork e:iE[ClIy inthe middle of the needle Thrust a pm, C, tluough the cort elI iighl 
angles to Ihe needle and stick Iwa shaijened matches in Ihe sides of the cork so Ihat 
they will praject downward rs sIiowii The whale ELirai^einent is balanced an a 
tliimble with balls of wrk sEuct on Ihe heads of the matches If the needle is not 
hnnzontal^ pull il fluaugh the cork to one side oi die olhei, ai cliauge 




UjEHTli^rd HHdlr Rarlhliiiiif on » Pia 

Pv&Lgnetized Keedle Revolving on a Pui 

the wax balls The wliole device is placed in a glass beiiy dish Eindcov'ered with a 
pfliie of glRss 

Brighten Wldte Paint [170] 

Add aloimnuni bronze to a white ai light pnuit that is to be usedfoi letteiu^ an el daik 
giouiid 

QiL.irtz ElFclradn Used in Recviving Wireksn Messages 1170| 



AFRJIU. 



H~ 




F<E«lHfl 



Details of the Recei'ing Iiistrmnent 



Wireless messpiges have been received at WEisliu^ton, D C , from Key West, 
FlondEL, a distance of 9D0 miles, tluough h receivir^ instrmnentm which two peces 
af quartz of diifereni CDniposition weie usedonllie elec trades In mating an 
uistrunient af this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer innimeials One 
piece must contain copper pyiites and the other suiciles The electrodes are made 



cuppu^ lo hold liie mmeials and each should have a screw adjusliiienl Id piess Ihe 
pieces of qaaite mcoiLlacI wilheacli alher Coiuiecl rs shown in Ihe illiistialioii, using 
a h^li lesislance receiv'er — Coiihibuled by Edwin L Powell, Washir^lon^ D. C 

How lo Malff 3 GMtr [171] 

By Call Bales 

A glidir^ macliiiie is a iitoloiles^ aeioplaiie, or flying-mac liine, pope lied by gravity 
aiiddes^iied la CEiny a jHssei^ei Ihioi^li Ihe aiifiam a h^li point Id ei lower pomt 
some distance away Flyu^ in a glider is simply coasting downhill on the aii, and is the 
most inlereslii^ and ezcilii^ spoil imp^inable Tlie style of ghdei desciibedui this 
aiticle IS known as the "tiva-siuface" or "double-decked" aeroplane, and is composed of 
two aiclied cloth surfaces placed one abov-e tlie olhei 

In buildup a glider the wood mate iial used should be stra^hl-grained spruce, fiee 
fromkiiols Fustpiepere from spruce planks llie fbllowing slnpR of wood Fom loi^ 
beams 314 m Ihict, I-IM in wide and 20 £t loi^, 13 cioaspeces 3M in lluck, 3/4 ui 
wide and 3 fl loi^, 13 upi^hls 1/2 m Ihick, 1-1/2 in wide aiid4fl loi^, 4! sinps fbi 
llie bent ribs 3/lif in tliick, lO in wide and4fl long, 2 aim sticks I in thick, 2 in wide 
and 3 fl loi^, tlie rudder slicks 3/4 ui square and 3 ft long, seveial stiips 1/2 m by 3/4 
in foi buildup Ihe vertical and lioiizonlal rudders The ftames for the two mainsmfaces 
should be constiucled fiisl, by bolting Ihe ciasspieces lo Ihe long beams al Ihe places 
sho^vii by tlie dimensions inFig 1 If 20-ft lumber c anno I be piociired, use IQ-ft 
lengths and splice them, as sliownm F^ 3 AL bolls usedshould be 1/S in in diameter 
and filled with washers on both ends These frames foimedby Ihe ciosspieces should be 
bracedby diagonal wires as shown All winng is done with No l6panowiie 

The 41 libs maybe nailed to Ihe mamfmnies on tlie uppei side by iisii^ fine flal- 
lieaded brads 7/S in lor^ These iibs aie spaced 1 fl apuiland eKiend 1 fl be^nd Ihe 
rear edges of tlie mainframes, as sliownin Fig I After nailing one end of a lib lo the 
froni loi^beam, Ihe rib is archedby spnngu^ down tlie loose end and nailing to Ihe 
leaibeam Tlie ribs should lia\'e a curve as shown inFig 2, Ihe amouiil of curvature 
beuig Ihe same in all llie ribs 

The frames of Ihe mamsuifaces are now leady lo be co\'ered with cloth Cambric or 
bleaclied muslin should be used for the covering, wluch is lacked to Ihe front ei^e, 
stielched lightly over Ihe bent ribs and fastened secmely wilh tacks lo llie rear ends of 
llie ribs Tlie cloUi should also be glued lo Ihe ribs for safely In Ihe center of Ihe lower 
plane surface tliere should be anopenii^ 2 fl wide and 4 ft long for Ihe body of Ihe 
operator Place llie two mam surfaces 4fl apai+and comiectwilh Ihe 12 upi^hls, 
placed in tlie cornei of eachciossjmece and beam The upr^hls are fastened by boltir^ 
lo Ihe ciasspeces, as shownm F^ 2 The whole stiucluie is made stioi^ andngid by 
bracing wilh diagonal wiies, both laleraUy and longitudinally 
The veitical nidrler is lo keep Ihe ntaclune lieadeduilo tlie wind and is not movable 
Tlus rudder ls made of cloth slrelchedo\'era l^hl wooden fiame, which is nailed lo tlie 
mddei slicks comiectmg lo Ihe mainfmme The honsontal rudder ls abo made of clolh 
stielched o^'era hghl wooden fiame, andarrai^ed lo mtei'secl Ihe veitical iiuldei at lis 
ceiitei Tlus rudrler is lield m position and shengthened by diagonal wuesand guy wues. 
The lioiizonlal ruddei is also immovable and its funclion is lo prevent tlie machine from 
dping, and also lo keep it steady m lis fhghl The nuldei's are fastened lo Ihe ghdei by 
llie two rudder sticks, and these slicks aie held r^id by diagonal wiie and also by guy 
wiies leaduig lo the sides of the mainframes as shown in F^ I The two arm slicks 
should be spaced about 13 ui apart and bolted to Ihe long beams in tlie cenlei of the 
opening in tlie lower plane where Ihe opeietoris lo lake his posilion 

The glider should be examined lo see Ihatlhe frame is not warped or Imsled The 
sur£ices luuslbe true or Ihe inachme will be liaid lo balance wlienmfhght To make a 
glide, lake the glider la Ihe lop of p hill, gel m between tlie ami slicks and hfl Ihe macliine 
up mitilthe ami slicks aie under Ihe arms as shown run a fewsleps against Ihe wind and 
leap fiom the ground Vou will fuid lliatihe machine lias a surpnsu^ pmount of hfl, and if 
the we^hlof the body is mtlie light place ^uwill go slioolii^ down the hiUside in free 
fl^hl The landing IS made bypuslmig Ihe weighlof Ihe bodybackwaids Tlus willcause 
Ihe glider to lip up in front, slacken speed and settle The opemlorcan then land spifely and 



gently on Ins feet Of couiae, tlie begumci should learn by lakir^ 5liDrl]mn.pB, gmdually 
increasing llic distance au he gEiin? skill and ezpsnence mbpilaiicing and landing 




DcEaIIi or the Qlldu- 



Detflils of tEie Glider 



The pmper position of tlie bodytj sl^hllyaheadof the cenleraf the planes, but this 
must be found by expene nee The mEiclmie sliauldnolbe used in winds b la wnng fauler Ihan 
15 miles Pinlioui Glides Ein always made p^auistthe wmd, and the balancing lu done by 
inovuig the legs Tlie h^heitlie startup pomlthe faitliei one mayfly Great caie ulianldbe 



eKeicL3ed III making landuigs.Dlheiwi^ llie operaloi mighl suffer b spamed Emkle di 
peilmps El broken limb The illuatialian sliows two lineu af fhghlfioraa Mltop, Ihe glidei 
IniveLj an the upper line cpusedby Ihebody of tlie operator laku^ a pouiliana liltle backaf 
the piapei place, and on Ihe lowei bne he changes hi^ pDstianfiam fmnt (aback iflule 
flyuig, iduch causes the dip in Ihe bne. 

Boys Rff rtiEtndng Hit Centaur [173| 

This IS p dn'eisianm iidiichtiffabo^ personate a Centaur, p cieatuie of Greek 
mytlialogy, hplf manaiid half horM One of tlie pk^ru utaiidp erect and Ihe alher behind 
liuu ma utaopu^ position wilhhi? hands upoiitlie firslpla^fs hips, PisshowiimF^ I 

The 




Making Up til* CcnUur 
Maku^ Up tlie Centaui 

second player is covered over with a shaiffl oi lable ccjjer iffhichis pmiedaiaund Ihe waisl 
of the firslpla^r A lail made of ships of clalh oi pnper is pumedto the re w end af the 
cover The fustfia^i sliouldliald Elbow and Eurow Eindliave a cloEik thrown laouely over 
lup ulianldei Eis shown m F^ If limtpilion lioa& of pesteboaid niPiybe niEide andfautened 
□vei the shoes 

Home- Made Ladle for Melting Babbiti [173] 

Weenie a laige siaed old bicycle bell EindnvetEiheEivy wire oi sirapiian on one side for ei 
handle V/lien healed a little, liammer out the edge on one side for a hpto pour from This 
makes Pi goad ladle foimeltu^ uniall Fimomili; ofbpibbit or lead -ConliibutedbyL M. 
Olson, Bellinghpim Wash 



Uovi ta Mqhe a Flash Laii^ |174| 



Indoor pholoiiaplis Eue made much be tier wilh Ihc use of a flaahl^lilthanbydepsiiding 
on lighlfiom wiiidoiffu Tlie L^hling cpnbe niEide froniany direclioiitD auitlhe opsialoi If 
lightly flp?h powder iffheiiiiDl in a regular flash kmptlie flpshcpiuiotbE depended upon 
anduiHinie uislnnees is dai^eious To mpike a smiple andir[e>:|Kn'3ive flpshkmp, fusi 
secure fiomyDuidii^gislan emplysalue bos abDul3 m in diameter UTule at the dii^ 
store get 3 fl of siupill rubber tubing, this will cost about 15 cents Now visit the tin shop 
and gel a small pece of scmptin 3 or 4 in aqupire.a pece of brass or sleelwire, abaatihe 
sise of stove pipe wire, 14 in long These with a strip of l^ht fl^csIds paper and some 
small iron wire, about the aae of door screen wiie, will complete the niPilenal hat 

Caie fully pone ha liole thrangh llie aah^ bos onoiie aide nepr the bottom wiiha ID- 
penny nail Cula stnpof Iin2 m long and pboul3/3 in wide prdiall thisaromid pn3- 
pennynailai eis to forma amall tube w^uch will jusi fit the hole made in the sah'ebox 
Nextiall up a stiipof lui 1/2 m wide mto a sniPiU cup about 3/S m in diameter alone end 
and 1/4 in atlheotliei 

Place the lube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to llie center of the box 
mside Pindtlie Dtliereiidpo]ects about 1/2 m oulaide the box CutoutoLttle place foi Ihe 
tnbe to enter the cup at llie small end and then soldei the tnbe and cup to Ihe boltoin of llie 
box as sliowninthe illustration Tlie lube pnd cup should be well soldered on Ihe aeams to 
mate them airtight Bend Einng on one end of tlie la^erpece of wire, mpikn^ il2-iyif in 
in diameter and foiin the renipuur^ p^rlionof the wire uilo a apnal, soldeiii^ the end m 
the boltoni of Ihe box near the cup Wmpthe iing at the top of the spual piece of wire all 
the way 




Mide from c Tin S^lve Bci^ 
I^^de frora a Tin ^alve Box 



around with the strip of asbestos pfl|Ki, wmjping lliein together o^'er and o\'er mitil the 
entire m^ la ca^'eled lilipthe end of Ihe rubber tiiie over the tui lube on llie aide of llieboK 
and Ihe flash lEimpia complete 

To make a flaah with lliis lamp fill the Lttle cup in the cenlerwith flash pDwderEind 
moislen Ihe asbestos iing with alcohol Wlienallis ready for Ihe pctuie the alcohol is 
lighted and a quick blow of llie breath thiough Ihe rubber lube wiUfoice the flash powder 
upward into tlie flaioe and cauae the flaah 

When llirough with Ihe Ipimp place the cover over il, poshing Ihe asbestos iing down 
inside llie box Wind the rubber tnbing aiaund Ihe box and jnuliave a neat outfit that can 
be earned nithe pocliet. 

Photo^rapliiiig the Nnv Moon 1I74| 

To make a pholograpliof the moon is qmle difficult and no good pic tuie can be niEide 
without an expensive appaiatus Alhonie and with ^urown liand camera ^u can make a 
good pic tuie of Ihe new moon by tlie use of p flash l^hl on b temiiabEdl, the lenrusball 
taking Ihe part of tlie moon The ballis suspended in front of a black cloth screen, the 
cpnieia focused by holding abnniir^ match near the ball and Ihe exposure made by burning 
a small quantity of flash powder at one side Einda hitle below Ihe bpll. The l^htfiom llie 



flauh only sinking one ade of the ballgivcu llie effect of llie neLvmaon -Pliola byM M 

Himlii^, Daylon, O 




T^nnli □all PlKiEii^raphEil 

Teiuu? Ball Plio log replied 



OU-Time M^igic- Pari II |175] 
Renuning Scisson frcm 3 Cord [175] 

Apiece afshai^ cordis doubled and fastened to a jhii af ucljsdiij willia ulipknol, au 
uliawnuiFig I Aflci pnusmg the cndsofllie cord Huoi^h Hie thumb hole of Ihe scissais 
Ihcyaie lied festta b cliau, doarknob ai eny other Db]ecl tlial maybe of snfficienlaise lo 
nieke the ends secuie The Inckis lo release the ?cissai5 ivilliDut cutting llie cord 

Ttite hold of the bap end af the coid m Ihe lawei liandle and diawii^ it fust 




Kow Ihc SclitDE» Arc Htrnwea 
How the ScL??orsAie Removed 



Ihioi^hlhe upper liandle and Hie n c ample lely over Ihe blades of the sci^dis, as shown in 
F^. 2 Tins IE ^'eiy simple irfienyou know how, bulpuszlu^ when, the tdck is fust seen 

Coin and Card on tht First Finger |175] 

This is a simple Inck that many can do althe first b He iiipl, while others will fail lime after 

lime II IS a good liick la spm^ upon a companycasuallyif yDuheve practiced ilbefaiehand. 
A pleyii^ caid is balanced on Ihe tip of the foiefu^er eiide penny pieced on lap immediately 
o\'ei Ihe finger end, as shown m llie skelch With Ihe i^hlhand foiefu^er BiuUhnmb sliike 
Ihe ei^e af Ihe cerd shaiply If done piopeilythe caidwiU fl^wey leaving Ihe penny poued 
on Hie fingei end 




HowtoM!kkeS«liiigW3xH4lPiii^ [175| 

Select H slick af sealir^ wa« of Ihe dearedcDlai forihe fomidalioiiof Ihe hi^tpm Hold 
Ihc eiidof Ihe stick o\'ci a fleiiie until llie wax is aifl ciiangli to diop, then put it Diiflie hel- 
pinlieed WhenuufriciciilffPix hi^s adlieredto the pui, hold Ihe lumpo^'er llie flame, ic- 
vahTDg Ihe pm etllie uame lune ud Ihe wax will ddI diap and Ihe head will foiiu b iDimdball. 
The head can be made many uhape deaied wlule waiiu \Vhenlhc desjiedshaps haubeeii 
oblauied, coal thoroughly in cold walci and diy cere fully 

Stnpeu anddcu^n? maybe pulonlhc fanndalion by applying diops af other biilliani 
colored wnx, aiidbycaiefiil mampulalion llie wbx when wamicpnbe made to flowaiannd 
the pm head and fomi pielty sliipesaiiddeu^ns If a ceilPincDlai is lobe more prominent, 
the waK to make Hup coIqi ninslbc applied lest end Ihe pmpul lluough llie flame again Cool 
m writer piid diy, ps before, and pas once more Ihroi^h Ihe fluLLe to obtein Ihe luslei 

OU-TiinFM3gir-FaFlllI[17(r] 

Disapp caring Coin [176] 

Vnlule tlus IS pmely a uleighl-of-liand Inck, it will lake'h'eiylitlle piaclice lo cause the 
coin Id duappsarmplanlly Take a quaiteiof a dollar between Ihe lliunib and finger, au 
uliawii, and by a lapd IwljI of tlie fingeia vrbal Ihe com and Pilthe uame time cloue Ihe 
liaiid, and Ihe corn will disappear up y^nr coal sleeve On opening Ihe hand Ihe com will 
iialbe seen Take Ihiee quaiteis and hold one ui Hie palm of Ihe left hand, place Ihe other 
two, one between Ihe thumb Emd firmer of each hand, then give Ihe camui Ihe i^hlhanda - 
wluil, au described, clasu^ bo Ih hands quickly The cam m the i^hlhand will disappeai up 
^m sleeve, and the leftliand onbeu^ unclosed will conlamtwo quarters, while Ihe one m 
Ihe r^ht uhall have dijappeaied 




^vllcking 3 Coin Against the Won |17£] 

Cut a smpJI nalchina com — ten cent pece ar quarter will do-so a small pomi will 
[■qjecl When this is pressed fumly e^eiiiisI a woodcEiair^ di peLihliDn Ihe cam will slick 
tighliy 

A ChiiiFs« Outdoor Gamt [176] 

The accompfliiymg lUustratiansliDwu the "grand wliiiL" or Ihe Chmese students' favanle 
game This game tj pla^dby frue psiaans, four of them Imimig around Hie fiflh or cenlral 
figure 




Clilnt« Doing Uifl Grana V/hlrl 
Chinepfe Douig the Grand Wtiil 

with theu anus iDckedebDnl eachalhei Find the two outside peisDiis sLvmgmg Lnmidaii 
with theu bodies pJiiiqsI liansonlal 

Hamt-Made Fhotograipliaf 4 Lightning FLitK [17£] 

HawmEinytinies lias eochEiniatciii photo giapher liiedto photograph the hghliiuig's flash? 
liome goodpictmes liave bceiiabtamedbya ceaseless elToilaDthe part of llie apeiatoi 
Heie IS a method by uiuch^u can make a picture of a stiepit of hghliiing on a clear n^ht 
in^m awnhouse Pasle tiffo slrips of bipck jHperan opece of glass thalis IQ m square 
so as to leave a clear space throi^hthe center 2-in or more ui width imoke this uncovered 
space over a CEindle's flame mihl llie soot is thick enoi^hto jre^'ent Lghl passing tluaugh 
Tpike El shmp lead pencil andoudine a flash of l^htrung up^n the smoked surfpce, using a 
fine needle lo make tlie smaller hues, and then settlie gipss up against Ihebock of tivo 
boKes iffhrchare set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in 

A hghted candle is held behind the glpiss so the light will shine lluoughfoifocusir^ the 
cpineia Afler darkening the room set^m camera ready for the exposure and bum a sniPiU 
qupintity of flashl^htpoivderinthe spme place ui which the candle was held This will 
make Emimpession upon the plale of the flash drawn on the smoked glass 




How n Make 3 Sradi Machint [177] 

State eleclncilyis produced by revolving glRss plates upon which a number of 
sectors Rie cenienled, Ihese seclors, passir^ lluough neutidlizing brushes, distiibute 
eleclnc choiges 




Deldiis of a Homemade Static I\'1acluiie 



to CDllectmg cambs Rtlached to discliaigmg tods The glh^^ selected fai the plRles 
iniislbe clear tvlute glR^^, fiee fioia wniiile^, and of a luuform llucine:;^ Two plales 
aie iiecessaiyta make this machine, and the glass should be of sufTicient si3e lo cut a 
cuculai plate Id-in m diameter A hole must be loade exactly m the centei nf each 
plale, and this should be done before cutlmg Ihe cucle One of the besi ways lo make 
the liole IS to drill (lie glass ivitha veiy hard-!empeied dnil^ 'he cutlmg edge of which 
should be kept moistened with 2 pails hirpentine and 1 pari sweel oil wlule drilling 
The hale is to be loade 3Mm m diameter The cucle is then marked on each plate ami 
cut with a glass cuttei The plates are tiued up, aflei they aie mounted, by holdii^ a 
piece of emeiy wlieel to the ei^es while theyaie tuinir^ Walei should be applied lo 
the ei^es while doii^ the work 

The sectors ate cut fiom tinfoil, 1-1/3 m wide at one end, 3^4 in al the other, and 4 
m lor^ A thincoal of shellac 'v'aiiushis applied to both sides of Ihe plates, and 15 
sectors put on one side of each plate, as shown mF^ 1 The divisions can be maiked 
on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at 
proper intervals 

The sectors should lie flalon Ihe glass with all parts smoothed oulso that they will 
nolbe lorn from tlieu places as the plates leiTjlve The shellac sliouldbe tacky when 
the pieces of tinfoil are patm place 

The collectors are made, as sliowii m Fig 2, from about If4-in copper wire with 
two bmss balls soldered to the eiuls The foik part is if m loi^ and the shank 4 m 
Holes aie drilled on Hie mside of the folks, and pms inserted andsoldeied Tliese pins, 
01 teelli^ should be long enough to be ^'eiy close to the sectors and ^t not scrateh 
them when the plates are tuimr^ 

The frame of the maclune is made from any kind of fmished wood withdmiensions 
shown in F^ 3, tlie side pieces beir^ 34 m loi^ and Ihe slandaids 3 m wide The 
two pieces, C C, Fig 3, aie made from solid, close giained mood lamed m tlie shape 
shown, with tlie face that rests against Hie plate 4 in in diameter, and the outei end 1- 
U3 m mdiameter, Ihe smaller endbeir^ lomedwitha gioove for a round belt Before 
tiimii^ the pieces a hole isboied Iluai^h each piece foi Ihe center, and this hole must 
be of such a size as to lake abcass tube thai lias an internal diameter of 3Mm The toiiied 
peces aie gloed to llie glass plates ovei the center lioles and on the Mine side on which llie 
sectors aie festened IJe^'eral houi^ time will be leqniredfoi the glue to set Afibei washer is 
then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed thiongh Ihe hole Tlie plates, Imiied 
wood pieces, and biass axle turn on a stationaiyaxle, D. 

The drive wlieels, EE, aie made from 7/S-m material 7 m. m diametei, and are fastened on 
a iDimd axle cnt fioni a broom liandle This wood axle is cenhallyboied to admit a metal lod 
tightly and extends thioi^hthe standards wilhaciankattacliedto one end 

Two solid glass lads, GG, Fig 4, I m m diameter and 15 m loi^, aie fitted m holes bored 
mio llie endpeces of the frame Two pieces of 1-m. biass tubu^ and tlie dischaiging iod<, 
RP, aie soldered mto two hollow biass balls 3 oi 3-1/2 m m diametei The slianks of llie 
collectors aie fitted m tliese biass balls with the ends extendii^, to which insula ting handles 



aie atteclied Brass balls are soldEredto Ihe upper eridsof llie dLJcheigiiig rods, one havii^ a 
3-iri bell and Ihe olher one 3y4rn rn diameter 

Cpps made fiombrau? ere fitted tigliliyantlie ends of llie stalrDiiaryuliafl, D, end drilled 
tluoi^h tlieu drameter lo admit lie Ei^'ycapperiodj, KK, which ere bent as sliowoi Tinsel or 
fine wiie saeliai; contained in flexible electric wue are soldered to the ends of these lads, and 
the brushes Ihusmade must be adjusted sa tlieywilliu'jt touch llie pletes The ceps ere fitted 
wilhsciews fai adjustii^ thebmshes These lodsandbnishes aie called llie neatializeia A 
litlle espeiuiientii^ ivill enable one ta piopeily locale llie posihonaf the neutializers for best 
lesolts -ContribuledbyC LlaydEnos, Colorado City, Calo 

A Cancrtte SwniuningPool [17B| 

Seveial bays from a ne^hbaihoad m the siibnibs af a la^e cityconclndedto 
make for lliemselves a swimming lanhaf canciete The money was raised by vanons means 
to piuchase Ihe cement, and the work was done by themselves The giannd wasselecledm a 

secluded spot m a ne^hbai's back [ymdanda hole dug to a depth of 4 fl., 13 ft wide and 32 
fl long Tlie cancrele was made by mixing 1 pflrl cement, 4 parts sand and IQ pfliTs giavel to- 
getliEi and llie bulk moistened with watei Tlie ballam was made the same as laying a 
sidewalk, and forms weie anlyusedforthe inside of the suiromiding wall The tank maybe 
luddenwilhsluubbeiyorvmes planledto grawovei a poultry wue fence 




Hoiuc-M^ihId Syifnifnl/ia Pool 

Hoiae-Made Swimming Pool 

Old-Time Magic -Part IV [179| 
Curting 3 Thnad Inside of a Chisn Boltk [179] 
This Ls a Inch which can only be performed when the sou shines, but it 




THC GIlHl Dlr^dP Illfl Smn'b Fray 

The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays 



IS a good Doe. Pracnie a cleai gloss batlle and slick a pii in Ihe lowci eiidof Ihe cork 
Atlecli a tluead lo Ihe pin end lie a smell weighl Id Ihe eiid af Ihe Ihiead ua il will lieng 
inpide Ihe botlle when Ihe caik is in piece Infann ^lu audience llial ^u will sevei Ihe 
Ihiead aiid cause Ihe we^htta diop witlioul reiuDvii^ the coit 

All llial IS lequiied Id peifDmi the feol m lo hold a magnifying glass so a^ lo direct the 
uun's rays an Ihe Ihiead The tliieed will qnictlybuiuand Ihe loeighl fall 

Rmuning 3 Kty &ain a Doublt ^-tring [179] 

Tie the ends of a 5-ft stiiag logetlier, meking a dDuble line on ichicha key is placed 
and Ihe string lield eis uhownby tlie dotted hiieu intlie skelch Turn Ihe peliuu of the 
lienrls lowerd you Eind reach ovei with the Lille filler of Ihe light hend and take hold of 
llie uiside line neai Ihe lefl-liend thumb 




'■Thi Key WDI Prap fiOm Uie Strlna" 
'The Key Will Drop fioiu the litnne" 

Reveille Ihe apemlian Eiiid tnte hold af the UL^ide bne new r^hl-hand Ihniiib with Ihe 
litlle fir^ei of the left hend Ydu will Ihen liave the sliii^ es itappcEin; intlie skelch 
Quickly let lease af the sinng with a hitle firmer on Dne hend aiide llininb on Ihe other 
and pull the shii^ laul Tlie key wiUdropfiom Ihe atiu^. 

How la Bore a Squart Hale [L79| 

you would not CDiisidei il passible lobDre a isquaie hole ma piece of cerdbDard^ ytl 

isuche thing cenbe done Take a caidbaEnd ara lliin piece of WDod^ fold Eind [iace il 
between boa pieces afbaerd wilh the fold iqj, llie boerds aie tlienputui a vise es sliown 
lilnrl Ihe bil wilh Ihe screw pouil m Ihe fDid, using a l-m bit, and bore e 




HcrLng a Square HdI> 

liole in in deep Wlien Hie cardboard is taken &Dm Ihe vise il will appear bs shown alB 

and when unfoldei as bI A 

HOW TO MAKE COPPER ITCAVS |180| 



Copper lra\^ such as aie sliown in Hie accompanying lUuslration aie veiy useful eis 
well Eis oniamenlel eboul llie house They can be used lo keeppns Eind needles, pens 



aiid pencils, aicigai asliei;, elc Tliey aie easily roEide, requiie no equipment ui Ihe woy 
af tools eKcepI wliotare usually found aboul Ihe liouse, unless it would be Hie melEd 
islieais, and loben Ihe decaialiaiis Eue well designed aiid Ihe metal nicely coloied, Ihey 
niate Eilliacliue htlle peces Id have obout 

The fiistlhir^ to do m pepamlion far making them is lo prepare Hie des^n Simple 
desigiip iffark autbetleitlianfupuy aiiei; Eind aie moie hkely lobe within the abilily af 
llie amateui Having deleiiuined Ihe uize of Hie tiay, draio anpapei onoblor^ la 
lepresentil Inside Ihis ablong, diiiw another one lo lepesent Ihe lines aloi^ loliich Hie 
metal lu to be beni up Id foim the sides Inside Hus tlieie sliouldbe drawn ulill anolhei 
oblong lo repieiseni Hie maigin up Id iffliich llie bactgiaund is lobe worked The tia^ 
isliownare 5-314 hy 6-314 m, Ihe uiuall Pish Iray 4by4ui , Ihe long pen andpencH Iroy 
4-3M by 9-1/2 in The second oblong wa^ 3/4 in inside llie fiisl on all, Eindthe Ihird one 
H4m uipide Ihe isecond on all 

If Hie decQiation is lo have two paitu able — syramelncal— divide Ihe ispace with a line 
down Ihe middle Drow one- half the design fiee liand^ then fold Eilai^ tlup line and troce 
llie second half from Ihis one If Uie lines liffh'e beendiawn wilhsofl pencil, rubbing the 
back of Ihe paper with a knife handle will force enough of the leeid lo llie second side so 
llial Ihe oulline con be deleiniined Four-partsymmelry will requiie two lines ond two 
foldings, etc 

For Ihe metal working lliere will be needed a pau of lui uheais, Iwo spikes, file, flal 
andrDund-nosedpheis, sciew-diiver Eindisheet copper of No ?3 gauge Proceedas 
follow:; 1 Cut offa pece of copper ^o that il sliallhave 1/2 in extra melEil on each of 
llie four sides 2 With a piece of caibon p^per trace upon Ihe coppei lines tliat 




Articles Ivfede from Copper 



ijhsU lepresent Ihe maiginof Ihe Iray proper and Ihe lines aloi^ wliich the uplumed 
ijidei; of Ihe tiay Eire Id be bent, also tiace tlie decoralive des^n 3 Wiiha nail make a 
iseiies of holes ui the extra luaigin, about 3/4-ui aparl Eind large enough lo tale ui a 3/4- 
m slim screw 4 Faislen Ihe metal to b thick boEirdbyinserlu^ screws in tlieue holes 5 
With a 20 -penny wire ueiiI llial has Ihe sharpneuu of il:3 paint filed off, starap Ihe 
bact^roundpamiscuously By holdup Ihe iiad obout l/4m Pibove Ihe woik and 
:3tiikii^ it with the liammei, at llie SEime lune shivii^ lo keep it bI IMm Pibove Ihe 
metal, veiyropd progress canbe made Tins slamping lowers the background and at the 
uanie tirae raises the des^n 6 Chase orisliaiip Eiloi^ the borderof Ihe design Eind 
bact^round, usu^ a iiaH filed to chisel edge Thu m lo make ei clean, shEirp dPTSion 
between background and design 1 \Vlien Ihe stamping m completed, remove the screws 
and Ihe metal fiara Hie board and cut off Ihe CKti'a niEirgm wilh Ihe raelsl shears File tlie 
edgeu unhl Ihey are smooth lo Ihe touch 3 Wilh Ihe flalplieru "raise" one side of Ihe tiay, 
then the odierside 9 Raise die ends, adjusting the coiners as shown in Ihe illusti'alion Use 



Ihe lound-nDued pLcra foi Hop puipose 

Coppei IS fie quciillyliealedc hemic dly to give il color Veiypetlycffecls maybe 
ob lamed by cove niig the liaywilh turpentine, then iiiovir^ itabouloveia flame uiichaa a 
bunpe II burner until Ihe hope ntine bums off Tlie copper will "take Dn" aLnaataJlthe colors 
of EnmribDW, and Ihe effect will be most pleasing 

Fhotogji^haf^ CknviiFace [ISl] 

Al fust glance Ihe accampflnying plialogmph will appear as if the psiiJonpliDlagmphed. 

IS wepni^ a fake face or lias his fpce pfluiledbke p clown Oncloue obser^'atian^uwiU 
iiahce tlial Ihe face is made on Ihe bald head of Ihe peison siting behind the lable The 
e^s, nose and mouth aie cut fiom black papei andppsled on Ihe bEdd spot. The snbject's 
face iq honsonlfl andaeslmg upon his hards 




A Bald Head PlioloEiaphsd 

Finger Mathematics [181] ByCharlesC Bradley 

All machinists use malhemalics Ask amachmisl what would be Ihe product of 9 lime? E 
and his ready re ply would be 72,bulcliai^e Ihe figures a hllle and say 49 limes 4S and Ihe 
cliancesare tlial nislead of replying at once he will liave to figure it out with a pencil By 
using Ihe folio wii^ melliadilL3]uatasea:3yto lell ala glance wliat99 hmes 99 are ;\s9 
limes 9 You will be able Id raulliplyfaibeyDiid^m most sanguine e:i pec la lions 

In Ihe first numbenrg.begm by holdmg ^m hand? with Ihe points towaid Ihe body and 
mate imaginaiynumbeis an the Ihmiibs andfingeiij as follows Thumbs, 6. firul fingeis, 7, 
uecandfn^eis, 3 , thud fillers, 9, andfouilh fuigeru, ID Suppose youdesue to multiply 3 
by 9, put Ihe eighth fu^eionone hand E^ainsl Ihe iimlh firmer of the otiiei hand as shown 




■a Ti>i>» 9" 
"S Tillies 9" 

The lwD]DLr[edfingEi's and all Ihe fingers abo\'e lhem(callmg tlie Ihmiibs fingeis) aie 



cpilkd Ihe upper fmgeis and each liau a valoe often, which lenp are Eidded AL Ihe fiiigeiij 
below Ihe joined fuigeis are lermed Ihe lower frngeru, aiid each of Ihe lower fiiigeiij 
lepreaenls a mulvalue af one The som of Ihe mulu an one Imnduliaiildbe mullipLed by Ihe 
:3imiaf Ihe mais on Ihe alhei hnnd Tlie tolpil tens added to lluu kst named :3imi will give Uie 
product deuired Thus Refeini^ lo Pibove picture or lo yDuiliands we find thiee lens on Ihe 
left hpiid and four lens an the nght, which would be 7G V/e also find two umis on Ihe left 
liand and aiie on the i^hl Two times one aie Iwo, Eind 70 plus 2 equals 72, oi Ihe 
product of E limes 9 

li apposing if tunes 6 were tlie f^uies Puly]ur Ihunibs together, Ihere are no Eingers 
above, uo llie Iwo thumbs represent two lens or ?Q, below llie thumbs aie faui unils an 
eochhand, wliich would be 16, Eind20 plus 16 equals 36, aitlie poduci af 6 times 6. 




Time« i 



10 TriUfld 7' 



"6 Times 6' 



"IG Tunes 7" 



^upposii^ 10 limes 7 isdesned Put Ihe httle finger of llie left hand agauisl llie firsl finger 
of Uie I'^hthand Ate glance ^^usee ueven lens di 70 On llie r^hl heiid yDU hnv-e Ihree unils 
and an Ihe leftnalhing Thiee times nolhing grues you iiollm^ and 70 plus noting is 70. 

In Ihe second numbeni^, or nmiibeK above 10, renumber ^ui fingers, thumbs, II, 
fiistfmgei's, 12, elc Lei us multiply 12 by 12 

Put lagelliei the tips of Ihe fii^eia labeled 12 Al a glance ^u see four tens or 40 At 
llus poinl we leffh'e llie metliode:iplEiined mCPLse I Eind ignore the units (lower fir^eis) 
altagelhei We go back to Ihe upper fmgeis agam 




"I? TJnm li' 
'n Times n- 



aiid mullipLy the numbei of upper fingers used on llie one liandby tlie number of upper 
fingeis used on Ihe olher hand, viz , 1 times 2 eqiiEds 4 Adduig 4 lo 40 gives us 44 We 
now add 100 (because Emyllung aver 10 times 10 would meike over 100) and we have 
144, the produci of 12 times 12 

Tlie addition of 100 is aibitiary bulbeir^ simple it saves time and trouble ^liU, if we 
wisli^ we might legard Ihe four upper fingers ui Ihe above example eis fourtwenlies, or 
30, Eind Ihe sik lower tiitgeia as sik lens, oi dO, Ihen retuinii^ to the upper fingers and 
multiplyii^ Ihe two on the r^hl liandby llie Iwo on the left we would liave 4, hence SO 
plus 60 plus 4 equals 144, therefore the rule of addu^ Ihe lumpsum is much Ihe quicker 
and easier method 

Above 10 limes ID Ihe lumpsum lo addLS 100, above 15 hmes 15 ilis 200; Eibave 30 
tunes 30, 400, 25 limes 25, 600, etc , etc , eis li^h eis ^uwanl to go 



Ill the tluidnmnbeiii^ lo multiply Pibov^ 15 lenunibei ^lu fmgeis.begiiimi^ tlie 
thumb? with Id, firet finger L7, aiidso on Oppose the [Mapei firmer tips asbefoie, tlie 
upper fiogeis lepreueiibi^ a value of ?Q Proceed as m the fiialnunibeiing Pind add 200 
Take For eKample IS limes IE 

At a glance wt see six Iioenbes plus 2 uiuts an left hand times 2 uiutu on light hpnid 
plus 2D0 equals 334 

In Ihe fourth numbering the fingei's are mpirkei Ihmnbs, 31, first fu^ers 33, etc , the 
value of tlie upper fingers being 30 Pioceedas in the second lumberuig, addir^ 400 
instead of lOD 




"IB TtwiVt W 

"ISTime^ 18- 



Ab<ive 35 times 25 Ihe uppsi fingers repe sent a VEilue af 30 each and afler pro cee ding as 
in the third numbering ^uaddfiDO insleEidDf 2D0 

This s^temcanbe earned as lughas you want to go, bat yju mnstreinembei tliat for 
figures eiidmg in I, 3, 3, 4 and 5 [Hoceedaa ui the second numberu^ Forf^mes ending in 
di, 7, 3, 9 and 10 Ihe third nmiibeiing apphes 

Deteinune the valne of Ihe upper fuigeia whetliei Ihey represent lens, twenties, thirties, 
fortes, or uiial Fdi example, pnytiffo f^ures between 45 and 55, Ihe'^'Pilue of the npper 
fir^ers iffouldbe 5D, which ls the lialf-waypomtbelweenthe two frues In S3 limes S4Hie 
value of Ihe upper fir^ers ivoiildbe SD (Ihe half-way pomt be Iween tlie two fives, 75 and 
35, being 30) And the lumpsum to Pidd 
Justthiee tlui^s to remember 

Which nnmbering is to follow, whether Ihe one described in secordor tlurd numbering, Ihe 
value iffhichthe upper fingers hp^'e, and, lastly Ihe Imup smn to add, Euid^uwillbe able 
to multiply fpister and more pccmatelytlian you ever diepined of before. 



C^tiralllliisiDns [I83| 

If B person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the endof CDids which 

are in mpid revolulion^ nol lotation, Piboula veiticalaxis, Ihe diredionof re'h'oluhDniffill 
seem lo re\'erse In some expenments Iwo incandescent "pills" of platuium sponge, such as 
anusedfoi l^hling gas-bmiiers, iffere hm^ mhiiy EduminumbeUs fiom b mica vane ifflieel 
winch was turned constantly and mpidly m one direction by hot au from a gas flame lo 
keep tlie plalinumina glow The inversion and reversion did not take place, as one ni^ht 
suppose, at Ihe will of the obsei'h'er, bul was compulsory and followed legulariules If Ihe 
obseiver watches the rotpiling objects fiom tlie side, or fiam above or fiam below, the 
inversion lakes plpce againslhis will, the condition being that Ihe inip^e on Ihe retina shnll 
be eccentric It takes place also, liowever, with p chpnge m the conueigencE of Ihe opticEJ 
aKes, whether the yaie pamllel lo each olher or more convergent Also when tlie uup^e on 
the rehiia is made less distuictby llie use of a convex or concave lens, the revolntion seems 
to reverse, foithe I, ui Ihe case of a nears^hted person, when he removes his spectpcles. 




JLLiJidnA BliHUi-Hn Dy RnVDlylnQ Pljtlnuni ai>DnQ( "Plll«" am Mai PJni 
IllusiDns ^hownbyRevDlvuig PlELtinuiii ^poiige "Pills" and Hal Puis 

inveiaion lesults every lime thai Ihe iiiip^e on Ibe leEma isnolshEup Bui even a clmrge in 
Ihe degiee of uidislincliieuu c Buses up'eraan 

The CEiuse of llus oplical illusion is Ihe same where liie wings of windmiUu aie observed 
in the Iwil^hl Pisa siUiDuetle II is then not a qnesliDii of which is the fioiilorllie back of 
Ihe iffheel, but whether one of the wings oilhe other conies laitfmdE tlie obsei'h'er The 
e>:peiinienlt3 made more simple by Ipiking a lial pin with a conppicuous head, haklii^ it 
firmly ma hansonlal position, Eindputlir^ a coik on the point Lookup at it m semi- 
daikness, one seems lo see sometinies the hepid of tlie pm, somehmes the pomt lowaids 
liuu, when he knows winch direc lion is nght The ui^'eisian will be conlinuedas soon as 
one observes fixedly a pomlat the side Here it is a queslionof the perception of deplh di 
distance, piidtlus is Ihe same ui the case of the lolalii^ balls, Ihe direction of seemu^ 
levalulion depends on wluchone of them one consideis to be the fiontone and wliichthe 
leaione 

Fiam Ihe foiegoii^ the fbllowing c one Insion maybe readied When, m llie cpise of a 
peiception remittii^ two appsarpinces, one fixedly observes one of these and then permits 
or causes chaise m llie sliarpiessof the image an the retina, the olherappeamnce Pisseits 
ilself 

Steam Engine Made fiam Gas P^e amd Fillings [1S4] 

Almost all Ihe roateiialused m the construction' of Ihe perls for the sniPiUslepim engine 
illustmled herewith was made fiamgps ppe pnd fittings The cyhndei consisls of a 3-m 
tee, tlie thudopenmgbeu^ lliieaded piid filled with a cast- iion plug tmiied to such a depth 
that uiien the mteiioi wasboiedout on a Ipillie the bottom of the plugboiedto Ihe same 
ladius as the olhei prnt of Ihe tee The outside end of tlie pli^ extended about 1/4-in and 
Ihe smface was made smooth for Ihe vpilue seol A flat slide vpilve was used 

The porls were not easy Id make, as 




TCiB EEiglnn Jb About 20 Inchu hfgn 
The Engine Is About 20 Inches H^h 

Iheyhpid lo be diilled aiid chipped oul The sleam cheat is iDimd, au il hod lobe made la fil 
the round tee canneclion The crossheadrmis m guides made fioma piece of gps pipe with 
the sides cnlanlandlhieads cat on both ends One endn; i^cieLVEd inla a nm lumedonlhe 

collider lie ad and llie alliei m filled into ancblong plote Balhend? of this plate were 
dnlledaiid lat^Kdto leceive l-IO-in pipe 

The main frame consists of one l-l/2m pipe IQ m long pndone made up from two 
pieces of pipe Einda cross Id make the whole length ID m Theue ppes iffeie llien screwed 
into ppe flEinges Ihalseived eis abpise Tlie openpait of llie ciass was babbitted lo leceive 
the mEdnshpifl The end of llie sliaflhas a piUowblockto lake Eipflitof tlie ulmm&Dni the 
inambeEuing The eccentric l3 CDiistrucled of ivFisheis \Vhile this ergine doeu iialgiv'e 
miichpowei, it is easilybmit, ineKpsnsrue, andanyDiie iviiha htlle mechanical ability CEin 
mate one bye lose lyfoUowii^ Dulihe con^lmcliDn eis shown m the lUushation — 
Contributed by W H KuliJclier.Kpnngfield, III 

How loMakt a Copper Bowl JIS?] 

To inabe a coppeiboiffL :3uchas is sliownm the lUuslmliDn, seciue a piece of No 31 
gai^e sheet coppei of a size sufficient to make a cuculaidisb fl-l/^in mdiamelei 

Cultlie coppsr lo the cnculaiform and size jU'St inenlioned, and file the e(^e so Ihal il 
will be smooth and free fiani shnip places Wilh a pencil compass put on a senes of 
concenlric ruigsaboiit lOin aperl Tliese ate lo aid Ihe eye uibeatir^ the bowl to form 

The tools aie ismiple and can be made easily Firslmate a round-nosed mallet of some 
haid wood, wluch ishouldhave a diamelei of about l-IM m, across the head if nolhii^ 
belteiis at liand, isawoiTa seclionof abrooni handle, lound one end and inseila handle 
into a liole boiedmits middle Next tale a block of wood^ about 3by 3 byfl in , and 
make moiie end a hollow, about 3 in across and 1/2 m deep Fasten the block sohdly, 
a:3 m a vise, and while holdup the coppei on the hoUoivedend of the block, beat with 
tlie mallei along die concentric rings 

Begin at Ihe centei and ivoik along the iii^:3— givn^ the coppei a circular movement 
as the beating proceeds— out toward die nm Contmue Ihe cuculai movement and woik 
from the nmback towaid Ihe centei Tins operalionis to be conlmued until the bowl lias 
tlie shape desiiei when die bottom is flattened by placing Ihe bowl, bottom side up, on 
a flat surface andbeatuig llie laised part flat 

Beahiig copper lend; lo hanlen il and, if contuiued too long wilhout proper lieatmeni. 



will cause ftie melal Id break To overcome tlus hardness, heal the copper Dvei a bedaf 
caak oi a BuiiseiibuiiieitD a goadheRl Tlus process is called aiineEihi^, eis ilsofleiis 
tlie melal 

The EippeEiiaiice of el bowl is greatly enhanced by Ihe addilian of el border liitlie 
illuslialiDnIhe balder des^n sliown was laid out in pencil, a srnELllhole was drilled with 
abend dnllm eachspflce ELnd a small -bladed metal seliv inseiled and Ihe perl SFLiffed out 

To produce cdIdi effects on coppei, cover the cappei wilhtuipenhne and 




B]ia[ilDf Ibt Hai^l jjid Saving Vie J-Mt 

^liapmg tlie Bowl and Ija^nr^ the Lace 

hold D\'era Bunsenbimiei until all |Hrta aie well healed 

Ckaiiiiig Fimiiluzv [185] 

Afleicleamng fuiniluie, Ihe greELsyappearELiice inaybe re moved by adding some 
gDod^ sharp vinegar lo tlie fiuniture pohsh Vinegar, winch is nothing else than diluted 
acelic acid, is one of Ihe best cleansers of diityfiinutiire. 

Mdling Ltad inTis:«ue Paper J1S&] 

Take ELbucksliot, WTapitt^hllyinane lluckiiess of lissae pnper, and, holdup tlie 
ends of Ihe ptLper mtlie fir^eis of each hend, place the pari tliat holds the shot over the 
flame af a niELlchjust far enough a way fiDni Ihe flame nal la biuii Ihe pepei In a few 
seconds imfald Ihe pflpei Find you will fmd that tlie slialhas melled witliaul even scoichmg 
Ihe piper — ConlribaledbyW O Hay^ Camden, i C 

TIlc Prmcyles of tlut SlrreogE^li [1S5J 

EFichof anre^s sees a different pc lure of any object, Ihe one sees a tiifle more la Ihe 
iighl-liandside, Ihe other lo Ihe left, especiPilly when Ihe ob]ectis neFLila Ihe obaeivei The 
stereoscope is the inslmmenl which effects this result by bru^u^ Ihe two pichiies together 
mthe senses. The sle re ogiapli produces Ihisiesallinanalhei way llian by prisms as m llie 



stereoscope Intlie fiistplpce Iheie is 




LodHing Through iMe Ci,\orea Gal^ElnD 
Lookuig Thiough Ihe Goto ledGe Inline 

only Diie pictiue, iialtiffo mounted side byade Tlie sleRagiaplicaiisiats of opcce of card, 
liavu^ lliereinlwD cucnlaropeimigs abani l-lMin dBiaelcr, ola distance apait 
CDiTcsponding la Ihe dislancebelweenlbe ccniers of Ihe pupils The opeim^s Eue CCTh'ered 
wilh Inmsparentgekline, tlie one foi Ihe lefl eye beuig blue, Ihnlfailhe i^lit, orange The 
pictuie is\ieL^ddla dislance of abanl 7 m from Ihe sleieogiaEdi As a result of babrng at 
il llirangh the slereogiaph^ one sees a colorless black and wlute picture wluch stands oul 
from the bacl^round Try lookup olthe front cover of Populai t'lecliaiucs through tliese 
CDloiedgelalme opeim^s Eindthe elTectwillbe produced 

If one looks at the picture fiiijt with the i^ht eye alone tluangh the orange 
glass, pud then uathlhe lefte^ tluai^h Ihe blue glass, one will understpind Ihe prmciple on 
wluch tlie httle mslruiuent woiks Lookir^ throi^hthe blue glass with tlie lefleye, one sees 
only those portions which Pie red on Ihe [Bcture But Iheyseemblack The repsanis thnl 
the redia^ are absoibedby the blue filtei Thiai^h Ihe aipiige gelatine all Ihe wlute 
portions of the pcture seem orange, be cpuse of the rays CDining from them, and which 
contpin p11 the calois of tlie spectrum, only the orange rays may pass thiough The red 
portions of tlie pocture pie rot seen, because, allhough they piass thiough Ihe scieen, they 
are iiol seen against the ledgioundaf the pctuie llisjuslas tliaugh Ihey were not there 
The lefle^ therefore sees a black pacture on a redbackgiound 

In Ihe same way the nghte^ sees through the orange screen oidyablack pacture on a 
ledbpcl^ round, this black unpge consisting anlyof Ihe blue pcitians of the pctme 

Ally Dthei pert of coniple me ntpry colors llianblue and oiaiige, as foi instance redpnd 
green, would sei'h'e tlie same pmpcse 

The piuiciple an which tlie stereogmpli woiks maybe demonstraledbya veiysuaple 
eKpeimient On white pflperone makes a picture oi inaik witha red pencil Loakmg at llus 
thiough a gieen glass it P|5»arsblpckona green ground, Icokuig plit llirough a red glass 
of ezpcdy the same color as the picture, it, however, dispppepis fully 

Thiough Ihe glass one will see only p regular smface of tlie color of the glass itself, and 
without any pctuie Tliroughp red glass p green piclure will ap^ar black 

IJo with the stereogmph, epcheye sees p black picture lepiresentu^ one of the piclures 
giuenbythe steieoscope,the oidy difference beir^ lliatinthe case of Ihe stereagiaph the 
backgramid for each e^ is coloied, wlule both eyes lagelhersee a wlute bpcl^iDund 

In Ihe pictuies the red and tlie green lines prddols muslnot coincide, neitliei cantheybe 
veiy far apflrt in older to jnoduce Ihe desuediesult In order that tlie jactuie shall be 
"pilaslic," which uicreases Ihe sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the pcture, 
dieyiauatbe a veiy Infle ppwl Tlie arrangement of the Iwo pictures can be so thntone sees 
the piclures eilliei ui fionlaf oron Ihe back of die card on uiuch they are pmnted. In order 
to make them ap^iear before the card, the left e^ sees tliraugh pblue screen^ but the red 
pacture which IS seenbyilis a black one, and hes to the i^ht on Ihe pacture, and the i^ht 
e^ sees tlie leflhand pclure The faithei apaitthe pnctores iit, the furlher from the cprd 
will the composite mipge pppepi 

In the manufecture of a steieascape the difficulty is m the propier pirangementof the 
prisms, wilh Ihe stereograpli, in the propier choice af colors 



McTf iiry Make-and.-BFe;ik CanncftiDiu ioF Iindurlnii Caik |187] 

Induclian coils operating anlowh'olt^e have a mpike-and-bieak connection called the 
"buazci" la increase Ihc ?ecoiidiiiy ducharge Two lypes of make-ard-breEik c Dime ction Eire 
used, Ihc camman "buzaer" ope rated by tlie nipgnetisni of Ihc core in Ihc coil and the 
mercnrybreEik operated bye ^niallnialai The sketch herewith allows liaw to mate the 
niDtDr-operatedbrepik Two blacks of wood arc npikd logellici in llie shape of anL anda 
isniall niotoi fastened to the tapaf the vertical piece The shnflaf the matarisbent Piboul IS 
HI mthe uliaps of p crank, so lliat m tuiinr^ it will describe b circle H4in m diPimeter A 
isniall connectii^ bai is cut from a piece of bins Ij3 m. thick, IMin wide and I m loi^ 
anda hole drilled ui each end, one liale to fit Ihe inoloi shaft prdthe other to shp on a No. 
in gaiigE wiie Two L-shpped[meces ofbiauu aie fastened to tlie uide of Ihe black and 
drilled wath holes af uucha size that bNo I? gai^e wire will shp thiough snugly Place a 
N0.12 gmige wire in lliese lioles and bend tlie tap end olnghl angles 




AlDlor- Driven hi nho-anQ - Birak 
Malur-Dnue n Make -ond-Bre ok 

Pat llie connecbngbmsbaranlhe molaiuhall wilh wnsheis filted tight on eoch side and 
slip the other end o\'ei the bent end of Ihe wiie Have tlie wire plenty long so it can be cul 
to the proper lei^th when Ihe parls are all in place A small loiind bottle aboat 112 in m 
diameter IS now fitted m p hole Ihat lias been paeviauply bared mta the middle of the 
battoiablack and close up to the veilical piece This should onlybeboiedabont half way 
thiangh Ihe block The wire w now cut so at the lenglhaf the stroke the end will come to 
about one -lialf the depth, or the middle of the bottle. 

Fill the boltle with mercury lo p pomtso that when the motor is running, Ihe end of the 
wire will be mihe mereuryforaboutone-lialf of the stroke Cover the mercuryoveiwilha 
httle EilcDhal A No 14 gouge uon wire is bent and put into the side of the boltle witli the 
ende:iler[dii^ to the bottom The other end of this wire is atlachedto one binding-post 
placed at the erd of the bottom block Tlie ollieibinding-poulis connected to a uniall brass 
brush atlached to the side of the veiticEdpece, winch is plocedwithuonie pressure on the 
niDMi^ wire The motor can be run with a cniienlfrom o separate comije orconnecledau 
uliownonthe same batlenes with llie coil The piapeilie^ht of tlie mercmycanbe 
legulatedfoibesl results The niDtainiusti"uncDiitmiiaus if the coil is used foiwiilii^ cede 
s^iials, wireless, elc —Contributed by HaradenPiatl, ^ an Francisco^ Cal. 



How lo M^kt a B^TometFr [1SS| 
Almosphenc pressure is me asoied by the barometer The weighlof Ihe aii miomid 



iiunibeis is 15 tb la llic aqmie inch EuidwiU supporla colmimof walci 1 in aquEuc, 34 fl 
luglv Dta colimuiof meiciJiy([ieriaily 136) I m uquaie, 30 in h^h 
The peitj neceaaaiy la niPite a aimplcbpinjiiicleraie, a glpaa lube 1/S in inlcmEildiameler 
aiidabaul 34 in lang, abotlle I in uiade diPimelcr Eindll in high ^eal one end of Ihe tnbe 
by holding it in Ihe flame of b gas biimei, which will aoonaoflen llic glass so ilcanbe 
pnchedlDgctherwilhpLcre Pal EiLltk peniifrm in Ihe botUe and niellil by holding the 
battle aver a sniPill flame Whencaol Ihe pmiiffm should caver the bottom aboul W16 in 
thick. The tube is now la be filled wilhmercuiy Tluu maybe accamphshed with a pepsi 
fmuiel, butbefaie Eitlemplmg to pal in Ihe mercuiy, pkce a Ipi^e dishailraybeiieplh Ihe 
tabe lo CEilchany mercuiy Ihatmayaccidenlallybe spilled Onlyiedisblled meicoiyahoiild 
be used, pndtlie tube ahauldbe perfectly clean before filling \Vhenlhe tube is filled lo 



rT\ 






willun I m of Ihe open end pkce the faie filler ovei tlie liole and lilttlie tube up emddawn 
uo all Ihe aiiwiL gather altlie filler end Tlie filling tj conlinuedunlil Ihe tube la fiiUaf 
mercaiy The glaaabotlle canlaming llie wax covered botlom is now placed over Ihe end of 
Ihe tube Eind ]Hessed firmly lo uisuie PinEiut^htfil with the tube The battle and tube are m- 
veited and after a few ounces of mercaiy aie pului Ihebotlle Ihe lube maybe lauedaalof 
Ihe waK, bat be careful nol la biing lis edge abffh'e Ihe auifPLce of Ihe mercury 

The insliumenl IS pulauide while the baue labeir^ mpide, oi, if youchooae, liave the 
baue repidy lo receive the peitujupldesciibed when they aie completed Cut b base from a 
piece af 7yS-m pine 3 in wide and 40 m long Inlhiabpise cut a groove lo fit Ihe lube and 
Ihe sjHce lobe occiqaedbythe battle i:3 liallowedautwitha clupel lo a deplhof 3M in, ao 
Ihe bollle lesls onane-half of lis diamelei above Ihe smface of tlie boaniandone-lialf 
below Tlie inatnmientis made secaie lo Ihe baue wilhbmss strips lacked on Pis shown in 
Ihe sketch After Ihe inatrmnentis inploce pul enough me rcuiy in the battle so Ihe deplh of 
Ihe mercury above Ihetotlam end of Ihe lube will be Pibout 1/3 ui 

The scale l3 made on p pece oi cardboard 2 ui wide pnd4in. long The 4 m are mEiited 
off and divided mla sixleenlhs, Pindthe inches numbered 27 up lo 31 Tlie ucpile la fpislened 
lo the baue wilhglae ortpicksandinihe position beluiid Ihe tube au uliawiim Ihe skelch. 
Before fasleinr^ Ihe acale, tlie iiislramenl sliouldbe compared wilh a slandard barometer 
and Ihe acale adjasled soballi repidn^s are llie same But if a atPindaidbarDineleria nol 
availpible, Ihe inatrumenl, if accurately can^lrac led, will calrbmie iluelf 

In general, a drop m the mercaryuidicales a slomi and bad wealhei, while a iise 
indicates fpiu wealher and ui wuilera frost Saddert charges m Ihe barometer aie fallowed 
by like changea m wealher The ulawiise of the me rcary predicts fan wepilher, end a sbw 
fall, Ihe contrary During Ihe fioaty days Ihe diapof llie meicmyis follawedby b Ihawand a 
iise indicates snow 



Hain«-M3d«Paslar Swingmg Light |1S!)] 

ReiuDve llie bollomfiDma ramidbotlk af suiTiciciil size lo iulmila wax di l^llow candle 
ThiscEinbe done willi p gks cutler ai a Jiotm^, Ihe size af Ihe anli^ide of the botik, which 
IE slipped qmcklyovcr Ihe end Piacun a metal can cover, a covei fiamabaku^ powdci CEin 
will do, a hd fit it on the end where thebotlom was removed Tlie cover is pmiched full of 
liales lo admit the air and b cioHcutm llie center with Ihe foui wu^sthuj made by llie 
cattu^ turned up lo forma piece lo insert Ihe candle The melelcovei is fastened to the bottle 
wilhwues a? shown m tlie sketch This l^htcanbe used on a poslarhui^ from a metal 
uuppoil 



A Chvcker PuzzIf [199] 

Culablock fiom a boaid aboat 3 m. wide and 10 in loi^ IJ endpaper bU the lurfeces end 
lannd Ihe e(^es slighliy Maikout seven l-m squares an the surface lobe nsedforthe lop 
and color the squares altemetelywlute and black Make sik men by sawing a cnitamiollei 
mio pieces about 3'S m thick Numbei the pieces I, 3, 3^ 5, 6 and 7, and place Ihenias 
sliawniiiFig I The puzzle is ta make llie firsi three change places wilhthe last three and 




Posilioii of Uie Men 

incjue Diily DM ala time Tlusmaybe done as fallows 

Move 1-Move No. 3 1g Uie center. 
Ivlove 2-Junip No 5 over No 3 
Iv^ove 3-Move No. 6 1g No. 5's place 
Iv^ove 4-Junip No, 3 over No 6 
Iv^ove 5-Jiinip No 2 over No 5 
Iv^ove 5-Move No. I 1g No. 2's place 
Iv^ove 7-JunipNo 5 over No 1 
Iv^ove 3-Junip No 6 over No 2 
Iv^ove 9-Jiinip No 7 over No 3 
Move 10-Move No 3 inio No 7's place 
Ivlove Ll-Jiunp Ng 2 over No 7 
Ivlove 12-JijnipNo^ I ovei No 6. 
Ivlove IS-Ivfcve No 6 inio No 2's place 
Ivlove 14-JijnipNo 7G''erND 1 
Ivfcve 15-rvfcve No 1 inio No, 5's place 

Aflerthe 15 moves are made llie men will heve chei^ed places Tins can be done on a 
checker boBid, as shown m Fig ?, unng checkers formen,bn1be sine ^^aso ailuale llie men 
Ihatlheywilloccupy p roitfcontpiuiing only 7 space? -ContiibaledbyW L WooIsdii, Cape 
May Poinl, N J 

Gak R.4ilro;id Signib [1S9| 

Covering raiLaad signals willigold leaf has latenllie piece of pamling on some roads 
Gold leaf will slaiid the wear of llie weethei for 15 or 20 yeaiij, while pauit leqiurea 
iei;a\'em^ lliree or four bmesa yeer. 

How ID Makf q BeUTeni [190] 



Abelltenlis easily made and is luce for lawns, as well as for a boy's campuig outiit 
Tlie illustiations slioiva plan of a lenl lA-ft mdiameler To make such a lenl, procnre 
unbleached lenl duck, wluchis Ihe \'erybeslmalenalfortlie purpose, sa]^ Ihe Cleve- 
land Flam Dealer Ivfete 22 seclrons, shaped like F^ 3, each ID ft fl m long and 2 f\ 2 



Ill wide althe bottom, lapeiing ma sliEiig lit line to a point at the top Theise dmiensiDris 
allaivfot Hie laid or lapped iseaiii^, which ishould be 




Ad llWTDtnilTr Hoitir-Hiilfl Trnl 

An Iiiex|Knsive Hoine-Made Teiil 



double-stilcliedoii El macliine The laslseainseffoiily foi a distiince af 4fl ftoin Ihe 

top, leaving Ihe le^t for an openir^ At the eiidof Ihi? iseaiii istilch Dnane:i1ra gusiset 
piece ?o tliatil ffilliiDtnp Fold back the edges of the openir^ aiidtlie bottom edge of 
tlie bell-shaped covet Riidbind il wilh wide webbu^, 3 ui acroissand liavir^ eyelets hi 
tlie seams foiattaclung the stay ia|K:3 Near Ihe apex of the cov-ei cut Ihiee tiiEingiilar 
holesSm long and 4 in wide attlie bottom aiidhem the edges These Rie 'v'eiitilators 
MEile the tent wall of Ihe same kindof clDlh3 ft 2 in li^h Bind it at the uppsi ei^e 
with webbu^ andattlie bottom with canvas Also stilch DncoE[ii3e canvas fl m wide at 
tlie bottom, and Ihe space between Ihe gniundand Hie weJI when the tent is raised, fill 
with canvas ec^ing liWchtlie uppei ei^e of the wall firmly to the bell cover al Ihe point 
indicatedby Hie doltedLiie, Fig 2 

Foitlie top of the tenthRve the blacksmith moke a hoopof 1/4-m louiid galvanised 
nan, d-in diemelei litilch the canvas at the apex Euaund the hoop Pind along Ihe sides 
h'lflke the Eipsx mto a lioodand hue it with stiff canvas Have Ihe tent pcle 3 in in 
diainetei, mEide mtwo secltons, with a socket joint and rounded at tlie top to fit mto Ihe 
apiex of Ihe tent 

In laising the tent, fEistendown Ihe wall by means of loops of stout line faslenedto lis 
loweiei^e and small pegs diiven throi^htheinmto the ground, F^ 5 Run tlie slay 
ropes from Ihe eyelets in the cuculai covei to states (Fig 5) stuck m the ground Use 
blocks, as m Fig d, on Ihe stay topes for lioldu^ tlie ends and adjusting the lei^thof the 
ropes. 

Sin^kX-Ra^Fi^trinunl [1901 

The outhnes of the bones of Ihe hpuid maybe seenby lioldu^ a pece of iice paper 
before the eyes andplacii^ the spate liand Eiboul 13 in back of the tice papet andbefoie 
abnghthglit The bony stiucluie will be cteailydistu^uishable — ContiibutedbyG J 

Tress, Emswotth, Pa 

H«wnMahe3C3iidltSh,idf [191] 



Layout Hie paltem for Ihe sliade on a thinpece of piapei, 9hy 12 in, niakii^ Ihe arcs 
of tlie ciicle with a pencil compass As sliownui Hie sketch, Ihe piattem for tins 
piaiticulai sliade cov'ei;; a lialfciicle with2-3Mui added Allowance must be made foi 
tlie lap and as IMin will do, a hue is drawn piarallel lf4m from the one drawn tlirough 
tlie cenler to tlie outside circle tliatteiminates tlie des^n 

Nail a timi sheet of brass, about P in widebyllim long, to a smooth board of soft 
wood, then tmce Ihe design on the brass by layii^ a pece of caibon piaper between the 
pialtein and tlie biass After tmnsfemi^ Ihe design to the bmss, use a small awl to punch 
tlie holes ui the bmss along tlie oullines of Ihe figuies traced Punch lioles in tlie brass m 



Ilie spaces aiaimd Ihe outlined f^uies, excepting llie 1/4-ui around llie ouliside of liie 
pelteni Wheu eJI llie hale^ are punched, lenuTh'e the bras^ sheet fioin. Ihe board and cut 
it along tlie oulei hues eis traced from the patleiii, Iheubeiid Ihe brass carefully so a^ not 
to crease Ihe figures Eippeaniig inieLef Wlienthe edges are brai^hl logetlierby 
bending, fasteu theiu with brass-headed iiails aibiads 

If a ffaod-turim^ lathe is at liand, tlie shade cpinbe made better by turning a cone 
from soft ivood tliat will fit Ihe sheet-bia:3:3 shade aflei it is sliaped Find the edges 
fastened togethei Tlie pattern is b'aced as before, but before punchu^ the lioles, culoul 
tlie bia:3:3 on tlie oulside hues, bend iiita sliape, fpisleu the enrls togelhei and place ou tlie 
wood cone The lioles Eue uowpunclied ou the authiies traced fiam the pattern and Ihe 
apeu space:; uiEide full af holes The holes being punched Eifler tlie shade is sliaped, the 
llie ted itfdl stEiyand liold Ihe peifecl sliape of a cane raiichbettei 

The glass-be adedfni^e is atlached an Ihe mside of the bottom, pait wilh ^mall brass 
rivets oi brad; placed about 3Mm apart The thinslieetbrpiss maybe paocuied from the 
local liaidwaie 




CoiiipLrtfd SbAilr PvLttta 

Punchii^ the Holes 
Completed lilmde Pattern 

dealer and somebmes can be puicliasedfiara general merchiindise stoies -Conlnbufed 
bythss KRlhiyn E Can, Chicago. 

APutt;Grmd«[191] 



Havii^ a la^e niunbei of windai^s lo putty each week, I found il quite a tosk to 
prepare the putty I fELCilitRledthe work by using an ordinaryraeal cutler or sausage 
giinder Tlie giindei ifiL soften set putty Find will quickly pie pare cold putty It will nol. 



Iiowffh'ei, giind aid putty oi mEile pulty fioiit ivlutmg aiidoil — Coiihibutedby H G 
liteveiis, Dmihaiii, Que 

Home-Madt Small Chun |192| 

Many people livir^ in a siimll towncr in the subuibs of a cily own one 



^ 


ita 


t 




(1^3 


K; 


^ 




^ 


m 


si^l 









^^kl^^ Butter 

coiw tlialsup]die:3 the family table withinilt and cieaoi Sametinieg the cieain mil 
acciunulale.but iiotm j^ufTicient quRiilities to be made into butter in a 
lELige churn A fruit jar usually takes the fiace of a chum and fite wait w exceedu^ly 
Imid, Ihe jar being shaken :30 the creani will beal j^ainst the ends in the process of 
bnTtei-makir^ The accompanying sketch shows cleaily how one boy r^ged up h 
device havir^ a dnving wheel which is turned with a ciank, and a dnv'en wheel 
attached ta ana:ile liaving a ciRiit on Ihe inner end This ciank is coiuiected ta a 
swilling ciadle with a wire pitman of such a siEe as to slighllybendor spring at each 
end of tlie stroke Tlie cradle is made with a deaf fastened to each end, belween wluch 
IS placed the fruit jri, paitially filled wilhcreEim The jar is weired in between the 
cleRls and the chnming effected by lumu^ the crank — Conlributedby Geo E 
Badger, Ma^er, Oregon 

Hame-Made Round Swing [192] 

Gas pipe and Bltir^s were usedivlieievei possible mihe luakii^ of tlie swii^ as 
shawninllie pliotogiaph The di el g ram drawii^ sliows the construction Ad-m 
squEire cedar post is set in tlie giouiid about 3 fl , allowii^ 2 fl to lemain pbove the 
giauiidanda 7/S-m piece of shafhr^ is dnuen inia the top pari of tlus post for an 

a:ile A cast-uonni^, ai, belter still, h lieavy wheel wilh four spokes of such a siae as 
to be drilled and tapped fai 1^2-111 ppe is used foi the hub, ai centei on which the 
frame swirls If a wheel is selected, the run must be removed and only Ihe spokes and 
hub used Tlie hole m Ihe hub must be 7^3 in oi less, so the hub can be fiKed to the 
shafhi^ thatis driven iiiflie post A Inige washer is placed on top of the post and the 
hub or cast-iron iii^ set an the washei 

The drilled and tapped hales mtlie foui spokes are each fitted with a 4-1^ ler^th of 
U2-m ppe Tliese ppes are 




The Meny-Ga -Round Coiaplele 

each filled with a fee onlhe end andinlo this lee iipr^hls of l/ZF-in pipe insDileble 

lei^tlis are acieioed, aiid elIsd ahoilleiiglhs with a tee and a:ile for the 6-m wheel Eue 
fitted in Ihe underside of the lee The upr^hls at their upper ends are also filled wilh 
tees and each ]Dmed Id the center pipe with IH-in ppe flaltened an Ihe inner end and 
fastened with bolls Id h flange 

The bottom pari of Ihe clodi covering is hekl in place by a lO-in ppe, bent Id Ihe 
desiiedciicle Foiirbmces inade fioin iy2-in pipe coiinecl eochspote and seRt la Ihe 
flai^e on Ihe cenlei pipe An txhe wheel IE in ui diameter is fitted in between two 
:3eE[ls ELiidused eis Ihe piapelhng wheel This wheel liaabic^le craiiki; and pedidsand 
CEinieg a seat or a hobby lioiise The faur seols Eire faistened Id Ihe four pipes with l^^-in 
pipe clampR 




J~ ■'-— Bll|H'«i -^llj "CUT ^>-e^ASl FUMOS rTlfl 



Details of Ihe Swing 

Small miniature electiic lights aie fastened to the overliead braces and supphed with 
electiic current earned tlirough wires Id Ihe :3wii^by an mgeruous device attached to Ihe 
underside of the casl-iiannng ai hub of Ihe wheel A ring af fibei on which two bmui; 
111^:3 are altaclied is fastened Id Ihe hub andcaiuiecliDn^ are made to the Iwo rings 
llirough two biTislie:; fastened to the post wilhabrackel The wires iim under the surface 
af tlie ground out:3ide and coruiected lo llie source af electiicity The wiiea from Ihe 
brass rings iiui Ihiai^h die cenlei ppe lo tlie lap Eind are connecledlo the lamp sockets 



01d-TimeMa5ic-PaxiV[l*31 



TIlf Disqpp taring Coin {193} 

Tins IS an uiicoiiunoii tiick, entuely lioiiie-mEide and yet tlie resiills are an slaitling as 
iiimEiny af the profesaaiial tiicts AsmallbEilii^-powder can is emplayEd to vamisli tlie 
CDUi^ wluclislioiildbe maikedby one of the audience foi identification Cula slolmllie 
botlonton the side of tlie can^ an shown m F^ I This slot isliouldbe justlEiige eiiai^h 
foi the com that is iisedta pass Ihioi^h freely, and lo liave its lower ei^e on h le\'el with 
tlie bollDni af tlie can 

The nesloi iseiies af boxes m which the com is aflerwaids found should consist of 
foiii small sisedflal pasteboaid boxes square oirectimgiilELi shapsdand funushed with 
lunged coveis The smallest need be no laigei tlian necessary lo hold the com and each 
succeeding box slionldbe jiistlpuge eiioi^h to hold the neKtsmpJleione wliich mtoni 
contains tlie olheis 

A stiip of tin about I by 1-3/4 in isbentmlhe shape as shawii uiF^ 2 la seive as a 
guide for tlie com Ihraugh the veuious boxes This guide is uiseited about l^in ui the 
smallestbox between tlie cover and Ihe box and lluee ivbber bands wrapped aromid tlie 
box as uidicaled Tlusboi: is then enclosed m Ihe next la^ei boK, tlie guide beu^ 
allowed lo project belween tlie box and Ihe cover, and Ihe necessary tensian is seemed 
by lluee i"ubbei bands PiTDund Ihe box as before In like niannei llie re niaming boxes are 




ApfllBDMi br Uh TttauintrMiiaBCMt 

A.pphaiices for Ihe Disappeaiing Coui 



adjusled so lliat finally Ihe prepared nesi of boxes appepirs as inF^ 3 

The com can easilybe passed mio Ihe inner box tlirough Ihe lingmde, Ihen the guide 
can be wilhElrawn which pemiils Ihe respective boxes lo close and liie rubber bands hold 
each one ma closed position 

The perfoimer comes forward with tlie tmcanmhis light hand, Ihe bottom of Ihe con 
mhis ptJm with the sIoIelI Ihe nghl side He removes the cover with Ihe left hand and 
pfLSses lus wand aromid the miier perl of the can which is then turned upside down to 
piove tlialil conlauis notlmig Tlie mMkedcomis diappedinlo tlie can by some one m 
tlie aiulie nee The cover is replaced and tlie canshakenso tlie com will ratlLe witlun The 
shatu^ of Ihe cams conlmued imlil the com has sbppedtluough Hie slotmlo lus palm 
Tlie canLS then placed on Hie lable with his leflhand Then appaiently lie looks for 
somelhii^ to cover tlie can This is found lobe a handkercluef wluch was previously 
prepared on another lable concealing Ihe nesi of boxes The com mtlie light liand is 
quickly shp|Kdmto Ihe guide of the nesI of boxes, wluch was placed m an upr^hl 
position^ and the guide witlidrawn, anddiopped on the lable Tlie peifbimer, while 
dou^ tlus, IS eKplauimg Ihalhe is Looking foi a suitable covei for Ihe can, but as he 
cannolfmd one he lakes the handkeicluef mslead The handkerchief is spiead over Ihe 
can and Ihen he brings the nesI of boxes He e}:plaiiis liowlie willtiansfei the com and 
passes lus wandfiam tlie canto Ihe boxes The can is Ihensliowntobe empty and Ihe 
boxes gi^'en lo one in Ihe aurlience to be opened They will be grealLy surprised to find 
tlie marked coin witlmi Ihe uineimostbox 



H<pw n Ktep Film Negaliv« [194] 



There are many devices foi taking caie of film negatives lo keep Iheiu &om curhng 
aiidm a place easily accessible Herewilh is illiislrateda melhodby whichan^mie can 



make h place for Ihe iiegalives produced by lus oi liei speciRl fiLn caaieie The device is 
inade up sumlei Id a posi caid EJbiun willi plEices cut fluough each leaf to adniileacli 
earner of the 

uegalivef The leav'es are mEide fiam while pepei and when the oegahveEaie m place 
tlie picluies made an Ihem cau 




Negatives an VnTule Paper Bpct^ioand 

easily be seentluai^h to tlie ifflule paper bacl^round These leffh'es cau be mEide ap in 

regular baot fbmi, or bed together siniilai to a kiose-leEifbook, thus adrluig only such 
pt^es as Ihe iiegalives anhaiidivJl leqiure --Caiitnbuledby H D HRikuis.Sl Laius, 
Md 

Honu-Midf M^tih Safe 1194] 




Details of the Match Safe 

Cula piece of bum the sliape Riid with Ihe dunensioiLS shaifu inF^ I Bend tlie 
saw-loa Ihe d edges Rli^hl Eir^les to die piece oiilhe doited lines Bend the pnitliiatis 
marked 5-1/2 m ma lialf ciicle Pvlake a cucle 3-1/2 in mdiaineteiou Euialherpece of 
tin, cut aiitthe cucLe aiidcul Ihe disk m two as showiim Fig 2 These lialfcucle pieces 
are sokleredto Ihe sides of Ihe teelhaf tlie lialfcucle made lu tlie lar^ piece af bu 
Remove aiie end from Ihe inside bo:i conlaiimig lUEilches Eiudshp llie back af the match 
safe lluai^hbebveeu Ihe bollomof the uiside box and the opeu end box that 
forms die cover The matches will falluito the half cucle Irayatlhe laiffei end nf the 
box wluch will be kept full of mulches imtil they are all iisedfiam tliebaz ~ 
CnnliibaledbyC F White. Dem'er, Colo. 



AnFltctzir PosI Card Projectar [195] 

A postcEmi piojectoi ls anuislruiiienlfoipajecting on a scieentn h daikeuedroom 
picbire postcELids ai any other pictures of a sumlar sise The lauleindiifers from Ihe 
aiduifliy magic lEoitem m Iwo feRlmes, fust, it requues no expensive candeiisuig leiis, 
and second, the abjecis to be pro]ecled liav'e uo need ofbeuig Tianspeieiit 

Two eleclnc globes Eiie made to cast tlie sbougest possible hghl on the pcture card 
set belween diem and mfia lit of wluch h lens ls placed to pro]ecltlie view ou die screen, 
die wliole beii^ enclosed ma l^hl-lightbox The box con be mEide of selected OEit or 



inahogELiiy The leiis lobe used as a projecloi ffiUdeleiuiuie the :3i2e of tlieba^: to gome 
e:ileiil Tlie measuiemenls givenuilheBe uisliucliaiis Eue foi el lens of abautll in focal 
lenglh The box should be coiislructedofffell seasoned wood fnui all]aiiils made i*ilh 
caie so they will be l^ht-tight 

The paition eIidwtl canning Ihe lens m Fig I is made to slide m the maiiibodyof tlie 
lEinteni fai focusir^ Abox shauldfiistbe made 5-l/2in wide.i-lOiii laghandllm 
long A liole is cut in Ihe back of Ihe bo:i 4by d in represented by the doited hue m Fig 
2 This wiUbe 3J4in from the topandbaltDni aiid2-IOin from each end of the outside 
of the boK Two sinps af wood ill m wide and 6-1^2 m lor^ are fastened along tlie tap 
andbaltom of the back The doar caveiang lliis liole m tlie back, and, which is also used 
as a earner foi the postcaids, IS made from aboard 4-inin wideandfl-lOm long 
The doQiis lunged to the lowei ship andheldmposiliDnby el tumbultonon the upper 
stiip The shdes fai the pichire cards are made fromstnpi; af tmbenlas sliown, and 
tacked to the mside smfece of the doai 

The iiuineis la liold the pert canying the lens ate twa [aecEa 2-U4 m wide by 5 m long 
and slioiild be plELced vertically, AA, as shawnmF^ I, 3-1^ in fioiu each end An 
apen sptLce 4in wideandim li^h m tlie center is for Ihe pert canying the lens to slide 
foi facusu^ The ptLitcELiiying the lens is el shallowbox 4by 5 in and 3 m deep m the 
ceiitei of which a hole is cul to admit the lens If a camerELlens is used, the flange should 
be fastened with screws to the fiaiitpELrt of this shallawbax Tlie sides af tlusbax 
should be made quite smaolhand a good, but not t^ht, fit into tlie iiuineis Plumbago 
can be nibbed on to pievent sticking and to dull any mys af l^ht 




Fia.g 



DElallk oS Vk PdiE Cud LuHvin 

Details of Ihe PasI Caitl Lantern 



Two ke]^5s receptacles fai etectnc globes aie fELSlened to the underside af the top m 

tlie pa sition shown and comiected with wires from the outside Two artluee lioles Eibout 
I in indiamelei should be baied mtlie top between and m el line with the lights These 
will provide ventilation to keep the pctuies fiaiu being scorched or becoimi^ buckled 
from the e:icessi%'e heat The holes must be co^'eied ovei on the top with el piece of 
inetEJoi wood to prevent the light from showii^ on tlie ceiling Tlus pece slioiild not be 
inoie tlian 1/2 m. h^h ELndinost 




Pmrt CJrd LnnlcrD CoiliplrtB 

PoslCaid LaitlemCoiaplele 

be colored dead black uiside lo cause no lefleclioD 

The leflectais are made of slieel tmoiiuckel-plEiled laelalbeiil lo a cuive as sliown, 
and e^leiLding the wliole height of the hintein The length of these lefleclois can be 
delenutnedby the ar^le of the lens lohen caveni^ the pictuie Tliis is cleRiIy shown 
by the dotted hues uiF^ I The leflectois must not interfere withtlie l^ht between 
the pctuie and Ihe lens, but they iiiupt be sufTiciently iRige ta pe\'enl any duecl l^hl 
reachii^ Ihe lens from the iRiupR In ope lation place Ihe postcard njKide downintlie 
shdes and close die doai lilidii^ tlie shallow boK canyir^ the lens will focus the 
picluie nn Ihe screen 

A Ibndy Calendar [19d] 

"Thiity days hath IJeptenibei, Apiil, June and NDvembet, " etc , and many other 
rhymes and devices Eue osed To aid the memoiy to decide how many days aie in each 
month of tlie yeRi Heiewilhis lUustiated a very simple melhod lo defemime die 
niinibeiof dELjs m any month Place Ihe Bistfir^ei of yauii^htlmnd on Ihe fust 
knuckle af yoiu left hand, celUii^ Ihat knuckle Janoary, Ihen drop your fmgei mto the 
depression between the fust and second knockles, callir^ Ihis FebiuRiy, then Ihe 
second knockle will be March, and so oii^ onlilyan leach July on the knockle of Ihe 
bitle fingei, then begin over agflin with Ai^uston the first knockle Eindconlinae untd 
Decenibei is reached ERch month rs itfaLs upon a knuckle will liav'e 31 days and 
tliose dowiibetween llie knuckles 30 days with Ihe ezceplian of February which has 
oidy23 dn^ -ContnbutedbyChEis C Bridie y, WesI Toledo, Ohio 



Oune 

AVax — D»c 
Apr — Now 
A\aT, — Oct. 

Feb — S«pt. 




The Knuckles Designate flie 31 DayMondis 
The Fuming of O^k [196] 



Daikenedoak alwnys lins a bettei Etppsarance whenfimied wilhammoma This 
piocess IS ralher a diiTicull one, as it requires an airtight case, but the descnplion 
lie lewilh given maybe enteiedmto with as latge a case rs the biiildei caies lo 
cons bud 

Oak articles can be IreEiledina cose mEide fioni a linbiscmtbo:i, or any olhei niefiil 
receptacle of good iHapotlions, provided il is autight The oflk lobe fuiuedis ELiiEir^ed 
m the bos so Tlie fiiiiies will enluely sunound Ihe piece, Ihe aiticle maybe ptopped up 



wilh small slurbs, oi ^uppendedby a slnr^ Tlie cluef pDintw To see tlialno pailof Ihe 
WDodts cov'ered upend tliFil EiUsiiifaces are ei:poged 1o tlie fumes A saucer of 

aramDiua is placed uitlie bollam of the box, Ihe lid ai co\'er closed, and elUjoiiiIs 
sealed upbypashng lieavybiDwn paper ov-ei them Any leEtkage will be delected if 
the iiose is placed iieat the tmandfRilhei Rpplication af Ihe paper will Btop Hie holes 
A liole maybe cut m Hie co\'ei Riid h piece of glRS? fitledin, lakir^ care la have all Hie 
edges closed The process mEiybe ivalclied tlirai^h Ihe glhss and the arlicle removed 
when Ihe oak is fumed to the desired shade Wood stained m tins iiiannei should not 
be Fie nch polished OI vainislied,bul waKed 

The process of waxing is smiple Cut some beeswaK inlo fine shieds and place them 
in a smallpolor jai Pourm a Utile tiirpenluie, and set aside for lialf a day, givu^ il an 
occasional stir The wax ntuslbe llioroughlydissoh'edand then more tiirpenluie added 
until the preparation lias Ihe consistency of a lluct cream This can be applied to Ihe 
wood Lviiha rag and afterward biuslied up with a sbff brush 

How laM^kfinElHtFolylH Reidfitr [197| 



-iM}- 



D C LINE 




rA,C.llNE 



EleclCGlylLC RkIlUcE a^d CdDQKLiOH 

Electrolytic Rectifiei and Connections 

Many devices winch willcliange alleinalii^ cuneni to a direcl cuiient 
liave beenpulon Hie market, bul probably Ihere is not one of Hieiu wluch suils the 
amateur's needs and poctelbootbetler than Ihe electrolyhc rectifier 

For the consliiiclion of sucha rechfiei four 3-qt fruit jars are required Ineach 
place titfo elec trades, one of lead and one of alummum The immersed siufece of Ihe 
aliumnuni sliould be about 15 sq m and Hie lead 24 sq in The immersed surface of Uie 
lead being greater tlian Ihatof Ihe aliuuiniun. Hie lead will liav-e Id be crunped as sliown 
inF^, 1 In both Fig 1 and 2, Hie lead is indicaledby L and Hie aluimnuinby A 
The solubon with which each jai is lobe filled consisis of Hie following 



Water 

Sodium Carbonate 

Alum 



2qt 

2 table spa onfiils 

3 table spa onfiils 



Care sliouldbe talen to leave Ihe comieclions made as sliown inFig 2 The 
altenialu^ cirnent comes mon Ihe wues as shown, and the duect current ls taken from 
llie pomlmdicaled 

The capacity of Hus lectifier is from 3 lo 5 amperes, wluch is sufTicienlfDr cliargii^ 
smaU storage batteries, luiinir^ small iudIois and hghting small lamps — Contnbnledby 
J H. Crawford, Schenectady N Y 

The Rolling Marble [1971 



Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The lop of a lable will do Ask 
someone to cross Hieir frrsi and second fii^eis and place Hiemon Hie marble as shown 
in Ihe illushation Then have Ihe person roll Ihe maible Pibout and at Ihe same time close 
llie eyes or look manollierduecliDn The person willmiagme that Ihere are two maibles 
instead of one. 




AGu Cannon [197] 

If ^u lia\'e a smell caimon with a bora of I ai 1-irfm, boie oultlie fuse liole large 
eiioi^li Id lapaiidfitm a umallsised spark pli^ such rs used on a gasoline ei^uie Fill 
tlie cannon wilhgRS fiDoi a gas jet and Ihenpusli a 



^^^^^^^ 




m^^m^ E±apj^*»r^^^^^^^ 




^^^^m^^mmm^ 





Gbi Ciiiiiiud LeadEil 
Gfls Cannon Loaded 

CDik uitlie boie close up to Ihe spark pli^ Conned one of the wiras from abatfeiy Id ei 
spflik CDil Pind tlien Id Ihe spark pLi^ Attach the olhei iviie Id Ihe CEinnDnneM Ihe spark 
plug Turn the switch lo make a spaik Eiiida laudrepoil will fDllow — Conlributedby 
Cynl Tegnei, Cle'h'eland, O 

Old-Time Magir-Pazt VI [193] 



A Handteicluef Mended aftei Beii^ Culand Tnm 

Two persDna aie requested la come fDiwardfiom Ihe nudience lo hold Hie fDur 

earners af a handteicluef Tlienbeg se\'eial DiheihEindkercluefs fiani tlie audience and 
place tliemon the one held by tlie Iwd persons When several handteicluefs have been 
accumulaled^ hEive some one person diaw out Dne fiDm the bunch E[nde:iE[niine for any 
marks Ihal will deleinune that Ihis liandlerchief is the one lobe mended flfleibeing 
inuliliiled He, as well as others, are la cutoff pieces frDm this liandkerchief aiidta 
finally leant to peces 

The pieces are then eJI CDllected Find some magic spuils Ihiown over the tain Find cut 
pails, be them m h small package with a libbanand put them under h glass, ivhichyDU 
WBiin with ^ui hands Aflera few second^ time, ]ffln remove Ihe glass, rs yDuliave 
held ilall the tune, and take Ihe liandterchief andunfDld il, evei^mie will recognize Ihe 
mait and be amazed not to find a cut or tear m the le:ituie 

This tiict Ls\'eiysmiple Yon have Ein uiulerslanElii^ with same ane m the campany, 
who has twa lianElterclue& exactly alite and has given Dne af them lo a person behind 
tlie cuitRin, lie lluaws Ihe Dlhei, at the bine af request fai handkerchiefs, on tlie haiid- 
keicluefs held fDi use m Ihe perfaimance of the Inct Von manage lo keep Ihis 
handkerchief where it will be picked out mpiefeience to the alheis, altliough pielenEluig 
tD IhDiDughlymiz them up The pei^son selected la pick Duta handkerchief naluially will 



tate the handiesl one Be :3iiie llieltliisis Hie light one 

Wlientlie haiidkeicluef hag been lorn aiid folded, put itundei Ihe gLaas, oaa table, 
neat a ptulitioii de ciulaui The table fliouldbe made wiiha hole cut Ihiai^h Ihe top and 
a SDiall linpdaDt fitled ani^ly m Ihe hole, so it will appear lobe a pflitof the labie tap 
This bap door is lunged on Hie under aide and opens into Ihe diaiverof Ihe table andean 
be operated by the peigonbelund Ihe cuitam who will remove the lam liandkerchief and 
leplace il wilhtlie goad one Eiiidtlien. close tlie hap da or by reaching through tlie draifei 
af the table. 

TheMa5itKiioi[l*81 

This IS a veiy amusing Inck which consists of lying one knot with two enrls of a 
handkerchief, and pulhi^ the 




Tying and. Untying a Knot 

ends only to untie them E^ain Take Ihe two diagonal coiners of a liandkercluef, aiie in 
each hand and throw Ihe main pari of Ihe liandkeichief avei Ihe wnslof Ihe left liand 
and lie Ihe knot as shown m the illuslralian Pull the ends quickly, allowu^ the loop 
over Ihe leftliand to shp&eely, and ^u will have the liandkeichief witlioul any knot 

A Good Moust Tr^ [193] 

\Vlien apening a tomato oralhei small can, cut the cover crosswa^ fioiu side to side 
iiiakir^ fauilnpngiilai peces m the top Bend Ihe four ends outiffaidandremave the 
contents, it^sh clean and diy and then bend the four ends mitTiiii, leavu^ a hale about 
3/4m indiamelei in the cenler Drapm a piece afbiead aiidlay the candaivn upon lis 
aiEle and the tiap is leadyfor use Tlie mouse can gel in but he cannot gel out — 
Contributed by E J docker, Victor, Calo 

Finishing Ahuninion [198] 

Rubbir^ the surface of an alommam plale with a steel bnish wiUpioduce a satin 
finish 

How n Milw 3 Sailing Cuwt [199] 



A canvas canae is easily made and l^htto liandle,bulin making one, itmustbe 
remembered Ihat Ihe clolh willteai, if any snags aie encounteied Tlieiefoie such a craft 
cannalbe used mall iffalers,bul by being careful at shores, it can be used as safely as an 
andinaiy sailir^ canoe Be suie la select the best materials and when complete covei the 
seams well with pami 




Coiajileled ^ailuig Canoe 



The malenals necessary for tlie coiislruclioii of a ^aiJuig caiioe, Eis iHusfialeduiliie 
eiigrevir^, are f\s folloLPS 

1 keelson, 1 m byS in. by 15 fl , seLecledpuie 
14 lib bands, 1 ut sqimre by 16 ft^ clear pine 

2 gunwales, 1 m by 2 ui. by 16 ft 

1 piece fai forms aiidbow peces, I m. by 12 ui by [0 fl 

4outwales, 1/4 m by 3 in. by 16 fl 

1 piece, 3 in. ivide and 12 ft long, forcDckpil frame 

I piece, 2 in. unde and 12 ft long, forcenlei deckbidces 

II yd of I-IH-^ wide 12-oz duckir^. 

3 yd of 1-^ ivide nnbleacliediniL'slin 
50 fl nfrape 

1 masl, 9 ft lor^. 
Painl^ screws and deals 

Tlie teelson, F^ 1, is 14 fl loi^, S in wide m Ihe center and tapered down from a 
poml4fl from each end Id I in altlie ends Bath ends aie moitised, one 5 in for the 
alem piece, and Ihe alhei 12 in foitliebaw Be sure to gel Ihe bow and stem pieces 
directly m Ihe middle af the keelson and at r^ht angles with Ihe lopei^e Tlie sleinand 
bowpieces are cut as ishDwn inF^ 2 andbracedwithanironband, 1^ m thick and 3/4 
in wide, dnlledand fa:3tened wiliisciew? 

litudy Uie sketches shawir^ liie details well before slartii^ to cut out tlie pieces Tlien 
tliere will be no liouble ei:peneiiced latei m putting the purls lagether See Ihalall Ihe 
pieces fitlheii places as Ihe work proceed; and apply the canvas with care 

Two fbmis are made aa shown m Figs 3 and 4, Ihe smaller is placed 3 fl from Ihe 
bowandthe laige one, 7 fl 3m from tlie stem The laiger mould is used tempaianly 
wlule making the boal, and is lemoved after tlie ribs aie in place The gunwales aie 
now placed over Ihe forms and m Ihe nalches sliown, and fastened withsciews, and, 
afler cutlu^ Ihe ends to fit Ihe bow and stem pieces, they are fastened with bolts put 
tluai^hthe tliiee peces Tlie sharp edges on one side of each iib-band aie lemov'ed 
and seven of them fastened wilh screws to each side of Ihe moulds, spacir^ Ihem on 
the laige mould 4 m apait Tlie ribs are made of 23 good barrel hoope 




^1 

» . - 




'Z^ni^'^i 


r 




V nf 






J 


^ 




/ ' 


F 


1 

1 


--1^^ 






,~ 1 


^ — 


ao"-" 



t33l 



r.t s 



iz4 




l^-rtE;^ 







- F. 7 "t^ 



F,a I 



Details nf B Home-I^'lade SbiIit^ Canoe 

winch, should be iwell isoaked in iwaler for several houis be foie bendir^ Iheiit in sliape 
The^e aie pul in d in ELpnitand aie fasleiied to flie nb-bsiids with. 7/S-in wood screws 
The ribs slioiildbe pul inslia^htand tine ta keep tlieni fioiii puling Ihe rib-bands oat 
of sliape Aftei Ihe nbs are in place and fsstened to the rib-bands, gunwales and 
keelson, put on the autrmle :3tnp6 and fs^ten them ta the gunwales betioeene\'ery rib 
wilhl-1^2-m screws 

Before inabu^ Ihe deck, s block for Ihe mast to ie?lmniuslbe made and fsstened 
to Ihe keelson This block, F^ 5, w a cube lla\^l^ sides d m squsie siidis keplfioin 
spbttir^byanironband t^hliyfiHed around the outside The block is fsstened to Ihe 
keelson, 3-U!2 ft from the bow, with bolts Ihrough couiileisunk Imles fioni The imdei 
side 

Tlieie Eue Ihree deck btsces mode as shown in Figs d, 1 and S Braces, Figs 6 and 
7, foiiu Ihe ends of Ihe cockpit which is 30 in wide A6-m boaid is Sited into tlie 
inoilises shown in lltese peces, a centei piece is fitted m Ihe other nioitises The other 
deck braces slope down from Hie cenlerpece and aie placed fl ui apart They are I in. 
squEue and aie moitised into the ceiiler ]iece siid fastened to Ihe goiiwales wilh 
scieies The mam deck 

biaces sie fastened to Ihe gunwales with4-m comei braces and to Ihe centei piece 
wilhlf-m comer braces The niasthole on the deck is made as follows Secure a ]iece 
of pme I ui Ihick, d m wide and 3 fl Loi^ Cul this in halves and inorTise foi Ihe cen- 
tei piece uitlie two halves and fasten to Ihe gunwales A block of pme, 4 m thick and 
13 m tong, is cul to filundei Ihe topboards. Fig 9, EindfELStened to Ihe m with bolls 
Wilh an ezptinsive bit bore a liole 3 m indiBinetei Ihrough the block Be sure to get 
the block and liole diieclly over the btock llml is fsstened to the keebon Pul on a coat 
of boiled linseed oil all over Ihe frame before poceedu^ farlliei 

Putlu^ on Ihe canvEis msybe a diffxullpece of woik to do, yet if the fbUowing 
smiple direcliDns are followed out no tioiible will be encountered The ll-yd length of 
cam'as is culm Ihe center, doubled, and a seEini made joinu^ the hvo peces togetlier 
Fill Ihe seflin with Ihick pfimt Enid lack it down wilh copper lacks along Ihe cenlei of Ihe 
keelson When lliis is well lacked commence slrelclmig and puling the canvas mthe 
imddle of Ihe gunwales so as to make it as even and t^hl as possible and work toward 
eachend^ tackii^ the canvas as it is slietchedlD Ihe outside of Ihe gunwale lieani Ihe 
canvas atong Ihe stem and bow pieces as was done on Ihe keelson The deck is not so 
hard to do, but be careful to gel Ihe canvas l^hl and even A seam should be made atong 
tlie center piece The trimming is wood, \IA m thick and iy2 in wide A slnpof tins is 
nailed along the center piece over Ihe canvas The outwales are nailed on over the 
canvas A piece of oak, I in thick l-lf3 m wide and 14 m tong, is fastened with screws 
over Ihe canvas on Ihe stem piece, also, a piece 1/4 in lluck, 1 m wide and 34m loi^ 
IS well soaked m water, bent to the light sliape and fastened ovei the canvas on the bow 



Tlie luddei L'S made as shawii uiF^ 10 with el movable handle A sinp 1 m tluckby 
2 in wide, IS boiled Id llie keelsDnoveiliie caiiva:3 foitlie oulei keel The keel, F^ 11, 
IS if in wule atone end and 12 in at llie other, winch is fastened to tlie outer keel wilh 
bolts liaving thmub nuts The ina^tcanbe niEide of a ^iing spmce liee having h 
diainetei of 3 m atlhe bRse wilhsuSicienlhe^hl la make il9 fl long Tlie canoe is 
diivenby a lanteen sailand hvo curiam poles, each 1 in mdiamelerand 10 ft long, aie 
used for tlie boom andgEdT, which are held lagether wilh Iwo pieces of iron be lit as 
shown niF^ 12 Tlie sadis a tiiai^le, 9-3/4by P-3y4by3-in fl which is held to the 
boom and gaffby cord Lacings iiui Ihioi^h eyelets mseitedui the mushn The eyelets 
are of brass placed4ui apeit in the niusLn Tlie mast lias Iwo side and one froni slay, 
eachfilted wilh a tnnibnckle fai t^htemiig A pulley is placed Rt the top Riid bottom of 
tlie maslfoiihe liftiope The sail is held to the mast by an nan nr^ and the hftiope ht 
tlie tap of the iiiast The boom rope is held in Ihe liand Riidse^'eml cleals sliouldbe 
placed mtlie cockplfoicanv'enience A chock is placed hi Ihe bowfoi lying up to pieis. 
liev'ei'al coats af goodptmitcomplele Iheboal —Contributed by O E Tronnes, V/il- 
mette. III 

A Honu-Made Hand Vht [201] 

A very useful hide hand vise caneasdybe made fromahuige and a ball carrying a 

wing nut GetafELSl 




Hjnd Vjg( Hkdt tioni * Hine, 

Hand Vise Made fioni ei Hinge 

jomlhir^e aboul 2 m oi more long and el boltabant IH m long that will flttlie holes iii 
tlie hir^e Put tlie bait tlirough Uie middle hale of Ihe lunge and leplace the nut as shoivii 
in Ihe diELWing Wilh this device Einy small object maybe fumly held by sunply placing 
it between the sides of the hinge andt^hlenmg Ihe mil 

Proptz Df sign for 4 Bird Hoiis« [201] 

This bud liouse was designed ELiid built la make el liome for the AmencELumELitm The 
house will ELCCommodate 20 fELinihes All the hales are ELirangedso they will not be open 
to Ihe cold winds fioni the north iffhich often till tlie binis which come in the eFLily 
spii^ Aiouiid eELchopemi^ is an exira iing of wood to mate a longer psssELge wluch 
assists the martui inside m fightmg off the Enghshspenow wlio tnes la diive him oat 
The hales are made o\'elI to elUow all the httle ones to get then heads outforfieshau 
The lai^ oveihangir^ eaves pnileclihe htlle buds from the liolsummei son 




The looms ELie made up wilh parlitions on Ihe uiside so each apsnii^ will have 
room The inside of the EDoms shouldbe stainedblack 



B(Mim«rangf and How ta Mikt Tlicn [2021 

Aboaiiierar^ in a we flpoQ invented and upedby liie naliue Aiislnihans, who seemed 
to liave Ihe leaist uileligence of any nice af niRiikind The 




DtlHlti at ThTce BGd^irjiiigB 
Details nf Tluee Boonieiangs 

bnomeiang IS a cuiuedslick of ImidwDod, Fig 1, about ^/]6 ui Ihick, 2-1/3 in wide 
and 2 fi long, flat on one ade, with the ends and Ihe other side roimdir^ One end of 
the stick IS grasped m one liand with the convex ei^e fai^wardand the flat side up and 
tluawnupwRid After gair^ some distance andasceiiduig slowly ta a great height in 
the fill with a quick mlary motion, it suddenly letiinis in an elhptical oibit to a spot 
neM Ihe slaitmg point If thrown, dawn on llie ground theboamerRi^ lebounds uia 
straighl hne, puisiiir^ a ncochetmolion until the ob]ect is sliucb al iwhich il iwas 
tluawn 

TwD alher types ofbaomeiangs Eue illusbRted herewith and they can he made as 
desciibed The niateiials necessary foi the T-shaped boa merEir^ are One piece of 
ImidtnEipLe 5fl6 in tluck, 3-1/2 m wide, and 3 fl lor^, five iy3-m flal-headed 
sciews Cut the [mece of hard maple into tiwo pieces, aiie I l-IH m and the athei IS ul 
lor^ The conieis aie culfrom these pieces as sliowiiiiiF^ 3, taking CRie to cut 
esRclly Ihe same amount fioni each comer Bevel bath sides af Ihe peces, makir^ Ihe 
edges ^'eiytlun so they will cut the atr better Find the s'Ahct center of the long piece 
and make a line 1-1/4 in an each side af the center and fasten the short lei^th 
between the lines with the screws as sliowiim Fig 3 Tlie shait piece should be 
fastened perfectly square and at r^ht Rifles ta the lor^ one 

The mateiials necessary foi the cioss-shapedbaomeiang are one [lece liaid maple 
5/16 Ul tluck, 2 m wide Find 30 ui long Find five IH-m flat headed sciews Cul the 
maple- mta two 14-m pieces and plane the ei^es af Ihese pieces so the ends will be 
1-1/3 m wide, as shown m Fig. 4 Bevel these peces Ihe same as the ones for the T- 
shaped boomerai^ The Iwo pieces are faslened togelhei as shown mFig 5 Allofthe 
boomerangs wlien completed should be given se\'eial coats of linseed oil and 
tlioroi^lilydned This will keep tlie woodfiom absoibir^ watei andbecaming heavy. 
The tasttwD boomeiai^s are tluawn in a smiilai way ta the fust one, e:icept thatane 
of Ihe peces is grasped m the hand and the throw gi^'en with a quick undeihand 
motion A httle practice is all tlial is necessaiy for one lo become skillfnl mtluawmg 
them -ContiibutedbyO E Tia lines, Wilme tie. Ill 

H«wnM4kfW3t«Wing« [202] 

Puichase a piece of nifcteached muslin, 1 yd square Tate this and fold it over 



aiice, foniung h double pece 1-1/3 f^ wide and 3 fl long Mate a donble stilchall 
aroQiid flie ei^e, leavTi^ h ^niEillDpeiuiig aloiie comer Iiiseita piece of tape elI liiis 
CQinei lobe iisedfai tying Riound Ihe opeiiu^ when Ihebag is blown up The bRg is 
then hiined inside out, sacked with walei and blown up An accasionnl wetling all 
over will prevent it fiam leatii^ As lliese wii^s are veiy iRige Ihey will prevent the 
swimmer from smiuiig —Contributed by W C Bliss, St Louis, Ma 

HflwnMikeqnAinineCtr [203] 

The oatside CRse of Hus mslrumenl is made of wood taken from oldcigaiba»es 

wilhthe e:iceptiDn af Ihe back If carefully Riid iieafly loade, the finished instiument 

will be 'v'ery SEitisfactDry The measurenienls here gp'enneed nolbe stnctly folia wed 
aul, but can be governed by cucimistances The case sliould fust be made Riid var- 
nished and wlule this K drying, the meclianicRl peits CEinbe put lagelher 





1^ 


Ib- 


4 - 


^\ 




j!^ 



Fifll 



n- 




Fn e 



Details of an Ammeter 



The back w a board 3/3 m tluck, 6-1/2 in wide and fl-3f4 m lor^ The auter ec^es 
of Ihisbaflid are chamfered Tlie other pflits of tlie case are mnde from Ihe cigEirbox 
wood which sliould be wellsRiidpflpered fa renia\'e Ihe labels Tlie sides are 3-1/4 m 
wide and 5 in long, Ihe lop and bottom, 3-H4in wide and 4-1 H in long Glue h 
three cornered piece. A, F^ I, al each end on Ihe siufBce tlialis lobe the inside of Ihe 
iDpandbotlom pieces Afler the glue, is set, fasten the sides to the pieces with glue, 
and late care timl Ihe pieces Rie all square Wlien the gtue is sel, tins square boi: is 
wellsELiidpflperei Ihen centered, and fastened to Ihe bock wilh small screws turned 
mio eachlluee-cotneied pece 

The front, which is a pece 5-lM m wide and 6-1/2 m. lar^, lias a cucdIeli apenir^ 
cut near the top Ihroi^h winch the giadiialed scEile loaybe seen This fioni is centered 
and fastened the same rs Ihe back, and the four outside ei^es, as well as the edges 
around the opening, are rounded The whole CRse cannowbe cleaned and stained with 
a hghlmEihogELny stamandvaniished Cutanolhei pece ofboard, B, Figs 2 and 3, lo 
]usl fitmside Ihe case and leslon llie ends of the Ihree-conieied pieces. A, and glue lo 
tills board two smaller pec es, C, 3 in square, with Ihe greiinof the wood m alleniale 
directions lo peveni waipu^ All of these peces are luade of the c^arbox wood 
Anotherpiece, D, 3/S m Ihict Riid 3 in square, is [iacedon tlie other peces and a U- 
shaped openir^ 1-3/4 in wide and 2-1/2 in li^h sawed oulfrom all of Ihe peces as 
shown Tlie pece D is attflclied lo Ihe peces C with foui l/2-in pieces 2-512 in loi^ 

A mELgnetis made from a sofl piece of iron, E, about 3'E m tluck, 1-1/4 in wide 
and 2-3/4 in long Soldei Rcross ench end of tlie iioiia pece of brass wue, F, and 
mate a turn meach end of the wiies, fomiir^ aney^ foi h screw These wires are 
about 2-1/2 in long Wuid Ihree layers of about No 14 double co lion-covered copper 
wire on the sofl: iron and leave about 5 or d m of each end unwound for connecTions 

The pamlei is made as shown m Fig 5 fiom l/ld-m brass wiie filed lo make a 
pamtatbolhends fora spindle About 1/2 m from each endof this wire aie soldered 
two smaller brass wires winch in luin are soldered to a sinpof I^htlin I /4m wide 



and3-5/Sm loiig The lower ei^e of tliis Im should be pboul I Hm fioia Ihe spmdie 
The painlei is Boldeied to die spindle 1/4 in fiaiiiooe end All af Ihe^e parls ^haiddbe 
biass wilhthe e:icepliDr[ of Ihe slnpof tin Aiiofliei sinp of tiii^ the ^aoxc :3ize as Ihe 
fust, IS soldered to hva bidss vnits as shokvn in Fig 4 These wues sliouldbe aboat 1 
m lor^ 

The spindle of the poinlei swings fieelybetioeentwo bars of brass, G, WI6 m 
duck, IM in. wide aiid 2-in in long A small liole is counteisimk in aiie of die bnis to 
receive one end of Ihe spindle and a liole l/S in in diamelei w dnlled m the olhei and 
a fhiuiib nut taken fiam the bmrimg-post of Ein old battery soldeied ovei Hie liole so 
the sciew will pass lluough when tinned into die iiul The end of the sciew is 
caiinteisunk ta receive Jlie other end af Ihe spuicUe A lock nut is necessary to fasten 
the screw when popei adjustment is seemed A hale is dnlled in both ends af Ihe bars 
for screws to faslen llieni in place The bai with the ad]iistmg screw is fastened on Ihe 
back sa it can be readdy adjusted thioi^h Jlie hole H, bored m the back The pointer is 
benlso i1 will pass through the U-slmped cut-out and up back of the board B A brass 
pin IS driven in Ihe baaid B 1o hold the poinler from dioppir^ down too far to Ihe lefl 
Place Ihe fin, F^ 4, so it wiUjustcleai the tin. Fig 5, andfasten in place Tlie inj^net 
IS nest placed with the ends of the coii ta tlie back and the tap just cleanr^ the tin 
sfnpR TwD bindir^ screws are filted to the bottom of the back and connected fa the 
e:itendir^ wires from the coil 

The uistiiunent Ls now ready fai cahbialii^ This is done by connecting ituisenes 
wilh another standard ainmetei which lias tlie scale niaiked m known quantities In 
tins series is also cannected a variable resistance and a battery oi some other source of 
cuiient supply The resistance is now adjusted to show 5 ampere on the standard 
ammeter and die position of the pamtei niaiked on the scale Cliar^e yniir resistance 
to all points and make the numbers until Ihe entiie scale is complete 

When the current flows tluai^h Ihe coil, the two liiuied strips af metal aie 
nu^iietised, and being magnetized by die same lines af foice Ihey are both of the 
same polanEy Like poles repel each olhei, and as the part Fig 4ls notmovable, the 
pailcanyir^ the pamler moves away The stionger tlie current, the greater the 
nu^netisni of the metal stirpR, and the farther apart tliey will be forced^ showing a 
gieatei defection a f the pamler —Contributed by George Hemirolh, Richmond Hill, L 
I 

How taMa]K3mEqiiatari3l[204| 

Condensed from article contributed by J R Cliapnian, F R A ^ Auslwick Hall W 

Yoiksliire England 

This slarfindei caneasilybe made by anyaite wlio can iise a few tools es the parts 
are all wood and the only laihe work necessary is the turned shouldei an the polar axis 
and this could be dressed and sandpapered tiue enough fai the purpose The base is a 
board 5 m wide and 9 in long wluch is fitted with an ordinaiy wood screw meach 
cainei for levelir^ Two side pieces cut with an angle equal ta the colatitude of the 
place aie naded to the base and on tap of them is fastened another board on wluch is 
marked the houi circle as sliowii The end of the polai hxis B, that lias Ilie end turned 
wiiha slioulder, is fitted ma liole baiedmthe center of Ihe liour circle The pslai hxis 
B Ls secured to Ihe board with a wooden collar and a pmmideinealh The upper end of 
die polai axis is filled with a iy4-m boards C, 5-1/2 m m diameter A timi compass caid 
drvided mto degrees is fitted on the edge of tins disk for die decLiiation circle 

The horn cucle A is lialf of a similai card wilh the hour marks divided into 20 
inmutes Anuide:i pomtei is fastened to the base af Ihe polar a:iis A pomter 12 m long 
15 fastened with a small bolt to the center of Ihe declination circle A small opeimig is 
made mtlie pomterinta which an a iduiary needle is uiserted Tins needle is adjusled to 
die degree to set the painter mdecLiiationand when set, Ihe pomteris clamped with the 
bolt al Ihe center Abmss lube havii^ a l'4-in liole is fastened to the pomter 

The fusttlui^ ta do LS ta gela hue N aiidS ineiidian niaik This can be 
approxuiiately obtained by a good compass, and allowance made far Ihe magnetic 
declination alyaui own place Secure a slab of stone oi some otliei sohd flatsuiface, 
level this and have it fiimly fixed facing due south wiiha line drawn lliroi^h the center 



aiidpul llie equaloiiEJontlie suifRce ivilhXIl ontlie SDulhend of liie line Then sel Ihe 
poiiitei D to Ihe decliiialioii of Ihe ob]ecl, say Venus bI Ihe date af obseivalioii YounDW 
wani lo know if tlus plenelis eeslor i^estaf yom mendiRnalthe liiiie of obseiualiDn 
The fallDwing foimula will show haw llusmEiybe foiuid To find a celeshal ob]eclby 
equaloiial Find Ihe planel VeiiU'3 Fvlay 31, I3SL, eiI9 hi 10 min A M Subbacl nghl 
ascensuinof pknetfiDm Hie bme shown by Ihe clock, llins 





houi 
1 


minute 

a 


second 



9 hi. IG min. shows mean s'dei?'^! 


Add 12 his 


12 








13 

L2 


10 
50 




R^hl ascension of Venns 




^ethour ciicle lo before inendian 
A^ain 


10 





At I hi 30 mui niejin clock shows 


5 


20 





Right ascension of Venus 


2 


10 







— 


— 


— 


^etliGur ciicle to 


3 


10 






Books inaybe found inlibianes tliat will give the nglitaiscension and declination of 
inosl of llie he Eive Illy bodies 
The fbcegoing lableg assume Ihalynuhave a clock laledto sidenal lime. 




HoDM-Mjilr l^uttDiul 



Honte-Mdde Equatonal 

butthw iR nol absolutely necessary If youcanobtamtlie planet':; dechnahonon Ihe day 
of observation andaisceitain wlien itw due isaulli, all you have lo do is lo setlhe poinler 
Dby tlie needle pamland note whethei Venus has passed yaiir ineiidian oi not and sel 
^ui haul index Tlieie will be no diiTiciillyui pcking up Venus eveninbi^hlsmihglit 
when the plant is visible lo Ihe naked eyt 

Electrii Light Turned On and. OfffromDiQeRntPhicei [20S| 



How nice it would be lo liave anelectiic hghtattlie turn ma slauway, oi at the lop 
tliat could be turned onbefoie staring up Ihe istair and on leachii^ tlie lop turned out, 
and vice 



?[im O' iL*"H 




Tie WlimB DI«B"°^ 

The Wmng Diagiam 

veii^B whciicDiiiuig dowii Tlie wini^ diagmiiias shown in liie illuslniliDn will make Ihis 
a pie aisaiil reality Tins ^vuiiig iiiRybe applied iii iimneious lite inslEinces Tlie eleclnc 
globe roEiybe located at any deuiied place aiidtlie two point switches ate connected in 
Irenes with the :30uice of ciinenlassliownui the sketch The l^hl maybe tinned an or 
aJT Eiteitherone of tlie switches — ContiibuledbyRobeit W HeiII, NewHaveii^ Conn 

HoH w Makt 4 Bunsfn CfJI [206] 

Tlustindof a cell piDduce:3 E[ liighe m f owing to Hie lowintemal ie:3L'3taiice Piacuie b 
gla:3? jai such a^ used foi a giavilybalteiy, oi, if one of lliese CEUioDtbe liad, getEi glazed 
vessel of smulMC a nstructian Toke a pece of sheet zinc iRige eiioi^h ^a that when ilia 
loUed upui the shiipe of b c^indei it will clear the edge of the ]E[1 by Eiboul 1/2 in 
lioldei El wiie orbuiding-post la the ei^e of Ihe cinder for a cannection 



,C<*fle»* 




Cios^ Section and Completed Cell 

IJecuie a smpill iinglazed veissel to fil inside af Ihe zinc, ai such a receptacle ns iisedui a 
:3al amnianiELC cell, and fill it wiiha shoi^ soluhonaf mine acid Fill tlie outei jaiwitha 
solution of 16 paits walei and 5 parls sulphiinc Bcid The comiections aie made from the 
zinc andcaiban 

C^ lic^l miuian [206] 



Can you tell ■wluchof tliese three fignies is the lalle^f' Make a gues^^ and then 
verify lis conecbiess by ineasutemenl. 







DiHlicn] I II Ullidl-^C Jrt yoj tril vhifh ol EIice« 
■ii<n irril^ lU (arcrcbiriB by irLEIinUEEillCILT. 



One W3; lo Co*k Fi<li [206] 

One of liie besi Eind easiesi wa^of cookii^ fish i^lule Dutcampng is loldby b 
CDnesponElenl af FoiestaiidSlieEim A fiie is built Ihe size foi Ihe ELiiiauiilof food la be 
cooked and Ihe wood allowed la buindaffii lo a gLaifuig inasg of coals and ashes Wash 
and season ^ui fish well and then wi'ap Ihentup ui clean, fieshgi'as^, leaves arbEiik 
Then, Pifler sciapmg Rit^y the gieoler perl of the caals, put Ihe fishanuii^ the ashe^, 
covei up with Ihe same, and heap tlie glowing coals an lop The fish coats quickly— 15 
ai 2D minutes— accordir^ to Iheu :3ise 

If y]u eal fish or game cooked Pifleitlus fashion you will agree that itcannalbe 
beaten by any me lliod known la cpimp culmmy isavanis ClEiyalso ELiisitfen; Ihe purpose 
af pialecliiig tlie fish or game fioni tlie fiie if na other material 1:3 atliand^ and fai 
anythii^ tliat requires mare time fai cooking it niEikea Uie besEcoveiing V/etpepei will 
aiiswei, especially fore aoking fish 

Hardfiiing Copper POd] 

A successful melhad of liardenmg copper is lo add I lb of Eilum and4oz aisemc lo 
every 30 lb of melted capper and sbr far iU nunules 



F4(king Cut fiom Fell Uiis [20d] 

Fell from an aid hnl mEikeis good psctrng for automobile walei-circulating pump; 
^Inps isliouldbe cnl la fitsm^ly m Ihe j^tufTii^box Wlienthe follower is screwed 
down, it will expend tlie felt and make a watertight joml 

Hamemade G^ivolme Fngine [1P6] 

The material usedui die canslruclianof Ihe geisoline eiigme, as ishowii mtlie 
accompanyu^ picture, was pieces found ma scmp pile IhnI usually occupies a fence 
earner onalmasi eveiy ferm The cyhndei consists of an old pumpcyhndei, 3^ m 
tliick, l-3'4m mside diamelerand Eiboul 5 in long Tliis wa:3 fEislened between some 
wooden blocks which were boiled an Ihe tool carnage of a latlie and Ihenboied out to 
diaioetei of abaut2 m Tlie baiir^ bar, F^ 1, consisledaf analdshnftwidiahole 



bored tliia;^li Ihe ceiilei and h loaluiseitedand lield fai each cut by a selscreiff A wood 
inaiuliel ffilh a inetRl shaft to tiunm Ihe ceiileisof el Ipllie wasniEide to fil Uie boied-oul 
c^iidei Tlie c^diiider wa:3 Jlien placed an Ihe mandiel, fRslened wiiha pui, and dueaded 
aiibalhends FLai^es weie next made from coupbr^p; discarded fromanoldhaiise- 
powei tumbbng loi to filoii Ihe tliieEided ends of Ihe c^^indei casting When these 
flai^e:3 weie t^hlLy screwed on Ihe castu^ and faced off smooth die whole presented 
tlie appearance af a Large spool 




Cai^lUtLq HomnDLBdr GjigIIde Enftha* 

Complete Homemade Gasoluie Ermine 

Tlie back c^dmdeiheEid was made from el piece of CELStuon, abaiit il2ui tluck, turned 
to Ihe ^ame diamelei as the flai^es, and with a smELll projection to fitisni^lyuiside the 
c^ndeibare Tivo lioles were Ihendnlledm llushead and tRppedfar3/4-in pipe Two 
pieces of 3f4-in pipe were filtedta these holes so tliat, when tliey were turned m, el 
^matl part of Ihe end of each ppe projected on Ihe inside of die cjiinderhead These 
pieces of p|K serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the mside eiuls to fbmi a 
VEdve seELt The oulLetfoi the exhELU3tand Ihe inlelfor the gas and an eltc through holes 
diilledui the side of each pipe respectively and lappsd for lll-m pipe Two head; weie 
tlien made to tit over the oiitei ends of tlie valve cages Tliese heads looked suiiilar to a 
tliiead spool with one flai^e cnlofT, the lemamii^ flange fittuig on the 




C^linOEP 



Steffi in P-^kuig Ihe Honie-l^'lade Gasoline Engine 



end of the valve CE^e and Ihe ceiitei e:i tending dawn inside to make a lor^ guide fbi die 



vpilue stems These heads are lieldui place by a wiought-iiDn plate and Iwo baits, one of 
wluchw plEiuilyshawn mtlie pictuie Tins plate also supports llie lactei Emus, Fig 2, 
and llie guides foiliie lods tliat opeiRle the valves Both valves ate meclianically 
a |K rated by one camahached to a shaft running one tuintD two of Ihe cranksliafl The 
gears to nin llussliafi were cut from solid pieces on a sioall liome-ioade geai-cntting 
atlaclunentfoi the latlie Eis shownui Fig 3 The geaian Ihe crankshaft has 30 teelh 
ineshing into a 40-taoth geai on the cam shafi 

The main jHitaf the frame coosisls of el piece af lO-m square iidq, 30 in long, bent 
in Ihe sliajK of a U. and ontlie outside of tins piece is nv'eled a bent piece of sheet metal 
I /Sin tluck hiidZ m wide The U-sliaped iion is placed neai one ei^e af the slieet 
metEil Tivo pieces of 3-1/2-m angle uonaie nvetedverlicallyon Ihe enrls of Ihe U- 
shapsd iron and h plate iiuetedon them la close the open end aiidta fanna face on 
which la atlach Ihe c^^indei wilh bolls or CEip screws A hale was cul lluai^h Ihe ai^le 
nans and piale Ihe same size as tliebore of Ihe c^iidei so the piston cauld be lakenaul 
witlioulremavir^ tlie c^duuler A l-in angle iron ivasnveledtD one side of the finished 
fiEime to niEike a suppoitfoi Ihe crankshaflbeEJing The roi^h 

fiEime, F^ 4, was then finished on an emery wheel Tlus loi^ fmnie had lobe made to 
acconunodale the ciasshead which was necessary foi such a shorl cylinder 

The piston and lad were screwed logetliei and turned m one operation ana lathe The 
three nr^s were made from an old cast- nan pulley Tlie cap screws were made from 
steel pump lads Apiece of this rod was centered ui a lEiIhe and turned so as la shEipe six 
ai more screws. Fig 5, tlienremov'edand the first one threaded and cutoff, Ihen the 
second and so on until all of them were made mto screws The rod was held ma vise for 
tlus last opemlian lituds weie made by llueaduig bath ends of a prapei lenglh lod 
PvlEite-and-breat igmlianis used on Lie ermine, liowev-ei, ajmupspaik would be much 
belter The flywheel and niixir^ vaK'e were purchased from a haiise dealing m Ihese 
parts The water]actetanthe cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered m place, 
andbrassbanrls putonta CO ve I the soldered jamis — ConliibuledbyPelei Jalmsan, 
Clermont, Iowa 

Dipping Cirburetar [20S] 

If gasoline dnps Sam Ihe caibuieloi when Ihe ei^ine is notnmiung, the needle value 
camiecled with the float should be inv'esligaled If tlie diippu^ slaps when the value is 
piessed down, Ihe flaalis too h^h If the value keeps dnpping, lhenilshould.be gioDiid 
tnafil 

A M«r7-C;o-R*iind Tlirillu [209] 




SwiT^ii^ on Ihe Ivferry-Go-FLound 

As a home mechanic wilh a fondness for amusu^ Ihe children 1 have seen many 
desciiplions of merry-go-rounds, bul iie\'er one which required so htlle mateiial, labai 
and bme, and winch gave such salisfac lory results, as Ihe one iliuptiated heiewilh II 



was eiecledmoui back ^id one afteniDon, flie lualeiiaLsbeiiig fuiniuhedby an 
accDniiaodaling loiober pile, aiid h liTtle jimk, Enidilha^ provided unlimited pleasuie 
foi "joy-ndeis," Lrtle andb^, froni aliovei Ihe neiglibaihood U looks like a Icy, bul 
once seat youiselfm it and begin la go Riouiid ani no niattei iwhat yarn age or size 
inaybe, ]fl)a will liave ma minute enoi^h Ihnll and excitement ia Inst the bfllance of 
the day 

Tlie lUoslraliDrL iRigely explnins itself, but a feiw dimensions will be a help to 
an]fl)ne itfisluQg to cansliucl the Eipparalus The upiighl is a 4by 4-in luober, sel 3 ft 
in the giDund wilhS ft extendi!^ Eibov'e It is braced an faiii sides with pieces 2 m 
square aiid2 fl tai^, buttir^ against sliDitslakes The upper end of Ihe past is ipaund 
with a fewroonds af wue ai an iron strap ta pie^'enlsphttir^ The crosspiece is 2 in 
squELie, 12 ft long, stier^tlienedby a piece 4ui square and 5 ft long These tioa 
pieces luuslbe securely bolted ai spiked together A laalleRble uanbott, 3/4 in m 
diameleiand 15 in lai^ is the pn'ol On this depends the safelyof the CDntiivEince, so 
il mu^tbe slror^ enough, Riidlong enough to keepfiimlyintlie post Dnv'e this boll in 
a 3/E-in hole bored in Ihe post, wluch will inate ita siiiTicienUy lighlfil Klake the 
hole fai Ihe ball veiy loose through liie ciosspiece, so tlial there will be plenty of 
"wobble," as tins is one of tite mnlh-niakii^ featuies of llie machine Use a heRvy 
WRslieial Ihe head The seals are regnlRi swing baaidp, supported by a sloul and 
serviceable rope A 3M-in rope is not too lieav-y One sel of topes Rie passed thioi^h 
lioies ht Ihe end of the ciosspece and knotted on lop Tlie olher set should be provided 
wilh loops ht Ihe lopar\d slid over the ciosspiece, being held in position by spikes as 
shown This mates Ein easy ad] iislmenl Seal Ihe heavieiof the ndeis on the lalleiseal, 
inovTT^ if fowaid the cenTei until a balance wilhllie hghfei iideiis reached A rope 
tied lo the crosspiece pboul 2 fl from the center, for the "motive power" 1o grasp, 
completes the meny-ga-raiind 

Patplenly of SQEip (jr grease between Ihe ciosspiece and upr^hl Be sine To have 
room for Ihe ropes to swii^ out at h^h speed, with no Dees or buildups m Ihe way 
The "wobble" menhaned will give Ein agreeable undulating motion, it'hich adds 
gieatly to Ihe flying sensation Tlus will be found surpnsir^ly evident for so small a 
machine As Ihere is no biacu^, care must be laken to have Ihe Iwa ndeis sit at the 
same moment, or the iron ball will be bent oat of line If il is to be used for Eiduils, 
sirong cleEumRteiial only should be employed — ConDibutedby C W Nienian 

How (• Molv and FI7 a ChnunKiK |210| 

The Clunese boy is not salistied with simply holding the end of a kite stiiiig and 
iiumii^ up Eind down Ihe block 01 field tiying to raise a hepvy paper kite with a half 
pound of i^s for a lail He makes a kite as hghl eis possible wilhoul any tml which has 
llie peculiai piopeity of beii^ Pible to move meveiy direction liomelunes Einexpstl can 
make one of these kites Imvel across Ihe wind for several hnndredfeet, m fad, I have 
seenbo^ a full block apeilbimg Iheu kites together and engage 




Paite of a Cluitese Kile 



ma comb flI Dull] one of Ihfii kile^ flDdledawEiywilh a broken siiuig, di was ponctuied 

by Ibe swift dives of Ihe Dtlicr, and iseiitio ewlh, a wieck. 

The Cluiieac boy iiiakca Ins kile aa fallows 

Fiam a aheel of Ihiiibul loi^h basue paper Pibaut lU in squEue, loliich he folds aiid 
cutu along llie dotledliiie, eis isliownmFig I, he gels a perfeclly sqniire kile hiivii^ all 
llie papeities of a good tlyei, hghl Pind aboi^ He shnpei; two peces of barabao, one for 
llie beictbone aiidoiie fai Ihe bow The backbone isflat, IMbySO^in aiid 
ISmlang This lie smews along one side wilhcammon bailed iice Boiled nee is one 
af tlie besi adhesi^'es for use onp^pei Ihal CEinbe oblained Eiiid tlie Chinese hnve uised if 
foi centimes wlule ice aie jusl wakuig up la the fact tliat il niEites fine photo paste 
Having placed Ihe backbone in position, paste Iwo liiai^iilai peces of piipei over Ihe 
ends of the istick to pe\'ent lepiiing The bow is now bent, and Ihe li^s eKtendii^ fiam 
tlie aides of tlie square poperaie bent avei the ends of the bow and pasted down. If the 
lice IS quite diy oi mealy it can be :3iueEiied an and will diyalmoat immediately, 
tlieiefoie no utiii^s are needed la liold Ihe bow bent while the paste drieu 

Aflei the sticks Eue in posilion Ihe kite will appeal Pia sliownui Fig 2 The dotted lines 
uliow tlie li^u bent over tlie ends af tlie baw Euid pealed dawn F^ure 3 ahows haw Ihe 
band is put an and how the kite isbpilanced This is the moat mipoitani pait and cannot 
he eaplained veiy well Tlu:3 muatbe done bye:ipsniuentii^ Eind il la enough to aay tlial 
tlie kite inu'jt balance perfectly Tlie simig la fastened by a shp-krkot la the bpind and 
moved back and faith uiilil the kite fhes pnipeily tlien ittj securely fastened 

A leel IS iieKlmEide Twa ends— the bottoms of twa :3iuall peach baakeli; willdo--aie 
fastened to a dowel utick aibiooin liandle, if notlui^bellei la at hand Tliese end; Eire 
placed abaut 14 in apart and ships nailed between Ihem as shawii inF^ 4, and tlie cen- 
ters drawn m Eind bound wilh a atiii^ The kile stii^ used is generelly a heffhy pecking 
thiead This is iim thioi^h a tlun floui or iice peale until it is tliaiai^hly coated, then il 
IS iim thioi^h a quantity of ciuslied glai^a The glEiss should be bcEilen up fine and run 
tluougha fine aieve ta make itaboul the isaine asNa.2 enieiy The peiticleu slioiildbe 
ei:tieinely sliaipand full of splinteis Tliese particles adlieie la the pasled atiii^ and 
when dry are uo isliarp that il cannot be handled witlioul screlcliing- the fii^eis, therefore 
tlie kite IS flawii enlirelyfram Ihe reel To wind Ihe string upan Ihe leel, all llialiu 
necesisaiy lu la lay one end af tlie reel slick in the bend of Ihe lefl earn and twirl Ihe olhei 
endbelweenthe fii^eiu of the light hEind 

A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colared htlle kite fioin the loaf of a house (if it 
be in one of the lEuge cities where tliey liffh'e flat-ioofed liauseu) and a second boy will 
appear on the roaf of Einalheihause perhaps 20D ft away Both have large reels full of 



ijtnr^, often seveial hmulied yaids of il The fusi hundred feel aiso i:3 glaas-CDveied 
ijtiir^, llie balEiiice, cominon pecking Ihiead^ ai glpis-caveied stiii^ Au soon eis Ihe 
isecoiid boy lias his tile alofl, he begue raanem'eni^ la dii^'e il Bcroua Ihe wiiid Eind over 
Id Ihe first kite Firsl, he pa^ out a kige amaniil of slnr^, Ihertds Ihe kite wobbles Id 
one ade with its iiose poiiilu^ loivaid tlie fiisl kite, he l^hlens his hue aiid commences 
a steady quiet pull If poperly done his kite classes ovei to the otliei andabov'e il The 
stiuig IS UDW pe^d Dul until the second tile ls hailing ovei Ihe firsi one's hne The 
windnoLC lends lo lake tlie second tile bact la its p^idllel and mso doii^ mates a Inrii 
aboul Ihe first kite's string If llie second kile is close enough, llie firsI tries lo spear luin 
byswifl dives Tlie second boy in Ihe meanlinie is see-sawii^ his stiiiig andpesenliy 
llie firsI tile's atiii^ is cul Pind ildnfts away 

It is not considered spoil to liaui Ihe olhei fellow's tile down as might be done ond 
llieiefoie a veryuileiesting boltle is oflen witnessed when Ihe CKpeils cleish Iheir kites — 
ConlribuledbyS C Buiiter, Brooklyn, N Y 

Haiiw-MadFVhF[211] 

Anoidinarymontey wrench tlial lias been discarded is used in niaku^ lliis vise The 
wrench is suppoiledby Iwo L-sliaped peces of uan fastened wilh 




A BHJinI Broch Vin 

A Swivel Bench Vise 

a iwet lliiDugh Ihe eiid]aio, ond these in turn are boiled or screwed lo the bench The 
liarulle end is lield down with a slaple The inside jaw is used inckmping and is 
opemled wilhllie lliuiub screw of Ihe wrench Two holes bored Ihioi^h Ihe lliuiub piece 
willgieady focihlEite setlu^ up the ]aws lighdyby usu^ a sniEill rodm Ihe lioles as a 
le\'ei 

The vise maybe made into a swing vise if Ihe wrench is mounted on a board which is 
swung on a boll al one end and held with a pin at tlie otiiei as shown in the lUustralinn. 
Various lioles boied in Ihe bench on an arc will permil Ihe board Id be set at any angle 
--Contiibuled' by HanyS ^fcody, Newbiiiyport Mass 

Hanu-hLid« Chuiging Big for PbK HaUtrs [212| 

A good bag foichangir^ plates and loadir^ ptale holders and one thai Ihe operalnr 
can see well to work m can 




t -y , -'-: '^^ 



:d:v 



r- I 



'- » 



"Fi^ 




Dun f-halCLlC*!' 

, , WllM 4-a9E 



-H^F i:« HC4E 



^■1ade of Black Cactibiic 



be made byanyDne on a sewing machine Ten ysids of black cambiic or Dlhei black 
clolhand a Lrtle lubyfabnc wiUbe leqmied Tate Ihe cambnc aiid fold il mio 2-yd 
lei^dis (Ftg 1) niuch wall make five layeis of clolii, tack DifR^leii die la^rs Ic^elher 
:30 they wall nol slip and cat an S -in square liole mthe middle af one half (F^ 3) and 
isewthe ruby febnc Dvei tite apenii^ Be suie and make Ihe seam Lghl-lighf Riidha^'e 
eiiDi^h IflyeK of lubyfabnc :30 na wlute light can get m Fold the ctalhupso il will be 
I yd squflie (F^ 3) and :3ewu|: the edges to make a bag with one ^ide open Put n 
diawRtimg m the ei^e of the clotli around the open side and the bj^ is caniplele leady 
for upe 

Tate Ihe holders and plalebo:ies inflie Ihp and put the bng over the liead Riiddowii 
aromid the body, then draw the stiing up light AbRg made npuitlus mamiei is for 
upe oidyfai h ^liDittime If it is necesisary to do coosideiable work ala lime, then h 
diisl pialectai, such a:3 mill men use, must be attached lo a 3-fl lei^th af 2-m rubber 
liDse and Ihe hose luii tluai^lia hole ui Ihe bj^ This willmEike it possible Id work m 
the bj^ as Idi^ as ynu wish -Contiibutedby Eail R Hashngs, Coimth, Vt 



H<pnu-M4d.e Asbestos Tiblr P^ds [212] 



Asbestos table pads lo prevent Ihe maning of polished lable taps fiam heated dishes 
can be easdy made at home much cheaper limn Ihey can be bought Procure a sheet of 
asbestos fiom h plumbu^ shap and culituithe shape af Ihe tap af yaui lable If Ihe 
table IS louiid, make Ihe pad as sliowiim the illustration, cnltii^ Ihe circular piece mtn 
qiiarleis Cut foui pieces of canton flannel each the sise of half Ihe lable top Two of 
the asbestos pieces are used Id make one-half of the pad Place Ihe two pieces wilh 
their edges iDgethei so they will fomi half a circle disk and cover bolh sides willia 
piece of tlie Qaiuiel and puithem in place Abinding af while coltan tape is then 
basted aiound the edges la haldallthe pieces togethei until they ate stitched on a 
sewir^ niaclune A line of machine stilchir^ is made allaranndlhe onlside and 
tlirongh Ihe middle 




Pods Mode of Ashe^los 



betiffeeiiitflieie Ihe edges of the Rsbeslos sheels jam logelher Tliis will fonit a lunge 
so the tiwo qaaileis niEiybe folded foi puttir^ away Mate Ihe otiier lialf cucular disk 
III Hie same way If leaves Rie WEUitedui ei:Jeiidir^ the lable, any iiumbei of pads can be 
inade to covei liieinin Hie same maiinei with Hie hinge intlie middle of eachptid Tlie 
flannel is used with Ihe nEipside Dutsa il will make Ihe ptid soft and noiseless Tluskind 
af a pad furnishes peifecl pralecQan la Hie table frDoi anyheRlor maistiue -Cantiibuted 
byH E. Whaifan, Oaklaui. Calif 



How n Molv n L^Aits' Handbag [213] 



To make Ihisbag, gel n piece af Russian calf modelii^ lealliei A shade of btownis Ihe 
beslas if does not soil easily and does not lequiie caloiii^, which spoils the leafhei ef- 
fect 

The dimensians of Ihe foUsiaedbag are from A la B, 17-1/2 in , froinC la D, lfi-1/4 
m ,fioinEla F,9-IM m . G to H. 6-lJ4in . and E to G. 3-lMin 

Enlaige Ihe accompanyii^ pelteiii to the given dimensions, liace Ihis or same alhei 
appropiiale des^n on it, and Ihencatfhe lealheitlie sise af Ihe pattern 

Use a spai^e to dampen Ihe leather on the lai^h side, not so damp tliat the wafer will 
came fhroi^hfo Ihe light side when workup, but damp enough la allow the design to 
be well impressed 




PjHtjii 



PaHein 



an Ihe leather Use a smoolli, nan-absoibenfsuiface fo lay Hie leafhei on while at wort 

Naw lay Ihe paltem on the nghf side of the leatlier and with Ihe smalleslendof the 
leather fool or a shaip, hand pencil, trace Ihe design carefully on the lealhei Fvloislen Hie 



leather as 




Deilgii DTI ihn Luihar 

De:3ignGii Ihe Leallier 

aflenasnecessaiy Id keep it sufTicienfly moist lo wotk well Trace Ihe apeiiings foi Ihe 
liEuidles, fllso line:; A-G, H-B, aiidE-G, G-J, and CDnespoiuluig liiiei; on the othei side 

Remove patleinand troce Ihe design dueclly on Lealhei wilhlhe lomidpomlof loo], 
until it IS made dislmcland inmMkedcantia^tlo the leistaf tlie lealiier Do Dolmake 
j^haip iiiaik:3 bill iDuiid the edges af the Lues nicely, wilh Hie rounded side:; of Ihe tools 

To complete Hie bRg, getsomeHiii^ wilh which to make a limng Apiece of oozed 
leatlieris Uie nioslsatisfflclaiy CulitUie same sise a^ Ihe bag, place bath togeliier and 
with a leather piuicli, make hales all Eiraimd Ihe ei^e of Ihe bag about I^E m Eipart Cut 
ant the leather for tlie handle openings CEire should be tnten not to cut Hie holes tao 
near Hie edge of Ihe bE^ lest Hie liicing puUoul Now cut nana w thongs, about l'3 m 
wide, and lace through the hales, lacu^ the sides of the end pieces m wiliithe sides of 
the bag Ciease Hie lines A-G aiidB-H uiwordfoi ends afbag. 

R«nunin« Wire liisiiLitiDn [213] 

The claw of a hammer can be used fai reniovii^ tlie uisnlalian on copper wire, if nol 
moie tlian 1 m is taken off ata time 

A Small Fkttrif Monr [214] 

The diawing he re wilh sliows a smiple eleclnc motor which can be easily conslnicled 

byanyboy wha is at all liandy with tools I made Ihis malor 




Eieclio-ZvlEignet Ivfctai 

inaay liiiies when a boy and can say tlial if care fully caiisliuc led il will run with giealer 

rapidilytliantlie mote expensive ones 

A caminon magnet which CEinbe puicliasedal Einy toy stare is used The one ishownis 
3-l/2m inlengUi The annatuie coie w a sinpof Iflflby 1/4-ui iroii^2-W4m long, 
bent U-shaped EindfaslenedtD Ihe wood flywheel Each leg af the armature w wound 
withlOfl ofNo 24 gai^e magnet wire The commutaloi t3 niEide frani an old 2? 
caitiii^e filed mla two equal parls, eRch being h lialf circle, bath of wluch Eue made fagf 
to a collar on the sliaflE Eachhalf of Ihe coniniutalor ninslbe uisulRled from Ihe alher 
hEilf Tlie collar CEinbe made by wrappi^ paper aioimd liie shaft until the lequiied siae 
IS obtained 

The top end of the shaft runs ma hole boied ma brass support, B, wluch is screwed 
an Ihe end of a pece of woadniDrh^ed mthebaise, as sliownui Fig I The lower end of 
tlie shaft iiins ma glasisbefld, D, which is faslened la a ismallpece ofbrnsi; with seEJu^ 
wax The small brasg piece IS faslened ta the bRse withscrewi; The bead sliouldnot 
hEive an eye laigei ui diametei Ihan tlie shafi Tlie shaft is made from Ein old disc Eirded 
kmtlii^ needle The brushes are faslened to each side af Ihe upright piece af wood 
supparluig Ihe brass beEinr^ B 

The caimecliDns Id Ihebfltteiy aie shawnmF^ 2 Eachhalf af the commutalorC is 
camiecled to the coils AA ELS shown mF^ 1 —Cantnbuledby J M Shannon, Pasadena, 
CEiiif 



Mating 3 Coin Under 4 dmsa [7141 

Place El pemiyoi h dime on a lableclalh, laivel ar napkm and cover il D\'ei wilh a 
glassin^ocha way Ihatlhe gla?s will resl upon two 25 oi 50 cenlpeces f\s shoivii mihe 
gbelch The com is made to came forth wiiha lit tone lung itarslidii^ a slict midei Ihe 
edge of Ihe glass It is only necessaiyto claw Ihe cloth neai Ihe glass wilh the nailof llie 
foiefinger 



in 




""""^^ 


1 1 ^j 1 


1^-" _;-5^ 


Sg 





EffDITVJDg lllf COLIl 

Remo^^llg Ihe Cam 



Tlie clolh will produce a mavemenl Ihal willislide tlie com la Ihe edge and fioinuodei 
the 



In^roviiigPhoiio^^h Sound [214| 

Whenptayuig laiid and harsh lecoids on n phoiiogiaph the music is of^ii spoiled by the 
vibialioii of Ihe melal liom This inaybe lemedied by buckling b valise Dishmvl isti'ap 
around Ihe honi^ neat the center 



Htm » Makf Psiper BstOums |215| 

BeJIdoiis made spheiiced, Dides^nedaflei Ihe legiilRi aeionaufi; ha l-air balloon^ Eue Ihe 
best kind Id make Tlioise hEivu^ anaddai unusual shape mil not niEike good 
a:3ceiisians, aiidm niasi cases Ihe papei wili catch fire fiointlie lorch and bum before 
tliey liave flown veiyfai Tlie follDwir^ descnplian is fai making h tissue-paper balloon 
aboutfi ft lugh 




;— "* 



^V 



^r, 



Papri HiIIhhi 

Papei Balloon 



^.t\ ! 



ri4,f 

rBllPcK Bod Pii'B lu HnL« BALIcan 

Pattern and Porlu tn Make Ballnnn 




Fifl* 



The pnpsr maybe selected m several color's. Find tlie gaies cut from these, pRsledm 

allemalely, will produce a prettyairay of colore wlien tlie balloon is m fl^hl The shape 
of a gGodbEilloon is sliownui Fig 1 The gores foi a 6-ft balloon should be about S fl 
long or about one-thud longer than the heighlof Ihe balloon The wideslptutof each 
goreislflm Tlie widestplace shauldbe 53-1^ m from Ihe bottom end^ oi a Lttle ov-er 
hnlf way from the bottom to tlie top The bottom af the goie is one-third the width of Ihe 



wideslpDinl The dimensions aiidshape of eRchgaie aie shown uiF^ 2 

The bEillDonis made up of 13 gores pasted logetliei, usu^ aboul 1^3-111 lap an Ihe 
ei^e:3 Any good pflsle will do— one llialis uiEide up of fknuand walei well cooked will 
:3ei\'e tlie piupose If Ihe gores lia\'e beenpiillagetlier I'^ht, tlie pcmledenEls will close 
up Ihe lop eiiliielyand Ihe wider boftoni ends will leave Einopenii^ about 30 in in 
diametei A l^hl wood hoop lievir^ Ihe seme dinmeler rs tlie openii^ is ptisledto Ihe 
botlomend of the gaies Two ciass wires Rie faslened to Ihe hoop, as shown inF^ 3 
Tliese are Id hold the wict ball. Fig 4, sa il willliang as shawninF^ 5 Tlie wict bpill 
IS made by winding wicting around a wire, hnvu^ tlie ends bent iiifa lioabsas sliowii 
The balloon IS filled with hat air in a mannei smiilar lo tlial used with tlie oidinaiy 
cloth balloon A smEiU tienchoifiieplELce is made ofbnck havii^ a chimney avei which 
tlie mouth of Ihe pa per balloon is placed Use fuel Ihnl will make heat with veryhltle 
smoke Hold Ihe balloon so it will notcalch fue Qani tlie flames comuig out of Ihe 
cimnney Ha\'e same alcoliol ready lo poui on tlie wickbEill, saluialuig it Ihoioi^lily 
When Ihe balloon is well filled cany it a WEiyfiani tlie fueplRce, atlach Ihe wick ball lo 
tlie cross wues and light il 

In staituig the balloon on lis flighl, lake care that il leaves Ihe giaimdas neatly upnghl 
as possible —Contributed by R E Staunton 

A Sin^k SiFui^oal Model [116] 

The small boa I shown m Ihe ELCCompfliiying skelch may liav-e a ler^lhof 12 to 13 m Find 
IS conshucled mthe fallawii^ mamiet A small steam boiler. A, is suppoiledby two 
bmces ovei Ein alcohol lamp mthe middle of Ihe boat A small pipe is fastened lo the lop 
of the boilei m such a way that Ihe open end will be opposite Ihe open eiidof analhei 
pipe, B, somewhat hugeimsise The pipe B apens mta the stem of theboRlatC, as 
shownmF^ 1 The steEini, coniu^ tliTDUghthe sniallp|K A, is dnvenfbtciblytliiDngh 
tlie laigeipipe B, Rndcaiiies wilhila ceilain flnioimt of elu out through the openu^ C 
into Ihe WRlei As Ihe boat is dnven fonvani by tins force, Ihe sleani aiises lo the surS^ce 
in the faim of bubbles The boal soon attains considerable speed, leEivu^ a lar^ wake 
behind 





F f. E 



Srclumil Vitw tad Complf led But 

Sectional View and Completed Boal 
To Rvrntme Credit fronn Michintiy [2Id] 

A good way to leniave giease oi oil from machinery before paining is la brush slaked 

lime and watei oveitlie surface, leading Ihe solution onovein^hl Afler waslung, the 
nan IS dried Find tlie pamt will slick lo it leadily 

In removing grease from wood, canmian wlute wash maybe left on foi a few hours 
and Ihen washed gJT with ivELiin water, aflei which Ihe piiml will adhere |KmiELnenlly 

AGanuPhytdonlhelie [21d] 



TwD Liie:3 are diflwnpeialleloiitlie ice fiom 50 la lOQ fl Rpflitaiidblockp; af wood 
are placed every 6 fl apail on tliese line^ Tlie plRyeropemi^ the game states lo llie liiie 
aiid deliver, mbowlu^ fDnii, a sliding black sunilar to tlie blacks tliatare placed on the 
lines with llie exception lliEttit lias E[ liandle Tlie blocks aie about d in ffidebydin 
li^h EuidS HI long The sLdii^ blocks shouldbe at leasl 1 fl long and each piovided 
with a liandle The handle k attached by boiing a liole iieai one endm die middle of the 
block and d^^^l^ m a ivoodpin Tlie hole isboied slanting so ns to mcline tlie lianrlle 
Two of Ihese blocks are piovided for Ihe leason Ihal iffhena pla^rboivk one of die 
opposing pla^ffir's blocks m'ei llie line he is entitled to another lluaw Tlie side wins dial 
bowls ov-ei all of the opposir^ 



6lidin^ &loCk, 




Bowing Ovei Ihe Opponent's Blocks 

player?' blocks first This will [Have aninteieslii^ andenjo^^ble pastime far skaters 

Moldflg FL»lD .^louettf Bra«« FLi^ufs [217] 



Secure a brass [iaie liaving a smooth smface Ihe light sise for the pliologiaph and 
CD\'eril with a coal of paiaiTm This is done by healii^ Ihe paiaffin in a vessel lial 
eiiai^h lo make Ihe wax iiui freely, llien pouniig the hqnidovei the enliie surface of the 
bipss 

Whenllie paiafimhas cooled sufficiently Ihe oullines of the pliologmphmuslbe 
diawii upon its smface Tliere are tliree wsys of doii^ Una FitjI, the photogiapli can be 
traced on tiaaue papei and then retraced on the paraffui smface Tlie exact oullines of Ihe 
pholograpli can be oblainedtlus way wilhoul deslioyuig the prmi Second, if you have 
seveial copes of Ihe pholograph^ one can be utilised by tiecir^ direct to the surface of 
llie pemfiin In iiaii^ either of the two inetliods described, carbon paper niualbe placed 
on IliE paieffm before Ihe tissue paper or pholograpli is laid upon il Thini cul out the 
outhnes of tlie pliologiaph and lay it on Ihe paraffin surface, then trace aiaund the ei^es 
widi Ihe pomtof a needle oi sliaip poinl of a knife The oullines dmwii by the firsl 
method aie cuttluough Ihe peiaiTui mtlie same way The paiaiTin is carefully removed 
from the inside of tlie lines, leaving the brass smface perfectly clean, as is shown mF^ 
I 

The expasedpailof Ihe plate is now leady to be etched or eaten away lo die r^hl 
depth wilh acid The acid solubanis made up of l-H] parts raunalic acid and 2 paits 
water The mixlure should be placed m p glass oi earthenware 




pit. 1 

Warns fill" PlJir 

Fig. 1 Waxed Bras^ Pkle 

vessel If Ihe pkle IS a umalloiie a saucer will ±1 foi Ihe acidsolntioii Poui the acid on 
llie plate where Ihe paiafTui liau been lemoved aiid allow iltiiiie to etch Tlie acid should 
be leiiiDved eveiyfive miiiules to ezamiiie Ihe elclimg If any places sliai*' up wlieie Ihe 
peipirin lias not been entirely lemcTh'ed they niuslbe cleaned so Ihe acid will eatoul Ihe 
metal Wlien Ihe Mid psoIuIidii be comes weak new solutianmuslbe added until Ihe 
piDpeideplh is secuied Rinse the plate m cold loaler, slandui a tray Eind heat it 
uuiTicienlly Id runoff all the paraffin Pahuh the plate by nibbuig il with fl piece of 
flamtel 




Fig. 2 Finished Plaque 

The plaque can be giv'ena iseJ Eintique finish by painlii^ the etched pari wilh a doll 

black piuit DiiUa sniEdl hole m each of Ihe four cornel's, being careful nol to dent the 

metal The plaque is backed wilh a piece of wood 3M in thick, Ihe dimensions of which 
isliould exceed tlioise of Ihe brpiss plate j^ufTicienlly Id haimomze with the siae af the 
plaque The WDod islioiildbe pointed block with die same ptiint used in Hie plaque PamI 
Ihe hepidj of four thumb lacks black and use them infEislening the plaque lo Ihe board 
The fimsliedsilliauetle will appepuas sliownm Fig 2 — CDnlribuledby JdIui A 
Hellw^. Albany N.r. 

AligiiiiigAuloiiMbilt HtadligliiiE [217] 

Automobile lieadhghls should be set to Ihraw Ihe l^hl shaighl ahead, notpomled 
down at the laad at an ar^le 

Tfbvfopf Stind qnd HfrUtr |218] 

With Ihe ordinaiy small telescope itis veiy difiicull lo keep Ihe line of sighlfiKed 



upon any pfliticular abject Ta ineel Ihe situRluml caiislmcled Ihe 




Fie 1 F^ ^ 

^^de af a Camera Tnpod 

device lEusliRledheiewitli A ciiculat pece af wood, B, 6 in in diamelei, is faslened 
to h caiiunDn camera Inpod, A, wiiha set:3cieiff, !i Coiner uons, CC, aie scieiwed lo 
the cuculai piece These cainei uaiis ere also screioed lo, and supported in a veilical 
posihon by Ihe iffaod standard D, winch k 4 in wide and af any desired lieiglil To 
tins standard IS secored Ihe iffoad slueld-sliaped pece Eby Ihe screw G apon loluch it 
tiiiiLS A senu-circular slit is cutm Ihe ptece G, Ihioi^h winch passes the set screw S 
The telescops is secured lo Ihe pece G by means of the pips straps FF Rubber bands 
are putatoimd the telescope lo peveiil lubbii^ attlie places wliere the straps enclose 
It 

Tlie WDodpeces were made of mahogany well rubbed wilh linseed oil la give them a 
finish The comer nans end sel screws or bolls wilh Ihmiib-nuts can be poichaaed al any 
liardware slore The ppe straps af differeni sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or 
gas and steam fi.tlei's stare Withtlus device, eilher a vertical ai a honzonla] motion 
maybe secured, and, after bnngir^ Ihe desired ob]ecl uiTo tlie line of s^hl, the set 
screws will hold Ihe telescope in position Aii^iie awou^ a tiipodcan construct lliis 
device inthiee or (bur liouis' lime at a trifling cast InF^ I is shown Ihe side view of 
the liolder and stand, and F^ 2 the ftont\^ew 

It maybe of mlerestta tliose awnu^ telescopes witliout solai eyepeces lo know 
tlialsuchan eytpece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pan of coloied 
eyeglasses wilh very dark lenses and metal rmis Breat oJTihe frame, leavTi^ the 
melal rmis andmbs at each end Place Ihese aveithe eyepiece of the telescope and se- 
cure in place wilhnibbei bands looped over the nibs andaiaiind tlie baiiel of Ihe 
uislrumenl —Contributed by R A Pame, Richmond, V a 

How t« Mike qn Fbctikal Horn [21 S] 



liecure an empty syrup or fiuilcan, aiiytmd having a sniaolh flat bottom will do If 

the bottom is not peifeclly flat, il will mietfere with the regulai lone vibrations, and 
nolptodoce the [^hl sound Remove the labelbysoakir^ itniliol water Take an 
oidiiipiy electrical bell and remove the gong, cLp off the sinking ball and bend the rod 
al r^hl angles Cul ablock of wood 3J4 m tinck, 5 in wideandSm loi^ foi Ihe 
base Fasten the can on il with a pece of sheet biass or 




Tin CjD tai B(|] P«r!B 

Tin Can and Bell Paris 

tin as shown m the skelcli Mouiil Ihe bell vibiRlor an the base, usuig h :3niE[U black of 
wood la elevate itta the level of the ceiilei of the can, Riid salder the eiid of the 
vibialor nid ta the loetal 

Conned two diy cells to Ihe bell vibiEilar, and adjust the cantoct screw until a clear 
tone IS abtauied Tlie mpidly inovu^ amiEiliJie of Ihe bell vibmtoi CEiiJues Ihe bottom of 
tlie can to'h'ibrate with it, thus prodiicii^ sound wpiv'es The pitch of tlie lane depends an 
tlie tlucknesu of the bottom of the can This liani^ if carefully adjusted Eind using two 
cells of diybatteiy, will gp'e a sofl pleasEinttane Uiatcanbe heard a block Bway If the 
twa projeclii^ jhiIs of the vibratoi Eire sawed off with a hacksaw, itcpinbe mounted on 
tlie inside af tlie can This wiUmEike a very compact electric lioin, eis anly Ihe CEinis 
visible -Cantiibuledby JohnSidehuier, Lei lialle. 111. 

Driving aWasliing Machiiif with Man riyclr Power [2I9| 

The halftone illustiatian sliows how I nggedup my washir^ maclune to be diivenby 
the power from iny motorcycle I made a wheel 15 m in diameter of some 1-in pine 
boands, slinuik an iron band an it foi a tiie, Eind bolted it to tlie wheel on the washing 
maclune A long belt the same width ai? the matoicycle belt wets used to drive tlie 
maclune The matarcycle wets hiiedup and the enguie stEirted, then the motorcycle belt 
tluown off and the loi^ belt run on, comiecting tlie engme Eind washir^ machine wheel 
-I R Kidder, LEile Preston, S D 




Hj[|iLii« D<l«d ra ilic i1 £i(Mr i^^i jH 

MEichine Belted to Ihe ^fctorcycle 



Homt-Mad* Aquuiunn [219] 

A good aquanum CEinbe mEide from a lEirge-sized istieel lamp globe Eind a yellow pine 
block UsuEiUy a himp globe costs less tluin an aquaiiiun globe of tlie same dimensions. 



Piociue a yeUaitf pine block 3 in Ihick aiid 12 in squme The moie uneven aiid Imsled 
llie giain Hie betler foi Ihe puipase. 




Fit I l-lft.91 

Lamp Uidbr n AH AquBrLum 
Lanip Globe as an Aqnaniun 

lit; Ihenlesi; liPible 1o develop a caiilinuDDS ciack 

Culoul El depresisiDnfDr Ihe base af the globe au slioivii m F^ I Poiu iii Eiquanmn 
cemenl aiid embed Ihe globe mil Poui moie cemeni mside of Ihe globe iinhl Ihe ceiiieiil 
IS le^'el wilh Ihe lop of llie block Fuush with a ni^ of cemenl aioiind Ihe outside and 
upnnkle wilhfuie isaiid while Ihe cement lu dump Feel maybe Eidded lo llie base if 
desued The weight of Ihe piie block meke^ a'h'eiy aohd Eind subslaiiliEil baue for the 
globe and renders illess liable lobe upset --Conliibuted by James R. Kane, 
Do^slown, Pa 

ProiKtYoiiiLnlhe[21»] 



Nevei alloLC laid oil la liarden on b lallie 
FraimtforDiEphiyii^BolhAUtiE of Coins [220] 

His quite impoitant for com collectors lo have same convement way to 




r-A? 



Holdup Coins betioeen Glasses 

uhowboth sides of coins wilhaul louchii^ oi handling them If Ihe colleclioncansisis af 
only El few coins, lliey canbe anai^ed ma fmnie as shown m F^ I The frame is niEide 
af a heEivy caid. A, F^ 3, Ihe same tluckness eis Ihe coins. Find co\'eied avei on each 
side wiiha piece af glass, B Halesaie culm Ihe CEmi to receive Ihe cams C The fmnie 
IS placed on bearings so ilmEiybe turned avei lo exEimine both sides If Iheie is a laige 
collection af cams, the frEime CEinbe made m Ihe SRine mamier and used f\s drawers ma 
CEibmet The diaweis CEinhe taken out and tmiiedovei — Contributed by C Purdy, 
G-hent O 



How to Makt Lanlom Slidn [220] 



A gieRloiany peKons who have iiiRgic lEinlenis do naluse lliem very much, far aflei 
llie slides have been sliowna fei* tiiies, Iheybecome iminleieislmg, aiidbuyir^ new 
ane^ oi even making Iheni fiDm phalogiaphic iiegRlives is expensive Biitby Ihe melhod 
described intlie fallDwing peragiapli RiiyDne can make new Eiiid mteiesling slides ma 
fewminules' time PindatEi very small cast 

lieciiie a number of glass plRlesof the size that will fil your lantern and clean Hieinon 
both sides Dissolve el pece of wlute msinin h lialf-pntof gasaLiie and flaiv itoveione 
:3ide of the plates Eiiid allow to diy Place tlie dried plate over a pctuie you wish ta 
repiaduce anddiaw the aiithne upon the thin film A lead pencil, pen aiiduil or coloied 
cra^ns can be used^ as the losmand gasoline give a i^ijilace tliatcanbe wiitlen upanas 
eosily as upon paper Wlien llie shde becomes umnleieutir^ ilcanbe cleaned with a 
little clear gasoline and used again to make Riiothei shde A slide cpinbe made m llus 
way m five minutes and Einuileiestmg outhiie pctme ui even less time than that 

This solution eJso makes an idepJ retouching vanush foi negalives --Conlribiitedby 
JE Noble, Toronto, CauEida 

HoH uMakf aDHFlDpii^BoK[22D] 

Abo:i for developng 3-l/4by 4-1/4 -ui plates is shown mdelailintlie accom- 
panying sketch Itis made of stips of wood H4-m thick, cutandgroovei and Ihen 
glued logetliei as indicated If desued, a lieaviei pece can be placed on the bo Itom Coal 
tlie uiside of tlie boK with pnmffin oi wii?:, rnelled Eiiid applied with a brush Allow it to 
fill all crevices so tliattlie developii^ box will be watertight 11 will hold 4 oz of 
developer Bo^es far Inrger plates 



5 



f-r-1 



rn T 



Details of the Develapmg Box 

con be made m Ihe same mamier Use a small wooden chp intakii^ Ihe plates oat of the 

bo:i, being CEireful not to scralch the sensitive film -Contiibutedby R J ^mitli, 
Pvlilwaukee, Wis 

Slaining W<pad [221] 

A very goad melhod of slamii^ close^ramed woods is to use munatic acid Tlie acid 
IS put an with ablush like Riiyoidinaiy stRin The calois Ihiis obtamedare EirtLstic and 
most beautiful, and cannot be duphcatedby anytnown pgnient The inoie caols 
applied the daikerthe color will be This inetliod of stninir^ lias the advantage of 
requirmg na wiping oi rubbuig —Conlnbutedby AuguslT Neyer, One Claud, Cal 

SlitFt-MtlalWhnk-BraoinHoU«r [221] 



A wlusk-brooin holder such as is shown mihe Mcompflnyir^ picture maybe easily 
made by the EiniELteur Tlie tools needed Eire few h pair of tin shears, a melal black of 
some kind upon wluch to pound when riveting, a lianimei oi mallet, seveiEJlaige nails, 
and a sloul board upon wluch to workup the des^n A nvel punch is desirable, thoi^h 
not ab solule ly ne cessEiry 

The material required IS a sheet of No 24gEii^e copper aibiass of ei size equal la that 
af the proposed holder, plus a BfS-m boidei all Piraund, mto which to plEice Ihe screws 



tliataie la be used Id hold the melaLlo Ihe board niiile paiindjog it The des^ii sliowiim 
tlie picluie IS flbyS in at the widest perl and lias pro^'eii h SELbsfaclDtyhaldei for a small 
biaom 

CaiefullywDit oulllie design de^iied ona piece of diowir^ P^F*'. both outline and 
decoration^ avouliiig sharp cmves intlie Dulluie because Iheyare liatd la folloiv wilhtlie 
wheals ^liien ciiUmg Ihe inelRl If Ihe des^n is lobe af tivo-paitsyiiiiiieliy, like the one 
ghowii^ draw one perl, then fold on el ceiitei line andduphcate llus by mseiting double- 
gmfaced CEubon paper and tracing Ihe pert pJready drawn With Ihis SRine CRibon paper 
tiaiisfei the design la Ihe metal Fasten Ihe inetidta Ihe board finnly, using iy2-in 
screws placed pbout 1 m aparlui lioles pieviaiisLy punched mtlie niaigin witha nail set 
ai nail 

To flatten tlie melal preperalaiy to Qislening ilto Ihe board, place ablockof waod 
upon it and pound on Ihis block, never upon Ihe inelRldiieclly 




Brill Fmhnrd Id BciciI — Hrllii>d d 



(\-fVKI\g 



Cg in pie te d Holder 

Bisss Fastened lo Boflitl-t.^lliod of Riveluig 



ai the surface will be dented and look bad m Ihe fuushed pece 

Tate Ihe nail, a 10 or 30-penny wiie oi cut, and file il lo a chisel edge, launding itjusi 
enough Id lake Ihe shaipness off so tliatil will nol cut Ihe inetal Tins taolis used for 
indenting the melal so f\s lobmig out Ihe authiie of the des^n an Ihe surface 

Theie aie sev-eial ways of walking up tlie design The smiplest way is ta lake the nail 
and merely "chase" Ihe outlines of lioldei design Remov'e the screws, cut aff Ihe surplus 
inetaland file llie ei^es until Uiey are sniaoth Pvfeke a paper peltem fai Uie melal band 
tliatis to haldthebroam Trace around Ihis pattern on Ihe melal andculoul Ihe sliape 
Punch nv-el liales in holder and band, also a hole by which to liang Ihe whale upon Ihe 



Riveltliebaiid la liie holdei Punch Ihe nuel hales wilha nml set aiid niEile tlie holes 
cansiEleiBblyiaigei tliEin Ihe diameler of tlie nv'et, for in flattening Ihe raised edges tlie 
holes mllclase Do Ihe iivetir^ ana me laL bloc hand keep the heRd of the nv'el on the 
hhck of Ihe liolder Roundup the "upset" eiidof the nveled pert as sliowiiin the picture 
Do natbeiiditoveror flatten it This lounding is done by pounding around the outer 
ei^e of Ihe iivetendand notflal upon the top f\s indimig n nail 

CleEin llie metal by scrubbing i1 off with a soluTiDncomposedafone-lialf water Pind 
ane-half luhic acid Use a rag lied la a stick and da notallaiff Ihe acid to laucheilher 
youi hands or clothes A melal lacquer niayne:ilbe apphedta keep tlie melal from early 
cairosion 

How nMakea C^n^ ^iool\121] 

The staol, as shown m Fig I, is inade of beech oi any suitable woad 




Cainp S tool De tails 

with a canuas ai carpel lap Pnivide fbnrlei^tlis far the legs, each I in. squaie and IB- 
112 m long, two lei^ths, l-l/S in squaie and II in lar^, for tlie lap, and two lengths, 
3J4in. square, aiie 2-in and the athei IQ-IO m long, foi llie lower rails 

The tegsaie shaped at Ihe ends la fit into a ^fS-in lioleboied in the top pieces aa 
shown inF^ 2, Ihe distance between the centers of the liolesbeuig 7-5fS ui m one 
piece and9-5jS in. uithe olhei The lawei rails are filted in tlie same way, usir^ a 112- 
m liole bored iiita each Leg 2-112 in up from the lowei end 

Each pan of legs has a jaintfoi folduig ar[dlhi5]DmlLS niadebyboiing a liole ui tlie 
middle of each leg, uisertu^ a bait and nv-e ting it over washeis wiiha washer placed be- 
tween Ihe legs as shownui Fig 3 The entire Lengthof each paitis roundedofffor the 
sake of neatness as well as l^hlness 

About iy3 ]fli oflt-m wide material will be requiredforthe seatand each endoflhis 
IS nailed secuiely on tlie uiidei side af llie top pieces The woadwork maybe stained and 
varnished or plam'v'amishedand tlie clolh maybe made la liave a pleasing effect by 
slencilling msome neat pattern 

ASmqUHanu-M^deEleilruMoloT [2ZZ] 



The Qccompanyn^ phalogmphs shawthe constnictionDf a veiy unique electric 
motor, Ihe paits cansislir^ of the frame fram an Dldbicy:le pedal wrapped with 
uisulaled wue to make Ihe aimatiire andtliree permanent magnets taken fiani an aid 
telephane me^neto The pedal, being ballbeaiing, rotated with very htlle fnction and at 
a suipiisir^lyli^h late of speed. 




The t'lotDi Complete 



The dustcflpon llie end of liie pedaL wrs leinoved aiid a batlerycoiinecliaii, liav'uig 
quite a lengJh af tlueEids, wa:3 soldered to ita:3 shown m Ihe phologiaph The flanges 
were le moved fiam an orduiary spool and two sinp; of brass faistenedanits 
cucumfeience foitlie commalalai The spool was lield in position by a smEJlbmEluig 




Commutator Paris 

postnni Tlie shape of Ihis nutmade a good pulley fora cordbell --Contributed by John 
lihalian, Attalla, AIb 

Roihtr Blocks on Coultr Sleds [113] 

The accoinpanyir^ sketch sliows a coEisting sled with lockei blocks Rltached on bath 
front ELiid rear runneis Tlie ninneii3 and the a the i jHits of Ihe sled are made m the usual 
way, but mstead of fastening the rear runners solid la the topbaEini Find the fiant runners 
to luinana solid plpine fiflh wheeL Ihey Rie pivatedaa eochpauof nmiieis will rack 
when goii^ over bumps 

The illiislration will explain llus construction witlioul going into detail Find gping 
dimensiort; foi h ceilam size, f\s these rockei blocks CRube attached ta ELiiycoRster or 
toboggEinsled II will be noticed Ihat Ihe topboardmEiybendas nuchas it will under 
tlie laad without causu^ the fionleiuls of Ihe rear ruiuieis Riidthe 





CoEisterSled with RackerRuiuiers 



rear ends of Ihe front runnel's gaining into Ihe snow ar ice — ContdbuledbyW F 
Quackenbush, New Yark City 



HowtoMaken WalchFab [22J] 




This iiD\'elly ivalclifob is mEide fiam felt, iismg class, college ai lodge colors 
combined m Ihe inakmg wilh emblems oi initials coloied on the textuie Tivo pieces of 
felt, eRch l-l/4m wide and 4-1/4 m lor^, are cut V-sliaped on one end of each pece 
about 1 m m depth, emd 3^ m infiani tlie otliei eiidof one piece cnia sLt lf3in long, 
tlie end of the oHier piece m folded ov-ei, mating a lap of about 1 in , Find a shlis cut 
tliiough the double thickness to mnlch the one cut in Ihe fust piece The desned emblem, 
iiutial, 01 pennanlLS slenciledon the onlside of the folded piece with class, college or 
lodge coloB The stiap is made from a slnpaf felt3/l£l in wide andS-IM in loi^, 
stitclied on bath edges foi appearance Pvlale a hole wiiha punch l-IM in from one end, 
and liHO holes m die othei, one about I in and the othei 2-3f4ui Sam tlie end Purchase 
a 1/2-m buckle from a harness maker and ^u will have all die parts necessaiyfoitlie 
fob Assemble as shownm the skelch The eiidof Ihe stiaphaving the two holes is put 
tliroughthe slots culm the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is iim throi^hboth 
holes The olhei end is passed tlirough the iii^ of the watch and fastened mihe buckle 
as m EinordinaiybeU — Contiibutedby C D Ludier lionwood Klich. 

DiiULEdirkaiit 1223] 

A good lubiicEint for dialing is made bydissohnr^ 3/4 to I lb of sal-soda mone 
pflilfulof watei 

N«w Way to Remott a Bortlr StoippFr {224] 



Take a botlle of liquid, sometlui^ tlialis caibonated, emd with Ihe Rid of a napkin foim h 
pfld winch IS Eipplied 




Removmg the Stopper 



to llie lower e lid of Ihe boflle Slnle liEud iwilhiepealed blows ogaiiisl the Piolid surface 
af a wall, as sliowniii llie sketch, and Ihe caik will be diiuenaiit, sometimes with so 
iiiiicli farce that el pert of the liquid c a me s with it aiid deluges the spectalars, if desued 
by Ihe operatDi 

Imintnn FincyWingiE on Hinder [224| 

The ELCCoinptuiymg sketch allows liow I overcame the haidivare lioubles wlieii I iffai; not 
able to fiiid ready-made hu^ei; m Eintique design for a oussmnsidebaEird Find buffet 
This method allows h wide miige of deisigns, iphichcaiibe uiEide at liome ffilh aidumry 
tools The wuigsare made of copper or bm:3s and fuushedui repousse, or can be 
tEiniKhedand the li^h places burnished with DOQ sandpaper or steel wooL then 
locqueied ffilh white shellac a i banana biaiizu^ liquid —Contributed by John H 
Jictm ls. Indi anapolis, Ind 



Hiiv> 




Pnncp Hinsfl Winn 

Fancy Hu^e Wu^s 



H«wt«M3he3 Chad's Rolling Taj [2241 

Secnre a biican, or a pasleboardbox, abaul2 in indiamelerand 2 in oi niaie in 
height Punch two lioles A, Fig I, m the cover and Ihebolfom, l/4in from the cenler 
andopposile eachotlier Then cut a curved line Sam one hale to the othei, f\s isliownal 
B A pece of leEid, which can be procuied from a plumber, is culm the shape slioivnm 
Fig 2, Ihe size being I by 1-1 JS by 1-1/4 m Anaidinaiynibbei band is secuied aiound 
tlie neckof the piece of 




Fi*.q 



Fi«.B 



BaOing Cn Tor 
Rolling Ceiii Toy 

lead, as sliown m Fig 3, aOowiiig llie tipa ends fo be fiee The piece:; of luibetween Ihe 
liole^ A, Fig 1, on both lop EindbDllom, Rie biiiiedupas uiF^ 4, Find the ends af tlie 
bflndp looped ovei liiein The flap:; are then Imiieddawii an llie band Riidthe canpEnls 
piittDgetheras inF^ 5 The can maybe decaialedwithbtilliaiilcaloied^tiiiKS, made 
af pe|Kr ^Inp; Fa:3tedon the tin Wlientlie can is rolled a way from ^u, il wuidsupihe 
rubber band, thus ^toiing the piopelluig paiver iffhichinakes ilietom — Canlnbuledby 
MEick Wilsan, Colmnbus, O 

How n Make a FoTifolio [125] 

Secuie a piece of Riis:3ianniodeLn£ calf lealhei of a size equal to 12 by 16 m Pvfete a 
paper pattern of Ihe :3ize inElicaledm Ihe Rcconipanying di'aivii^, puthi^ m Ihe des^n 

Tlie necessary taols canastaf a shct wilh a :3ti'aighl edge Riida tool with an end 
:3hRped like Ihatof a nnlpick A imtpick with a V-shaped poinl will do if Ihe shaipnessis 
:3nioa Hied off by means of el piece af einerypapei, so tliatil wiUindenlivilhDul cutting 
tlie lealhei These taols canbebai^hlfoilhis special purpase.bniare not essential for 
tins piece if Ihe nulpickiE at hand There 



4 — ,r -. 




Porttifllo D 



Portfolio Design 



wiUakobe needed a level, non-Rbsoibenl surface upon winch lo lay Ihe leatliei while 
wortir^ it A piece of IhickglEiss, melal, ai mEnble will seive. 



Begm woikby iiiaKlemiig the leaUiei on the back side ivith h sponge oi clolh 
MoL'Slen as much a^ judaic and slill iiol have I3ie moistuie shoiwDiL liie fRce side NeKl 
place tlie lealhei on liie glass, face up, aiid, lioldu^ the pattern finiily in place sa that il 
will not slip— if passible getsoine one la hold the pfltteni fai ynu--place die sliaightei^e 
an Ihe slia^hl lines and mark outoi indent Aflet this hEis been done, maikov'ei Ihe 
des^n A pencilmaybe iisedthe fustlmie over 

The pellein is iioiv la be leinovedandall die bne? gane oveiwidi Ihe tool lo inake 
tlieindeep fnui luufomi 

The ginplus stack aiDunddie edges may not be cut aJT Aneativaylo finish Ihe ei^es 
IS Id punch a series of holes entirely aioiind Huough wlucha thin lealhei Ihong maybe 
iRced If it IS desuedlD "line" the inside, this should be done before Ihe holeg ate 
piinclied aitlie lacir^ done 

G«r ioT M«d«l Work [22^] 

V.liena geai is needed Id diF'e a smEiU pmion Eind there is none of Ihe i^htsize al 
hEind, one can be inade in the faUowir^ inaiuier Tom up a wood 
disk Id Ihe piapei diameter and lJ4in thicker IhEin Uie puuoii^ and cut h flRlbotlani 
giao^'e 3^16 m deepinits face Tlie edgessliouldbe pbonl t/Sm ai moie Ihick on each 
side Kleasiue tlie dislEuice belweencenleis of tiffa ad;acenl teeth in the pnionand step 
tins offELiaiind Ihe penpheiy intlie batlani of the groove Drill lioles into Ihe woadon 
eachp]inl stepped off and uiseil steel pins made af wire, allaiving 




Steel Puis in Wood 

tlie end of ench la pralmde ju3tfar enoi^hlo act as a laolh In this way b goad gear for 
l^hl work can be quickly Pind clieaplyconsliucled — Cantiibuledby Heiuy ^chEiefei, 
New York City 

A Hamf^Midt Vkv 1226| 

While making aba» I liadsonie davelatlii^ la da, and as there was no 




Vise oil Bench 



Dmili 



vise an the bench r r^ged upa substitute I secured el board 3/4 in Ihick, 3 in wide 
and 20 in long and bored h l/2-in liole Ihrough it, I in fiani each end The board wns 
then attached lo Ihe bench wilhtwo screws passing lluoi^h wnslieis Riid Ihe Iwo holes 



m Ihe board into Ihe bench tap The Miews sliouldbe of a lei^th suitable Id lake lutlie 
piece lobe iworked — ConliibuledbyA M Rice, ^yiacose, Neiw Voik 

Cudbaard ^ifalTumtdb^Htat [226] 

A novel alliaclionfai h windoio display can be made fiDm a piece of sbiTcanJbDaid 
cul ma gpual ag sliDwiiinF^ 1 The cantooRidslioaldbe about 7 or 3 m m 
dianielei Tie b piece of stiiiig to Ihe centei point of fite ^pidl 




Splinl Cut fnnu CaidbOHTd 

Spual Cul from Cnidbcaid 

and faslenttso as to liar^ over E[ gas jet, F^ 2 A small swivelmuslbe pulrn llie 
stiiog at the lop or neM Ihe cardbaRid, if it is desued to liav-e The spualiun for any 
lei^th af lime The cardboard will spui Rioinid mpidly and piesentqiule aaialtraclioii 

—CantributedbyHanySzeilip, Brooklyn, N Y 

A WorkbtnihfoT the Amaltux [226| 

The accampanying detail diRwu^ shaiws a design of el portable workbench smiable 
for the ELiuatem iffoadifforker Tins bench can be made easilyby Etnyjiie iwho has el feiff 
sharp Tools and a hitle spare tmie If the stock is puicliased from llie mill re Eidy planed 
and cut 1o length, inoch af the hard labai will be sav-ed Birch or maple leaod iiLakes a 
veiy good bench and Hie foUowir^ pieces should be ordeied 

4 legpf, 3 by 3 by 36 
2 side rails, 3 by 3by 62- 1/2 in. 
2 eiid mils, 3 by 3 by 2D m 
1 backboard. I by9by3G m 
1 top board, 2 by 12 by 77 in. 

1 top board, 1 by 12 by 77 in. 

2 ciosspieces, I-U2 by 3 by 24 in 

1 piece foi clamp, 1-U2 by 6-112 by 12 in. 

1 piece foi clamp, 1-U2 by 5-1/3 by 14 m 

4 giudes, 2by2bylS in 

1 screi*" block, 3 by 3 by 5 ui 

1 piece, l-l/2by4-10bylD-l/2in 



Make the lower frame fust Cul tenons on the rails and mortise the posts, tlien 
fasten Ihem securely to gethei with 3/S by 5-m h% sciews as shown Also fasten the 1- 
in by 3 by 24-in pieces ta the tops af the pasts with scieivs The heads sliooldbe 
caimteisunk or else holes bored m the lopboaris ta fitov'er them Fasten the front tap 
board to llie crasspecesby lag screws Hiroi^hfiom Hie undei side The screws can be 
pulmfiam Hie lopfortlie l-ui [luck lopbaaid 

Fasten Ihe end pieces on with screws, countersinkir^ Hie lieads of Ihe vise end Cat 
the 2-in squaie lioles in Ihe I -1/2 by 4-1/2 by ID-m peces for the \Tse slides, and fit il 
m place far the srde vise Also cul square holes m the one end piece for Hie end vise 
sLdes as sliown Naw friuptlie two clamps Fasten Hie slides to the fioni pieces wilh 



^ciews Couiilersuit Ihe headp of the screws ^a they wall no 1 be in Jlie way of Ihe 
hands iwhen tlie \Tse is used Tlie tiwo ciaoip scieiffs shaiUdbe abaul l-IOm m 
diamelei Tliey can be piucliRsed ata liardivare store Ablock shouldbe fitledundei 
the crosspiece to hold Ihe nntfor Ihe end vise. Aflei 



Details 



'n, A^VoHn BENQl 




D<ull □! Ui< Bmch 



Detail of Uie Bencli 



^u liave the shdes filled, put llieni in place and bare tlie hales far tlie clamp screws 
The beckboaid can now be fastened to Ihe back with screios eie sliownui the lap 
vieio The bench is naio complete, e:icepl for a couple of caals of ail which shanld be 
apphed to give it a finish and peaeive the wood The amateur waikman, as ivell as Ihe 
patleni nialei, will fuidtlus a veiy handy El^[dser^^ceable bench for lus ivaikshap 

As Ihe amateur workman does iiol always know just what tools he will rteed, a hsi is 
gp'en which willanswei for a general class of waik This hsI can be added ta as the 
workman becomes moie poficieni mhis line and has needfoi ather taols Only 
the king iim If each IodI ls kept in a ceitaui place, it can be easily found when wauled 



I bencli plane oijomter, 

I jflck plane oismoolhei; 

1 cioss ciitsflw^ 24 ui , 

1 lip saw, 1^4 in., 

1 claw hammer, 

1 sel gimlets, 

I biace and set of bits; 

3 scietvdiivers, 3 and. 6 ui 

I CDunteisuik, 

I compass saw, 

I selclusels, 

I woodsciaper, 

I iiiDnkey wiencli, 

I 2-fl rule, 

I marking gai^e, 

I pair plieis, 

I imilset; 

I pairdiuideis, 

I pocket level; 



1 6-m tiy a^uaie; 

1 oilslone, 

Ng I, 2 and DD sandpflpei 




Woikbencli Complele 

R^airing a Worn Knift BLidt [228] 

When Ihe blfide af a favonle packet kiafe, eftei cnnslant me, becomes like A, Fig 1, 
itis more dai^eiDus Hian 




Th* fll*ilE Ii Cm Doim 
The Blade IsCuIDdi™ 

upeful Td cuJdowii the already looin blade loauld leave only a stump, but if Ihe blade 
IS fastened ma vine aiid Ihe paint B filed oif iinhl il is lite C, F^ 3, the piajectu^ 
point A, F^ 1, will smt into llie handle as showii at D, F^ 3, and the kmfe will be 
giveiia new lease of usefulness — Contiibutedby James M Kane, DD^stawn, Pa. 

Ilow n Make a Leaihn ^«la<k Cas« [22S] 

The speclacle case shown in Ihe accompanying illuslialian maybe made of eilhei 

calf o[ CQiv skm The caif skin, being soflet, will be easiei to wort, but will not make 



a^ ngida case a^ Ihe cow skin. If calfskin, i^ la be used, secure a piece of laodehi^ 
calf Tlie e:ilieiae width af Ihe case is 2-3/E in and liie leogfli 5-5IS m Two peceg 
will be lequued of tlos si3e Pul an Ihe design befoie Ihe Iwa pflit; aie sewed Togelher 
Fust diaw Ihe design Dnpapei, then ptepaie tlie Leafliet PlRce the leather an el smEill 
non-EibsDibent sniface, sachas coppei ai brass, andmaislen Ihe back SLde wilhas 
lauch water as il will lake and still nal shoiff on Ihe face side Tiun the lealhei, ky the 
des^noQthe face, and liolditin place while both the onlhne and decoraTian aie 
tiaced on the sniface wiiha pencil oi same loal thai will make a sharp line witlioul 
teaiii^ the papei 

After the outtines are traced, go ovei Ihe indentations h second tune so as ta inake 
them sharp ELiiddLstincI Theie Rie special niodehi^ Toals timl CEinbe puicliased for 
tlos purpose, but a V-shaped nnJpick, if smoothed witheioery pfipeiso that it will not 
cut the lealhei, will da jiisl as well 

Take a stipphi^ loal— if no such tool is al liaod, a cup-pomled nail set will do— and 
stamp Ihe bact^rouiid It is intended tlial liie full des^n shall be placed on Ihe back 
and the same des^n placed on Ihe fioni as fai as the malenal will allow Be caiefulin 
stamping iiotta pound so hard as ta cut liie lealliei A hitle rubbir^ onllie point wilh 
emery will take off Ihe sharpness always found on a newlaol 

Havir^ prepared Ihe two sides, they maybe placed together and sewed around the 
edges 

If cowhide IS pieferred, Ihe same method af treatment is used, but a faim will need 
to be made and placed inside the case while Ihe lealhei is diyii^ to give it Ihe right 
shape The faim canbe made of a slick of WDod 




Tna DoisiiB dL Clin 
Two Des^iis af Cases 

WalFip roafiiig a Wall J229] 



Tlie best way Id meike a linled wall waterproof is ta fust use a material composed af 
cement piapeilytmled and wilhno glue mil— one tliat will not leqiuie a glue sise on Ihe 
wall After this caatii^ of cemenlis apphed diiecliy to Ihe plaster, cover il completely 
with water enamel and, when dry, give Ihe surface a lliorough coahi^ of vainish Tlus 
will make a peifectlyunpervious co^'eiir^, wliich steam, water or lieal will nal affecl. — 
ConlribuledbyJulia A Wlule, Kew York City 



FolichingFkilSiiFCicFj [229] 




'E:*hBPI O-DTh 



Tlie ivDik of fimuhmg a iiumbei of biPiss cpislii^s wilhfldl uidei; w^s accomplislied dq 
an DrduiBryp]li:3hmg i^lieel, from wliicli Ihe flislfei* layers of clalli were lemaved aiid 
leplaced with emery da III The einery siufece of Ihe cloth w^s placed autwaidand 
tiimmed to tlie SEime diameter a:3 the i^lieel This made a saiidii^ and iBlislmig i^heelm 
one — Cantiibuted by Chester L Cobb, Paillaiid, Pvfeuie 

Rubbtr T9 for Chair Ltgs [229] 



An iiiexperL'3ive melhodof pch'eiiting a cliaii fiomscratclmig the flaoris to bore a hole 
af tlie proper size m Ihe bottom end of eMhchmr leg and thenpociire four rubbei 
stoppers a f uniform size and press them mto ploce 

Tins cusluan of lubbei eliminates vibmtians, and tliey will not slip 1101 mai Ihe finesl 
suiface upon which they resi -Contiibutedby W A Jaquylke, Richmond, Cal 

Adjiulii^aFhiinli-Bol> Lint [229] 




Whenpliimbii^ a piece of i*oik, if Ihere is no helpathmidtD hold Ihe D\'eilieadhiie, 
it 13 common practice lo S^slen die plumb line to a nail or olhersuilable projection On 
CDimng down to the loiver floor itisoflen found that die bob has been seemed either too 
li^h or too low Wlien fastemi^ Ihe hue give it plenty of slack and wlien the loivei floor 
15 readied make a double loop m Ihe line, as shown m Ihe sketch Tightenir^ up on die 
parts AA will bind tlie loopb^hlB, and an adjustable fiiction-heldloop, C, will be liad 
foi adjusting tlie bob accuratdyeitlier up 01 down —Contiibutedby Chas Heirman, 
New Yoik Cily 



Divr for Foolwtar [229] 

A dner far footwear can be leEidilyraade by b luiner, araii^mie thai can shnpe luiaod 

goldei The diiei consists of a ppe of suiTicienl length lo enter Ihe longeslbaot leg lis 
top 15 bent at nght Ri^tes Eind tlie othei end is nveled to abase, anui^'eitedslewpin^ for 
instance, m whose bottom a fei^peifoialions have been made lo lei an m The boot oi 
stocking to be diiedLS placed avei the pipe and the whole set ana lieatedsuifoce Tlie 
heat will cause a lapd ciiculationaf an ffluch will diy the Euticle quickly -Contiibuted 
by Win Roberts, CEinibndge, Pvfess 






] 

. 



Repairing A Kolbr A3iadf [229] 

Aveiysatisfactoiy repair can be made by iisii^ a good pliotogmpluc peisle ta fasten h 
torn window shade la lis roller 

A Shai Scoop [2J0] 

In tlie amnimutLondepdrlQient of our liardwEire store the shol wels kept in regular 
square buis and dished aut 



_r-U-"i 




A Bmoll Sa^ficc SLorv PJid« d Tin l^c Dlppliia Up 
Ann KUrfil In a Equtr* BIq 

A SniflU Square ^coop Made of Tmfoi Dippir^ Up Shol Stared in a Square 

Bin 



with a laund-botlom scoap Tlus wrs veiydif&cult, especiallywlientheboltom of Ihe 
bmwas nearly readied, as the roiuid scoop would roll over Iheni and only pick up a few 
atfi tune To o\'eiconie this diSicullyl constructed a squaie-shaped scoap Ihalgave 
eiilue satisfRclion The scoop can be used for other purposes as well 

Alluck piece of tin, 6-iMby 9-3/4 m , was marked out f\s showii^ the pattembeing 
culon the full hues Eindbentan Ihe dotted anes Tlie slnpfor the liandle was nveled to 
tlie end of Ihe scoap — Cantnbutedby Geo B Wright, t'liddletown, Canii 



R«Tiuptin« Grtajt Slains from the LeaivtiE «f a Book [230] 

HEippeim^ to gel a giea^e spot on h page of a valuable back, 1 found a way lo remove 

il williDul injury la llie paper, winch ha^ been Ined aut several luues wiUi sncceiss 

Heal an nan and liolditas neRi a^ passible lo the slam wilhantdiscoloru^ the paper, 
and the grease will disappear If any Iraces of Ihe gieRse Rie left, apply powdeied 
c ale med magnesia Bone, iwell calcined and powrlered, and plasteiaf Peuis aie also 
e:icellentEibsoibeiits of grease 

AbeELUtifnllybaiindboat, Euid quite new, hud oil fiain a lamp spilled over it Tliere 
was no quicklime lobe had, sa same bones were quickly calcined^ pulverised Find 
applied The next morning Iheie was no Irace of oil, but oiJy an odor which soon 
VEinislied — Canliibniedby PRulEellei, IndiEinapolis, Ind 

Tighlfiiing Cuit in Fuzniluxe [230] 

^phlcane, used as parlof fuiiutiue, snch as chaii seats, oflenbecomes loose and Ihe 
tlireads of cane pull out Tlus can be prevented byspoi^u^ with liot water, or by 
applying sleamir^ clotlis lo the cane This process also t^hlens Ihe shieds of cane Eiiid 
does nal injure ordinary fiinuture If the arlicle is h^lilypolislied^ care should be laken 
to prevent the hot water from coming mcantacl wilh anytime bul the cane 

Cleinez for 3 Stovt^^e [2J0] 

A long lionzonlal pipe fbro stove saonQUs with soal and must be clepined The usual 
inetliod IS lobeRl Ihe pipe Eifler tpilu^ il down to be cIeEiiied,bula much be Iter device 
for Ihe purpose is shown in tlie sketch 

A sciub brush IS pacured and culm two, Ihe perls being turned la a ciosspiece faslened 
to a longbroani hEindle Tliebi"ushes aie piessed outward against the uiside surfaces of 
tlie pipe wiUiEL wire and spnr^, as sliown —CantiibutedbyC L Heibeit, Clucago, 
lUinoiE 



A ClronliiE Bniih Ui BHaanc lEir 

A<LtiniiiL&l±i1 aiiu^ 111 1 L«ra 

HoriioDlnl 3lo"r[il[iE 




MoonfinsPholo Pruifs on Gbss 1!:J1| 

Photograph prmis can be niaiinted on glass with an Eidhesive mEide by soaking I oz of 

sheet gelatine in cold watei lo SRluralian^ tlien dissolvii^ m 3-IO oz ofbailii^ waler. 
Lei [lie soluhan cool to about IIQ deg F , Ihenimniei'se Ihe pnnlinitaiid squeegee, 
face down, on a clear piece of glass Whendiy, fake a dainpclolh or soft spor^e and 
wipe offanysurplns gelatine on The glass 

Dropping Cains in 4 Gbss Follaf Wqtvr [231] 

Take a glass and fill il lo Ihe biim with water, taking caie that the suiface of the 
water is raised a htlle above the ei^e of the glass, but no! running aver Place a 
niuiiberof mckels or dmies on Ihe table near Ihe glass and ask yarn speclatois liow 
many coins can be put into the waler wilhaul niakir^ ito^'erflow Ho doubt the leply 
will be tlial liie watei will run over before Iwa coins are dropped m But it is possible 
lo putm ten gi Iwelve of tlieni Wiiha great deal of care the coins maybe made lo fall 
wilhout disturb ir^ the watei, the suiface of which will became niaie and more convex 
befoie the watei averflaws 




HoUcpw-Grindinglct Slnis [231] 

The accaiuEHiiying ?kelch lUosliale^ h prachcEil laelhod of claiupiiig ice istales ta 
hold Hie III fa I gtindii^ Ihe small arc of a circle go much denned 

The U-shaped clamjs aie made of 3/4-III gaftsTeeL wilh Ihe opeiui^ 6 in deep and 
5 m h^handaie bolted to a block of wood, 2 in (luck, 5 in wide and 1] in lor^ The 
iskale ruDiteiis E[d]UPledtD Ihe proper height by I /3-iJi set and thnmbscrews The block 




Skate Riumei Fastened in Clamp 



of loood lioldir^ Ihe clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in 
franloflhe re'v'olving wheel 

If pioperly adjusted, a shghl concav'e or liolloit'canbe made full length of die 
runner, true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not lelard the 
forward movement -Conhibuledby Geo A Howe, Taiiylown, New Yoik 

How n Mike q Bkjck Coqslin- Sled P31] 



The accoinpunyir^ drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coa^tii^ sledbuill 
an the bicycle pnnciple Tins coaster is simple and easy to make, sa^^ Scientiiic 
American If is constructed of a goodquahty of pine Tlie pieces marked ^ are single, 
and should be about 1 by 1-1^2 m , die pieces 




Has Ihe Lines nf a Bicycle 

luaiked D ore double ormdupLcale, aiid sliDuldbe 1/2 hy 1-1/3 m 




Caaulmg 



CmitDig 



The nmneisaR shod with iionaiidare pavoled la die npi^hls eis shown, double pieces 
being seemed Id Ihe upights to iiiEike a fork The geRl isa bopiri la die uiideiiJide of 
which IS a block, winch drops daini between die Iwo topslals and 1:3 secured widia pin. 
A faotie:3l IS pioviried cansLsling of a short ciosspece seemed to Ihe froni af tlie fidine 
andieslii^ on the two lowei slats The frame and front foik aie hinged togethei with 
foui short eytboLts, E, with a short bolt thioi^h each pan as shown 

^«l]mg Nqnws trilli Phala LelRric [232] 

There are, no doubl, many amateur phologmphers wlio mpile only accasianal trip; 
afield 01 lluDi^h the iiioie tiaveled thoiai^lifpiies with thencameias during tlie wmter 
inontlis Each one is geneially mieiested m wortu^ up the negatives tliat he or she 
inade dmii^ Ihe summer 01 ontliatlpislvacationuilo souvemi post cards, albmns and 
tlie lite, forsendii^ I0 friends Illustrated he le with is sometlung different from the 
album 01 pliotogiapluc caleiular The lelters forming perl of the word POE*ULAR are 
good examples of dus woik 

The masks which outline the le tiers Eire culfrom the black papei m wliich plates came 
pecked Tlieu sise deiKiuls ontlie plale used A sliarp knife, a smoothboard anda 
stia^hledge are eiL the tools needed, says Canieia Ciafl If the letters are eiII cuI Ihe same 
height, lliey will look re inaikEibLy uniform, even if one is nol skilled m Ihe work of 
forming Ihem allui accoidance wilhtlie rules Be suie to have tlie prints a httle larger 
tlian the Leiteis to insme a siifTicie lit margin m liiimiui^, so as to have a white margin 
aioiind the finished letters The beslmelhodis to use a goodpairof sclssoi'soi a sliarp 
kmfe 

P.1any combinations can be made of Ihese letter pictures to spell oul Ihe lecipenfs name 
or die season's greeting During the liolidays the lelters maybe made from winter scenes 



Id s|kI1 "A Meay Chiistiiias" or "A Happy Net* Ye ej " AnEaisleigieelmg may liave 
iiioie spniig-lite subjects Eiiidabiillidiiy lemembiaiice a filting maiitli The piinis aie na 
iitoie diiTicull lo make liian Ihe oidmaiy kind Incutlii^ out an Q, foi eKaiiiple, do nal 
foigel lo culoula piece lo coiiespand Id Ihe center This piece CRiibe placed on Ihe 
pmitiQg papei after Ihe aiithne niaisk lias been laid down, iisuig care lo gel it in Ihe nghl 
position^ andclDsing Ihe frame carefully sd thai the ?inall pece wiUnDlbe disliubed 
Tlie tetters ishDuldbe af llie kind la giv'e as laige an area of siuface Id have rs much of 
tlie piclure shDiff as passible Wlial Ihe piuiter calls block fece letteis oie the roDsl 
suitable 




Letlers Mede from phalographs 

Bycutlu^ tlie letters Dutaf black piiperin a solid form, aiidusu^ these as a inask for 

a secDndpnntir^ oftei piinlii^ tlie full sise of the negati^'es, these tetter pictiues can be 
inade wilh a block barder So mode, Iheycanbe Irminied lo a uniform black line all 
around, and, mounted on a wlule card and photographed down to postcoid siEe, the 
gieehng so spelled Dut makes o most unique sauv'enir Ana Uier application Df tlie letlers 
incopyu^ IS Id paste tliem Dna wlute card osbefDre, Inni the card even with the 
bDtlomsof Ihe lettei's, stand Ihe stiip Df coid ana minoi laid flat an a labte, ondtlien 
pliologiaphbalhlhe letleis ondlheii reflections sa os Id nicely fill a postcoid STiU 
anotlier si^geshams ta ciitoulthe tetters, after, pashr^ Ihe prinlsonsame tliin caruL 
and Ihenanai^e tliemmtlie desiied Drder lo spell oul llie name or greelii^, but with 
flaiffers mterspersed and fanning abacl^ioiind, pliolDgraplung tiiem down la Ihe 
desired si2e A tliud means af secuiir^ a riDvel effect by pliDlDgrapliuig dawn an 
arrangement af the letteis is to have Iheni cut out in stiff fotiu as m Ihe lost nielhod; 
mount them on shDrl pieces Df CDrks, m luiii fastened Id a white cardfoiniing Ihe 
bockgiDund lio arror^ed, Ihe lelters will stondautfrDm Ihe caidabDul 1^2 in Iflheyore 
UDif placed m a l^hlfaUii^ frDni Ihe side ond sl^hlly m &Dnt, each letter will cast a 
shodow upon the bacl^rouiid, and mtlie finislied piiiil the letters wiUlaok as if 
suspended m Ihe an in fionlof Ihe suiface of Ihe cord 

Holding 3 Lwse Srrnv [2}3| 

A piece Df sheelleodpulon eochside af a screwmll fill up ondhold the tlireads ui o 
Ido lorge hole 

A Cb«ktr Baud Piiizk [233] 



Place e^hl checker men upon the checker board ae shown m Ihe firslrow mihe 
skelch The puzzle is lo gel 




Placing the Checkeis 

tlie in m foui piles of Iwd men each without omittir^ Id jump nvei two checkeiinen 

eveiy luiie a move is made 

Tlie fiKtmove li la jump 5 over 4 Eind^ an 3 which is p;howiiin liie second row, Ihen 

jump 3 over 4 Riidfl an 7 and the positions willappsar as shown in the Ihud raw, jump 1 
aver 2 Eind 5 an 4 to get the men placed lite liie fourth lowand the IrsI niave is to jump 
3 aver 3 and 7 onfl winch will make liie four piles of twa men each as shawnin Ihe fifth 
row -Contiibuledbyl G Ba^ey, Cape h^yPouit, N J 

A HoHc-Madt Rabbii Tr:^ [1Z3] 




,;r;ii^Ui^V?='"- 



PbTiTjII m Ihr Trip 

Rabbit ui tlie Trap 

Agoadseiviceable labbil trap can be made by siiitir^ a canmiandiy goods box m 
llie ground Id wilhmfl in af its lop A liole d oi 7 m squaie is cutineach endlevel wilh 
tlie earlh's surface and boxes IE m lar^ liialwilljnstfilaie set in, hui^ on pivots, with 
tlie largest end outside, so Ihey will lie hanzonlal A rabbit may now loat lluai^h the 
two tubes, says the American Thieshemian Tlie bail is hung ana slnng from Ihe lop of 
tlie laige box so thai it maybe seen and smelled fiam Ihe outside The labbit naturally 
goes mio Ihe holes and m Qus trap Ihere is nalhii^ to awaken his suspicion He smells 
the bait, squeezes aloi^ past the center of the tube, whenil lilts down and Ihe game is 
shal mta the pt, Ihe lube r^hluig itself at once foianalher catch The lop and sides of 
the laige box maybe covered with leaves, siudw oianylhu^ to lude il A daoi placed 
m the lop will enable the liat^Kr to take out Ihe ammals By t^cuig a little hay ai 
alher food m liie bottom of Ihe box tlie trap need iiolbe visited oftenei Ihanance a 
week 



0]d.-Tiine Magir - Cluiiigmg 3 Button into a Coin [234] 

Place a button m tlie palm of Ihe left hand, Ihen place a combetri^en the secaiid 
and third fillers of the iighlhand Keep the r^hl liand faced down and the left hand 



faced up, ^d a^ lo coiLceel Ihe comaiid e:ipo:3e thebutloii Wttli a quick maliaiibiiiig 
the leftlmiidimdei Ihe nghl, slop quick and 




Hdl,lr,g lilt CTianjE 

IvfeiLii^ the Chaise 

the bulton will go up Ihe i^ht- hand coat sleeve Pie?s Ihe hands bigelhei, 

allomr^ Ihe com lo diop uita the left hand, then expose agRin, ai lub the liands h liltle 
befoie doing sa, seyuig tlial^u are nibbing abntloitmlo a com — ConbibuledbyL 
E Patkei, PacRleUD, idEilio 

Butnn]ialFTrkk[234] 



This luck is peifomed with a smEill slick having a loop attached thai is Ido small fni 

the sbck lo pass IhiDi^h ^piead oul Ihe slni^ Riid place it each side of Ihebutlonliote, 
then diRi* Ihe cloth Riouiid the hole tluai^h Ihe stiu^ until it is fhi enough lo puss the 
sbck IhiDiigh die liole Fallback Ihe clalhand^u Imve Ihe slni^ looped in 




the liole with h hifchthe same as if the sbck liad been passed Ihiough the sbing 

The slick mRybe lemDved by puling up Ihe loop as if ^u weie pessii^ Ihe slick 
tlimi^hit, pulling die sbck in the Imle Enidleavir^ Ihe slung on the aulside, Ihen 
spread Ihe slnr^, pullir^ up the cloth ami passu^ the slick tluai^h Ihe hale as before 
— ConlribatedbyChailes Cjidhaiu, PRivticket, Rhode Island. 



How t« EtnuiVF Paiptr fiom Slants |2J4] 

Old stamps rs tliey ric purchased usually have a paif of the envelope from ivluch 
theyaie taken sbcking to them aiul lnIelno^^l^ this pupei inanyvEduable stamps aie 
loin 01 ruined PlRce all the stfliups that are stuck lo pieces of envelopes rnhol ivaler 
and ma slmrttmie Ihey canbe sepaiaTed without iiijory Dry the stampfl bebi^en tivo 
wlute blolteis Stamps lemo^'ed m tins way will liav'e a mochbetlei appearance when 
placed in an album —ConbibuledbyL Szerbp, Brooklyn, N V 



linilJitionAiiiis and. AnnorPART I [I35| 



Genuine anliqiie sffaids Riid amioi, as U'sedbytlie ko^hls fnui isaldieK in Ihe dhyi of 
aid, aie veiyeapensive and hi Ihe present tune ptRcticallyunpoHible la abtam The 
accompanyu^ lUuslialiDnsliDiffs fom des^n.'S of siffaids thatanyine can make, and if 
caie fully made, tlieymll look 'v'eiy much like Ihe genmne Riticle 

The di'awiQgsaie ^o plain IhRl Ihe Einialeui annaiei shauld liave veiyhtlle difFicully, 
if any, inbuilduig up lus iffoik froin Ihe ill iislia lions, ffhetheilie reqmiea a single sn^nl 
aiily, aia complete auitaf amiDi, full sise 

The piece:; or designs in tlu:3 arlicle are fromauthenlic isaiirces, isays the Enghsh 
Mechaiuc, so IhRl ifflieie iieuies Eue given Ihe amateur can so label them, Riid will 
tliereby greallyadd to Iheir mteresi and value 

An eKecutianei'^ iswordof the fifteenth century t3 shown in Fig I TheblEide should 
bepboullrJm loi^ inth a liandle of siiiTicienllength ta be giaspedbybothhands The 
width af Ihe blade neai Ihe liandle is about 3-l^m, tapeiir^ down to 1-1 in iieai the 
pomlend lie\'eml iii^es are cutRiaund the hEindle la pennita fiiingnp The ciass 
giiai(iL'3 flatandabaut I in inwidlh 

fvlaik oultlie sliape and size af the blEide on a piece of wood IJS in Ihick, u.^ir^ a 
stia^htedge and a pencil. Find allowii^ a fewmcheg more mler^lhon which to fasten 
tlie handle Cutout Hie wood wilh h iscioUsawara te^Aole sew, Inm Ihe ei^es down 
tliiii Find ismoath both surfaces with fine sandpaper The end for Ihe handle is cut about 1 
in wide and 2 in long The cross guEiid is cntouland el liole made intlie center through 
which la pass the handle end af the blade The liandle is next made, and if Ihe anialeui 
doea nal posses:; a lathe on which Id turn the sliape of the handle, tlie ndges aiaund Ihe 
wood maybe mutated by gluing andtactii^ on pieces af amall lape Tlie handle is liien 
moitisedlD receive the 1 by 2-m end of tlie blade The cross guaid is now glued and 
placed 



Fifi 1 




an Ihe blade, Ihenlhe hole in the handle k iffell glued wilhglne thai is nollao lluck and 
quite hot Tlie bhide ifilh Ihe cross guaid is inserled in tlie haiulle and allowed Id sel 
When Ihe glue is flioiai^My diy, remove Ihe surplus ifilha shaip knife and pamlthe 
handle inlh brawn, dark led, oi green ail paml The blade is covered ifilh tinfoil ta give 
it Ihe appearance of steel Secure some peces of trnfailandcutone strip lOm wider 
tlian the blade and Ihe oilier lJ4m nenower Quickly pumttlie blade well with Ihmglue 
an one side , then layevenly and press on Ihe nanowslnpaf linfbil Glue Ihe a Ihe i side 
af the blade, put on the wuler strip of tuifoil and glue the overlapping ec^e andpiess it 
aioiuid and on Ihe suiface of Ihe nanawslnp The cioss guard niuslbe caveied with 
tinfoil m Ihe same mannei as llie blade When llie whale is quite dry, wipe Ihe blade 



with light :3liate 13 up aiiddoivii sevetaL times, usir^ a soft aiiridiy piece of cloth The 
^ivDcdL^ IhenieEidy Id haiig ui il:3 chosen place as a decaialioii, iiotforu'se oiilym cases 
of tabieRux, for which tlus Eulicle will be especially useful to Ihose who Eiie aiiangiiig 
li%-uig pctuies ivheieiiisiffQids aiidamiot aie pail of the jHiapliemalia 

A Chinese scimitar is shown in F^ 2 The liandle of this ^woidis oval aiid covered 
with plaited cord In making Ihis scinulai, fallow the diiedion; as fai Fig 1, except Ihal 
tlie handle lia:3 lobe CD\'eied wiiha laund black cord If it is found diSicull la plail Ihe 
caid on the handle as m Ihe illiislraliDn, wind il around m a conlinuous line cloisely 
iDgelhei, and finish byfa:3lemi^ with a htlle glue and a small tact dnven tluoi^h the 
caid into Ihe liatuUe The pooimelis a circulaipiece af wood, 1/Sm Ihickandllui m 
diainetei The ler^lhof Ihe handle, allowir^ foi a good hald with both hand;, should be 
about 9 m , Ihe lenglhaf the blade 2S m , the widlh near Ihe pommel l-lf3 m and 3 in 
m Ihe widest part at the lower end The shaipor cutluig edge is only on Ihe short side, 
tlie olher is flal oi lialf-round 

A Tuikishsabie of ancienlmanufactuie froinConslanlmople IS shown inF^ 3 The 
handle is painted a duUcieamywIule in imitation of ivoiy The enamel paint sold in 
small luis will answer well foi tluspuipose Tlie cross guard and blade are covered as 
described inF^ 1 The shaipei^e is on Ihe longer ciiivedside, Ihe olherisflator half- 
round 

A two-handed sword used in Ihe 14lhaiid l^lhcenluiies is sliownin Fig 4 This 
sword IS about if S ui long, has a cross guaid and blade of steel with a round ivaod 
handle painted black The balloi panmiel on topof Ihe liandle L'S sleel Both edges of the 
blade aie shaip This sword is made m wood tlie same as described foiF^ I 

A DotetiilJoinl Puzzle [236] 

A sunplebulveiyu^eiuous example mjoineiyisiilushated In Ihe finished piece. 
Fig 1, the dove lail appears on each side of Ihe square slick of 



..<-«^^^5. 




ll'>H lb? joml Tn Cm 

How Ihe JomtlsCut 



wood, Ihe lUusQalion, of coui'se, sliows only Iwo sides, llie otlieitwo aie identical Tlie 
jomlL'S sepamble and each pari is sohdand of one pece In making, take two pieces of 
wood, piefemblyof conlraslir^ calai's, such as chenyand walnut or mahogany and 
boxwood, about 1-1/3 m square and of any length desued Cut Ihe dovelailon one end 
of each slick as shown mFig 2, diive togelherand then plane off the Tiiangulai comers 
maikedA The end of eachpiece aflei Ihe dovetails aie cul appeaias shown mF^ 3, 
the lines marking the palhnf the dnvetiullhionghthe sbck. 



Radntoz Wattz [136] 
Pure ram wateiis tlie best to use m a cooling system of an automobile ei^ine, as ilis 



fiee fioiii Ihe iiimeral subslances iwhichaie depoaledm Ihe radiatai, ppu^ andjackel? 
by hard water 

^ringboaid for ^Avinuntn [137] 

A good gpiir^board adds much Id Ihe fmi of :3wiimiimg The boaids are geiieially 

made sa Ihal Ihe plank iwillbeiid,beir^ diesised downtlunal one eiidand faisleiied The 
tlmuie:3:3 of Ihe plaiik, Dian insecuie fasteiuiig, cau'3e:3 inEiny el plank 1o j^napm two ai 
came loose from il^ fEisteiungs in a short lime 

The accDmpaiiyiiig stelch shows llie iiielhodof conslnicliiig a spir^board tliat does 
iiDtde|Kiid upon tlie bending of Ihe woodfoiilsspiii^ Itis mEide of a plRiih, IT in tluck 
andfiom 14 lo Id ft long, one end of which is seemed wrth a liii^e anai^e me nl having 
a U-shaped lad whose ends are held wilh nuts On each edge of Ihe board, althe lower 
end, are fastened two pieces of sliapuon, each about I ft lor^ and wilhtlie Lowei ends 
drilled lo fit Ihe honsonlal of Ihe U-shaped rod 

Weenie a pair of 1^ hi bi^gy sprues from a dwcaidedi^ and altachthem 
Id the ends of a squaiebai of ironhavii^ a lei^th equal lo Ihe widlhof Ihe [iank Fasten 
tins Id Ihe plank with bolls, as shown m Ihe sketeh Should Ihe spiuigsbe too h^hthey 
can be niov-ed forward -Conbibutedby John Blake, Fianllm, Mass 




Buggy Spnr^s Used beneath Ihe Boanl 
Tihing Buiian from a CIdU's Noictzil [2J7] 

A lluee -year-old child snuffed a butlon up its noslnl and Ihe inolher, in an attempt lo 

remove it, had caused tliebulton to be pushed feilhei up Ihe channel rDoclois probed for 
tlie butlon witliDul success Tlie distracted niolhei happened to Hunk of snuff, and, as 
tliere was some at hand, took a pmch of sniiffbetween Uie Ihimib andfoiefinger and 
held il close lo the child's nose The violent sneesii^ caused Ihe butlon to be blown oul 
^uch an accident may come under Ihe observation of any paienl, and if so, Ihis method 
can be used lo relieve the child when medical assislance is not alhaiid -Contiibntedby 
Kalliaiine D ttuse, Syracuse, N Y 

BrasiE Frame inRepaiisiF [237] 

Punches can be purchased, as can Ihe pitch bed or block Both can be made easily, 
however ^e'v'eial punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed A pece of mild 
steel, about 3/S m squaie, can be easily worked into tools shapsdas desued A cold 



chisel will be needed lo cul Ihe metal la lenglh, h file lo reduce llie eiid; to ^liape, and a 
piece af emeiypapeilD aiiaodiand polish die end af die IodIso diatil ivdl notscei Ihe 
inetpJ 

A smEill inelslbDZ miislbe seemed to hold Ihe [mlcli The lUusti'alioii shows euiudil 

receplacle Tlie pichis pie pared by heating die followiiig materials m these propaitiaiis: 
pitcli, 5 lb .plasleiofPans. 5 lb .tallow, lO 




Diuin J™ Vk Prim* 
Design, fo] die Frame 

lb Td put itm ELiiothei xesy, use pitch and ploslei m equal piirts with I'lO parttpJIow 
liee lliatthe ptch and plEislei Eue diy sa that the moistuie will not cause the ptch to bod 
over Keep stinir^ die mass so tliatilneverboils Pvlelttlie pichtiisland Eidd tlie plasler 
by degrees 

Foia pece of lepousse such as Ihe frame sliown, secure a pece of brass of about No 
ISgai^e WilhcEiibon pnpei trace the designon die brass PlRce Ihe metEdon the ptch 
bed and woik ovei the authiie of die des^n Use die chisel-edged tool aiidtiy to 



I^H T^i'.!'. "Jii- 



je^- - 




Woiku^ OutTlie Design 



make the lines cantmuous When tins has been done, lieat die ptch sightly 
and place the metal, design down, an Ihe ptch, Eind with Ihe laising punches ivDik up 
die shape eis desiiedaftei the ptch has hRriened When the desuedform hEisbeen 
abtmned, turn the metal avei Riid "touch up" any places impopeily raised The metal 
wdlprobablybe warped some iidiat To remedy dus, place abawd an Ihe melal and 
pound until the metal assumes a flat shape agam Ne:ildnlla liole mtlie cenlei ivaste 
andsawautEbi the opening, using a small metal saw Tnmuptlie edges and file them 



gmoDtli 

CleEin Ihe inelsl tlioioi^lily, iisu^ powdered pmiiice wilhL^ CDtloiibatlmg fastened 
Id Ihe eiidof a stck will make a good brush Upontlie cleEiiised metal pul h lacquei Id 
preveni temislm^ Metal clips iiiRybe soldeiedta the bock la liold Ihe pictuie lu place 
aiidalsD El iiielaLsliip Id hold the frame upr^hl These should be pliiced before the melal 
IS lacqueied 

Finding Ihe Horsepower of Small Motors [238] 

A :3iitallniDtar often excites curiosity as lo tis true har^e power, or fractiou of a 
lioisepawei Gue:3:3es lu this directiou vary lemaikpibly foi Ihe SRiue iiioloi or ei^uie II 
IS canipaiativelyeaisy Id delenuiiie the lioisepowei pul oul by almosl any machine by 
tlie fDllowing melhod wluch is intended for sinallbatteiy motors aiidsmEill stepim 
ei^ineg 

Before gtviug Ihe descnplian, il maybe well Id know whal lioiise power means 
Horsepawei L3 Ihe lale of woik and El umlis equal ta 33,0D0 fl lb |ki imiiule, ari50 fl 
lb per second ThEili; lifting 33,000 lb 1 ft ui one minute or 550 lb L fl in one second 
TlusmEiybe applied Id Ihe piablem of firduig Ihe liorsepowei of a moloi byfEisleimig ei 
piece af twine about 25 fl long lo Ihe isliafi of Ihe engine or inaloi lobe lested in such ei 
way tliat wlien Ihe shaft le^'olves il will wind up llie shn^ similEirto a windlEiss Place 
llie molor msuch a position Ihal Ihe twine will liang freely wilhautlDuclm^ anyllung 
out of a h^h window will da Fasten ei weighl lo Ihe other end of Ihe line as heEivy as the 
inoloi or ei^ine can lifland stiUrun II must weigh eiioi^h Id slow the power down ei 
little, bul not lo slop it MEirk Ihe position af the we^hland isterl Ihe inaloi, at Ihe isanie 
time accuralely lueEisunng time in minules EindisecDnds it lakes lo hftihe weight fiom 
tlie lawe:3l pomtto Ihe Ingliest NeKlmeasuie accimilely Ihe distance in feel CE)\'eredby 
tlie we^htin il:3 asceni ELTui ablEiin tlie coiiect weight m pounds af Ihe we^hl 

Multiply Ihe weight by Ihe dislmice caveiedand divide Ihe resullby Ihe numbei of 
mmules arfrRctiDnof a nimule oblained and divide llus la:3t resullby 33,000 Find Ihe 
quahent will be Ihe hoisepowei of Ihe motor orei^ine 

Perliapg an lUusIni lion will make this salulianmuch plainei liuppose Ihe motor will 
lifia we^hl of 1 Hj and glill levolve, 30 fl m LD seconds or Hfl af a nunule 
Mulliplyir^ 1 by 30 we gel 30, wluch drvidedby 116 giveg 130 Tlu:3 in tiundividedby 
33,000 equak ui lound numbei'i; 1^300 pierl of ei horsepower -Conlributedby HEirald H 
Cutler 

Hhnunfor Window Altraitun [239] 

Gald fi:3h and cauEiry buds, hving lagelliei m wlial :3eeni:3 like one receptacle, mEike an 
unusual show window attraction liecure two gla:3s ve:3:3els hEivii^ shaight :3ide:3 of Ihe 
:3anie he^hl, one IE m ui diameter (F^ 1) and the otliei 13 ui m diRineler (Fig 1) The 
smallei is placed wilhmthe laigei, Ihe bottoms beu^ caveied with mass andaquanum 
decoialions which can be pmcliasedatabird sloie Fill tlie 3-m space between Ihe 
vcsscla wilh watei Cut a jmece af galvamzed screen into circular farm la co\'ei Ihe 
lEirgei vessel, and liang Eibirdswir^, A, F^ 3, m Ihe center Place the screen on lop af 
llie 'h'essels ^a Ihal the swing wiUhEii^ in Ihe ceiitei of Ihe uinei vesisel A weight— a baz 
filled wilhsand will da— shauld be placed on lop of Ihe screen, over tlie sniRllei vesisel, 
to keep it tram tlaating Ivlass should be pul over the lap of Ihe screen, so that the two 
iseperale vessels cannalbe seen. 




Fia 1 




1^ in DL^miltr 

Fiu f 



13 111 Diamelei 12 m Diameter 
F^. I F^ 2 





F^ 3 f .« .4 

F]g 3 F^ 4 

Buds aiidFish Appaienlly Togetlier 

Place Ihe buds intlie uinei vessel aiid Ihe fish ui llie water The effect is suipiL'Sii^ To 
complele the effect aiid aid Ihe lUusum Ihe vessels can be set in a box lined withblRck 
veluel, Di ana pedeslal — ConlribuledbyJ F Campbell, Soiiiei'h'ille, Nih^^ 

Ckuur far WldR Shoes [119] 

Finely gioiuidwlu ling mixed with walei to the consistency of paisle makes a very 
goad coaluig fai wlule slioes Abiush CEinbe used mapplyu^ Ihe miKtiiie which will 
diy ma few minutes 11 is best ta niiK only as much pasle asiei^uued far immediate use 
— Conlributed byL lizeihp, Brooklyn, N V 

Cioicicing Bell Laces [239] 

Belt loces slioiild iie\'ei cross an Ihe side next to Ihe pulley as they will cnttlieraselves m 
twa 

How loMnkfnCqndlevdikHoldei 1240] 

A candlestick of \'ery simple coiistiuc lion and des^n can be made as follows Seciiie 
a pece afbrRss or 




Candle Holder Camplete 



cappei af No 23 gauge af a size sufficient To mEike Ihe peces detailed in Ihe 
acconipfliiyu^ sketch A nv'etir^ hammer aiid h peii of pliers will be needed, also a 
pan of Im shears and a ptece of metal upon iffhich to nvel 

Cutout h piece of metal for the base to h size of 5-H2hy 5-112 m Tiun. Ihe shaip 
caineis off slightly Diawa pencil line EillaiDund tlie luaigmand 5/S m away from 
the ei^e With the pliers shape the sides as shown in tlie lUustraliDn 

Neat lay Dut llie holdii^ cup according to the planof develapnieiil sluDwn, Riid cnt 
oul Ihe shape with Ihe shears Polish both of these pieces, usii^ Einyof the comiiion 
inelal polishes Eivel Ihe cupta the base, andtlieii, ivilh Ilie pliers, shnpe Ihe sides as 
shown in the pliotagiaph The manner af inakii^ andfasteiur^ the hfliidle is cleaily 
lUnstiated Use a file To smaothall the cuT edges sa tliaT They will not mjure Ihe hands 

liinv'eling, caie should be lakeiita round up Ihe heads of the nuels nicely as a good 
mechanic mould Da nolbe contenl merely lo bend them ovei This rouiiEling is easily 
accomplished by sinking Riouiid Ihe nuets' aulei circumference, keepir^ the cenlei 
h^h 

A goad lacquer should be applied after Tlie parts have been properly cleaned and 
polished^ ta keep Ihe iiietfll fiam Tanushii^ 




^ ^"•tarti J 




DfuLlo oT CinillE HcLdo 
Details of CaiuUe Holder 

A Hamt-Made Di^brilor [24«] 



The usual gelatine paA, which is Ihe prnicipfJ part of the avenge heclogiaphoi 

duplicalor, ls, rs a lule, unsatisfactoiy, rs itis apt to soui and mold ui the suinmei Riid 
freeze uitlie wintei, wlucli, with aTher defects, often lendeiit useless afTer a few 
luonHis seivice 

A compound HiatLS Eilmosl indesliuctible is the pre pRiation sold alaitsloies as 
modeling clay Tius clay is rs easily worked as a putty siid is spieadinto Ihe hEiy, 
winch mEiy be of wood oitiii^ and Ihe suifRce leveled by poundir^ with h mallei or 
Immmei, Ihenby diawii^ h straightedge aver it 

The suifRce of Ihe pad is now satuiated wilhpure glycerine Tins is pained upon Tlie 
suiface after it Ls shghTly warmed^ covering Ihe SRiiie Riid Then laying a cloth over the 
pad and alia wing il lo stand long enough for Ihe clay To absoib Ihe glyceiuie, after 
wluchitis ready for use 

The ongmal copy is wiitlen with a copyuig pencil ai type written Ihroogh a 
he c Tog lapli ribbon A sheetof newspapei is laid upon the pad and a laund slick or 
pencil IS passed aver it to make tlie surface level and smooth Remove the newspaper 
and place Ihe or^uial copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it oul m Ihe 
same wayso tlial every part touches Ihe pad Remove the copyiii about five minutes 
and place Ihe clean sheets of paper one afler anolher on the suiface and remove Ihem 
From 50 to 73 copies of Ihe or^uial can be made ma short time 

Tlus compound IS mipeivioiis lo walei, so the negative punt is removed by simply 
washing with a damp sponge, the same as lemoving writing fiom a slate Tlus makes it 
possible To place anolhei ordinal on tlie pad immedialely without waiting for Ihe ink lo 
vanish by chemical achonas m Ihe ongmal hectograph 

The action of tlie ivealhei has no effect upon Ihis compound and it is proof against 
accident, for Ihe Iray maybe dropped and Ihe pad dented or culmto pieces, and Ihe clay 



CELiibe pegsedbRck and leveled The onlycaulioms lo keep it covered with a clalli 
satuialed mglyceiine while iiot iniL'se — CantiibutedbyA A Hoi^litoii, Noi+liville, 
Mich 

F^FT-Cl^ BooknATk [241] 

The caiLLbiuatLanDf El papei chpaod h cEJbrig coid loakes a gDodboDkiiiaik 




The chp aiidcardcaiibe kepi logetliet by piercing the caid aiidbeiidii^ the ends af tlie 
wue lo gtick through Ihe holes The cLpis Bltached to a page as Bliownmtlie sketch — 
ContribuledbyThas DeLoaf, Grand Rapds, Pvhch 

Avrafmg Wittr in a Small Tank |241] 

A simple wayof prodiicu^ an pessuie siifficieiilta Eiemle walei is by Ihe use of a 
isiphonas sliowniii Fig I The :3ipliDnis made af glass tubes, tlie loi^ei peceisbeii^ 
bent an one enda^ shawii The airreceivei Biid regulating device aie oltached to tlie top 
eiidof the lowertube, asshownm F^ 2 Tlie lecep'eroi ehi inletis the niDsluiiportanl 
pert It IS made af a glass tube, 3/4 in m diameter audi m long A liole is filed ar 
blown tlirough one side af Ihe glass for liie admission af air The ends of Ihe smaller 
glas? lubes are passed llirough coiks havii^ a diameter to fit tlie ends af tlus laiger lube 
The ends of lliese lubes sliouldbe sa ad]iisled that the contmuDus diops of walerfrom 
tlie uppei wiL fall mto Ihe tube beloiv The succession of air bubble? Ilius impnsaned are 
driven down Ihe tube Find mta the tankbelaw 

The regulataris placed m Ihe tube or siphon abcr^'e tlie an leceiver Its puipose is to 
letard the flow of water from the siphon above and make itdiap mpdly It consisis of a 
iTibbei connecting tube wilhtwo flatpeces af wood clamped cr^'er Ihe center and ad- 
justed withsciews Tlie appaiatiis is started by clamping the nibbei tube tightly and Ihen 
eKhauslii^ the aii mtlie siplion tube, tlienplacii^ the end mthe upper leservair and 
leleasuig the clamp uiilil the watei begins to drop If Ihe lesei'h'oii is kepi filled from the 
tank, tlie device will woik for anuidefiiute tune — Contiibutedby JolinT Dunlap, 
^hetdeslan, ^catland 




FIG 1 FIQ 2 

Farciiig All Tluough Walei 



ImilndonAinv 3iid Armar-FulII [242] 

ImileliDii swDids, stileHos EiiidbEitlk-Eizes, pul upa:3 Dinameiili;, will look well if they 
aie dimr^ed on a shield which ii; hung h^h upon a wall of a loam aihall, SEiys Ihe 
Ei^lish 




TbcBi FLEtnntH Cnnturr SvDnJn 

FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 

Three Fifleeiith Cenluiy Swords 

P.feclmnic, LDiidan The foUowiiig described euhis are outhenlic des^iis af llie di^uuI 
ailicles A GemiEui swoid af the fifleenlhcenluiy is uhowii uiF^ 1 This sword is 4 ft. 
long wilhtlie crosaguaid Eiiid blade af steel Tlie imitation uwordu niEide of loaodand 
CD\'eied with linfoil la paduce llie sleelcoloi The uliape of Ihe swaid is luaibed autan 
a piece af wood that is obout 1/Eui thick wilhtlie Eud af a sliaighledge and pencil, 
alia wing a lillle exiiii lenglhon which Id faslen tlie liandle Cul Ihe swoid out with a uaw 
and make bolh ei^es thin like a knife blade andsmoalhup wilh sandpaper The e>:tia 
lenglhfor Ihe handle is cut Pibout I m in widlh Eiiid II in long Tlie handle is iie:il CEUued 
and a moilise cutui one end lo leceive the liandle end of Ihe blade As the hiindle is to 



le pre sent copper, Ihe oniemenle lions can be bmll up of wiie, sliuig, smeLl rape and 
loimd-beaded iiaila, liie wliok fuially hiivu^ a Ihrn cool of glue looikedovcr il wiiha 
:3tiffbii5lle biiBli and fuushed wilhbiaiiae paint 

The croisabEii IS flatand Pibaul 1 m in widlh Cutlhi? outof b pece af wood Eind 
make a cenler hole to filov'er Ihe ezlia ler^lhoii Ihe bkde, glue and pal itm ploce Fill 
Ihe hole m Ihe hpindle wilh glue and putil on Ihe blade \Vlien Ihe glue is Ihoiong lily dry, 
lemove eiII tlie suiplop wiiha almip kiufe Wheels of luifoil Eue seemed foicoveiing Ihe 
blade Cut two atips of tinfoil, one aboul 1/3 in wider Ihiin Ihe blade Eind llie other IM 
m narrower Quickly covei one aide of the blade wiiha thin coeiI of glue and evenlylay 
on and press down Ihe nanawslnp of linfoil ^tick tlie widei slnpon Ihe olherside in 
llie same u^y allomr^ equal luaigin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of theblpide Glue 
llie oveilappi^ edgeu Eind piesu Jliem aiaund on Ihe surface of the naiiow atiip Tlie 
ciossguaid must be co^'eied in Uie SEmie niaimei eis llie blade When llie wliole is quile 
diy, wipe Ihe blade up and downsevemi tuueu wilhl^hlslrokes using a soft rag 

Tlie 5i«Tiid uhown in Fig 1i is a lioo-hiinded ^wiuu siooid aboul 4fl inlei^lh, uharp 
onbolhei^es wilh a hiindle of dart wood aiamid which is wound spmlly a hepi^'y jmece 
of brass oi coj^ki wiie and held in place with lamid-hEaded brass nails The blade Eind 
crossbai are ui inulEiliDnsleel Tlie projeclir^ omEinienI m Ihe center of Ihe ciassgnard 
maybe cntfiom lie avy pasteboard and bent mto uliape^ Ihen glued on Ihe blade eis 
sliown 

In Fig I IS uhowii a claymore, oi ^cotliah sword of the fifleenth century Tlup swoid 
isaboul4fl loi^ and lias El woodhandle bound closely Euauiid wilhheffh'ycDid The 
ciassbar and blade aie sleel, wilhbolhedgeu sliaip A Geiiuan poniard is shown ui Fig 
4 This weapon is about 1 fl long, verybioad, with wire oi string' bound handle, shEirp 
ei^es onbothsides Another poiuEiid of Ihe fomleenth centmy is uliown in Fig 5 Tins 
weaponiu also aboul I ft loi^ with woodhandle Eind steel embossed blEide Asi:ileeiith 
centuiy GeimanponiEird IS sliownui Fig 6 The blade Eind oniamenlal ciosdiai is of 
steel, wilhboth ei^es of the blEide sliaip Tlie liEindle is of wood A Geinsanslilello, 
someliines called cmiess breakers, is sliown in Fig 7 This stiletto lias ei wood handle, 
steel crosdjEii andblEide of sleel with both edges sliaip 

InF^ S Ls sliowna shoil-liandled flELil, wluch IS about 3-l/I!fl long wiiha dark 
liandle of wood, sludded wilhbmss or sleel nails A steel band is placed around tlie 
liandle neEuthe lop Tlie imilRlion of Ihe sleel bEind is made by gluing a pece of tmfoil 
on a strip of cardboaid and lacking it to Ihe hEindle Alaige sciew-e^ issciewed mto 
tlie top of Ihe hEindle Tlie spiked bEiU maybe niEide of wood oi clay Covei Ihe ball with 
some pieces of hiieii^ firmly glued on When dry, pamtila daik biawn oi black Alaige 
sciew-e^ miislbe uiserled m lliisball, the same as used on Ihe end of Ihe liandle, Riid 
both eyts coiinecled with ei small pece of rope Iwistedmlo shape Tlie rope is finished 
by covering with liiifbil ^onie short Eind hea\'y spike-headed nails Eue diiven mto Ihe 
ball to give it Ihe appearance sliownui Ihe lUusliEiliDn 

A Russian knout IS sliD^vii m Fig 9 The lowei half of Ihe liandle is of wood^ the 
upper pail uonoi sleel, wluch can be imitated by covenr^ a piece of woodtliatis 
piopeily shaped with tinfoil Tlie wliole liandle can be niEide of wood in one piece, the 
lower pEiil painled black and Ihe uppei part covered wilh linfoil A sciew-eye is screwed 
into Ihe upper end A length of real nan or sleel cliain is used to comiecttlie handle with 
llie bEill ThebEillis made as descnbedmF^ 2 Tlie spkes m the ball are about i in m 
lenglh These must be cut from pieces of wood, leffh'ing a small peg at the end Eind m llie 
ceiitei about the size of a No. 20 spike. The pegs are glued and mseiled into holes 
drilled uilo tlie ball 

InF^ 10 IS sliown a ^cla\'omc horseman's battle -a:ie which luis a hEindle of wood 
peuiled dark grayoi hghl brown, Ihe eikc is of sleel The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4- 
m wood wilh a keyiiole saw The laiind parlis mEide tliinandshaipon Ihe ei^e The 
tluck hainmei side of Ihe rkc is built up to Ihe necessary thickness lo cover tlie handle 
bygluii^ on pieces of wood Ihe same lliickness eis used for Ihe blade, and gradually 
shapii^ off to the middle of Ihe a^eby tlie use of a chisel, fuuslung with sandpaper and 
coveiii^ wilh linfoil Thiee biige, round- he EidedbiEiss oi iron nails fi:iedinlo Ihe front 
side of Ihe liandle will complele the aze 

Al Ihe begmnmg of Ihe sixleenlh century liorseman'sbatlle -axes shEiped as shown m 
Fig II weie used Bolh liandle and Eize are of steel This axe is made similar to Ihe one 



desciibed in Fig IQ When the woodwork is fimislied the handle and axe aie covered 
with luifoil 




Aiic le lit We opans 

How toMqht a Roiuid Bell WithoulZndjc |24)| 

A very good belt roEiy be niEide by laying seveieL shaiids of istiar^ canl, such, 
braided fislibne, together as ^howii uiF^ ! and wrapping them a:3 




^felhodofFo^ml^ The Bell 



uhowninFig 2 Wlien wrapped all tlie wayaiDund, Ihe eiuk are tied andcutotf This 
will mate a veiy good flexible belt, will pull wheie oHiei belts shp, and as the tension 
inembeK are all pialectedfram wear, will lasl until Ihe wrapping niembeiis worn 
through witlioulbeir^ weakened --Contiibutedby E W. Da\TS, Clue ago 

Old-Timt Magic - Tht Groiwing Flower P44] 

This tnck is peifonned with a wule-niDutliedjai winch is about ID in h^h If an 
eaillienjaiof llustindii; nolathand, use a glass fruit jar and cover il with black clalh ai 
pepei, so the contents cannot be seen 





Flowei Grows Inslfliitly 

Two pece:3 of wiie aie beiilas sliowniii Fig I aiidpullageliier eis inF^ 2 These wires 
aie pului Ihe ]ai, Pibautoiie-lhiid Ihe way down from. Ihe lop, willi Ihe circle cenlnilly 
localed The wues caiibe heldm ploce by care fully bending liie ends, aiusir^ small 
wedges of wood 

Cut a ^nre slioitei mlenglhtliantlie he^lil of Ihe ]E[1 and te a rose or several flowers 
an one end Put a coik m Ihe bottom of Ihe jEuandshck Ihe apposite eiidof Ihe wiie 
from where tlie flowers aie lied llirai^h Ihe circle of Ihe twa wiiei; and into Ihe cork 
The dolled hiies inF^ 3 shaw Ihe poisilian of Ihe wires and flaweis 

Ta make Ihe flower; grow man instant, pom walei mlo tlie jai otoiie side af Ihe wide 
mouth The cork will flopiland cany tlie wue wilh Ihe floweii; attached iipwaid, causii^ 
llie flowers to giow, appaienlly, m el few second^ time Do nalpour m lao much water 
Id raise Ihe flawers sd far tliat tlie wire will he seen — CDntnbaledbyA. S Macdonnld, 
Oakland. CEdif. 

Waler ind Wine Tzkk [244] 

This IS Eininlereshi^ tnctbRijed on the clieimcalpio|Krlies af acids and allahes The 
materials needed aie One gleiss pilchei, filled wilh water, four glass tmiiblers, an acid, 
an eJkEili and some plienalplilluJem soluliDn wluch can be oblEJiied fioni yiui IocbI 
druggist Befbie Ihe perfaiiuance, add a fewdiops af the phenolplilluilein to tlie water m 
llie pilcherandrub a smeJl qiianlityof Ihe altah solution an Ihe sides of two of Ihe 
tumblers aiidre|Kat, aiily using eis large a quantily af the acid as will escape notice on 
tlie remELiiiing tumblers Sel Ihe tumblers so ^u will know wluch is wluch and poceed 
as follows Take hold of a piepered lumblei wilh tlie leftliand andpoui from Ihe ptcher, 
held m Ihe light liand, some af the hquid The hquid Imiieduilo tlie glass will become 
red lite wine liettlas full tumbler aside and lake Ihe pitclier m Ihe lefl hand and pour 
some af the Lquid inane of Ihe tumblers cantmning Ihe acid as it is held m Ihe nght 
liand There will be na cliange incalor Repealbalh ptirls m Ihe same older tlienbegm 
to pour Ihe liquids contmned mtlie tmiiblei'sback mlo Ihe ptchei mtlie ordei reversed 
and Ihe excess of Eicid wiUneiitialize Ihe flUleiIi and cause il lo lose its caloi and mtlie 
end Ihe picher will canlaina caloiless liquid -Conhibutedby Kemielh Weeks, 
Budge Ion, N J 

Cheqp Nnils ore E?f fitsive [244] 

The life of iron shir^le nails is abaut d years An iron mill CEinnatbe used E^ainin 
puthi^ on a new roof liohd zinc luiils loslfarevei and can be used as aftenas 
necessaiy As sine is muchl^hlet than iron, Ihe costof zmc nails is only about 2-1/3 
times Ihnl of iron nulls 



Cutting Lantern Slide Moskt [245] 



Ithasloi^beeiia puzzJe [a me whyiomidcaineiedmEisks Eue almost iiivanabLy iised 
for laiilem slide:;, when iiidsI waiks of art are uicluded witlmi lecter^nlRi spaces, says a 
caneispondeni af E*halo Era Ceitauily I3ie pre^eiil coinmeKial iiia^ks aie m very poor 
tpisle Tlie worker wlia wishes to make tlie oiost of e\'eiy slide will do welllo cutlus 
awn masks, not only be cause of Ihe factjustmenliDiied, but also because he can suit tlie 
size of the openii^ to Ihe requiiemenlsof eachsLde Glides can be ipaiks af ail]iislas 
much as piir[ts,SD Ihal masking a sLde becomes just as impoitant as lnmnur^ a piiiit, 
and equally worthy of uidividual trealment It is folly to give each slide a mask opening 
of uiufomi sise and sliape 

Wlien many slides aie to be masked, it becomes tedious work to tieat each one 
sepemtely, unless some special de\'ice ls used The accompanyii^ drawii^ shows a way 
to mark masks which is sunple, pracbcaland costs nolliing The drawii^ is e:iac(ly 
Ipintem slide siEe 

Lay the shde o\'ei such a guide and note the size of tlie openu^best suited to the 
picture This wiUbe deteniunedby the mtei'section of Ihe ruled hues, which are 
niimbeiedfoi conveiuence m woikuig If tlie siEe wanted is No 4 for width and No 3 
for lieight, place tlie guide ovei a piece ofblack mask papei and pnck tlirough Ihe 
piaper mterseclior^ with the pomlof a pui This outlines Ihe desired openir^, wluch 
may then be cutout easily with a knife and straight ei^e 

The black paper from plale boxes and film lalls is e:icellent for making masks It 
should be cut up inpeces 3-lMby4in and kept ready for use at any lime 







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FDnn bi Mdrklm Out R«L9PBu]aj Idnlcm 915ilr Ud^i 

Form for ^^ikir^ Oul Rectai^ulai Lantern ^lide Fvlasks 

Rthrving the We^hl of a TaDdng Machine R^ndiuer [24&[ 

Too loud reproduction fioin a record, Ihe sciatcliii^ noise sometimes lieaidand Ihe 
forcti^ of Ihe needle inio a sofi record, because Ihe ei:teiisianarm and reproducer aie 
too heavy, can be remedied mtlie fallowing inaimei Atlacha small m^ to the under 
sule of the liomand use a rubber band lo lif>tlie extendir^ aim sightly —Contributed 
by W A Jaquythe, Riclmiond, Cal 



How n Malw a ThnmameKr BacknEtcked Copper [2A6] 



Elclung copper is iiol a very difTicull process Secuie a slieetof Na 16 gange coppei of 
the width and lenglb 




Copper Tlieiniomeler Holder 

wanted fai llicback of the Hiemiomelei. In Uie deagn shown llic CKlrcme widlhu 3-1/3 in 
and the e:ilienie length 7 ui 

Dmwa dcu^n The one uliawnis merelysuggeatiue The worker niay change llie oulline di 
propoilion'3 a? desired The decaiPitmn, too, maybe changed Tlie esMntiallhuig l3 to keep a 
upace upon which lo place the Iheimameter This des^n is in what i? known bs twD-jwrl 
uynimeliy A line is diawndawntlie paperandane-hpilf of Ihe Duthne piid decoration worked 
oul This done, the paper is folded alor^ Ihe center line, a piece of ceibonpepei lu mseited 
between the folds and llie des^nlian^feiredon the innei smfacesbytrpicu^ with a pencti 
ovei llie lialf of the outline peviDusly drawn Trace the design and outline upon Ihe metal 
using the caibon p^per 

CulDulthe ontluie wrih metal shears end file the edges smooth 

With a small biush and oiduiaiyauplialtmnorblBckvpnupli, paint llie design, the niB^ui 
and the enlireback of llie metal When tlus coat has dried put on a second and then a third 
The auphalliun is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed lalei fiameetii^ 
anypartof the melalbatlhebBcl^ioimd. Two coets ormoie are needed to wilhstpiiid the ac- 
tion of the acid 

The acidbath IS composed of lutnc acid and wetei, aboat helf end lialf, oi, possibly, a httle 
less acid than water, llie nuKtore being madebypauiing the acid into the watei, not llie water 
mio llie acid, wluchis dar^erous Keep this solubon off llie liands andclotlies, and do iiol 
inhale llie fumes 

Put tlie asphalt-coated me lalm the bath and allow it to remain for fonr or five hours, 
depending upon Ihe thickness of the melalandthe slienglhof Ihe acid With a slick, oi a pair 
of old tongs, take the melaloulof llie acid occasionally and e:iaiiiine it to see how deep the 
acid lias eaten it — 1/32 in is about I'^ht for the No I6gai^e 

Whenelched to llie desired depth, remove the pece and wilh an old knife" scrape off Ihe 
asphaltum Finish the cleaning by sciubbing wilh turpentine and a brush having sliff bristles. 

If the me talis first CO veied with lurpenline and tlie n healed ovei a flame, all the coloia of 
the rainbow will appeal on its surface These colois fade away in the conrse of a long time, 
bul they can be easily revrved Aiclhei way to get these colois is to lieatthe melal and then 



plm^c ilinla llie acidbalhqmcUy 

A greenfimpliisoblainedbypeinlu^ llie backgiannd wi 111 an acid stpiin composed as 
follaws 1 perlaimiiDniB mmiPilc, 3 paite Biiimanw ca±ianale, 24 jHits walei If one caal does 
iialgiue llie depth of coIdi desned, le peal as mpiny times as is iiecessaty, pJlaffing eoch 
coat time to diybefote applyii^ llie iie:il 

To "fix" IIuscdIdi go dial il will not lub ofT, Eind Id keep the raelBl&am iBnushir^, 
apply a coal ofbEtnaiia od DilRcquei 

TlieriiiDmeleisof :3iiitEible size can be bought in eidiei brass ai nickel They hnve 
lioles lluough then lop Euidbotloiitends Ihiough winch metal pepei fasleneii; canbe 
nisei led^ and lliese in turn put Ihioi^h holes punched m the coppsibRck 

To Makf an ElHirk Piano [247| 

Make or buy a table, about 3 ft long and 1 fl or moie wide, and Eiboul 1-iSl fi li^h 
Kail El board. A, F^ I, aboulS ui wide and of the isanie lei^lhas Ihe table, to the table, 
as shown in Ihe illustiation Paint Ihe table any coLai desired 

Piucliase El dozen or ^a batleiy eleclnc bells (they Eue cheaper if boi^hl by llie dozen) 
andscrewthem lo tlie boEiid, asm Fig 2 Arrange Ihe bells m Ihe scEile shown atB, Fig 
2 Bare two lioles near Ihe posts of eEichbeEfbr Ihe wires to pass tloough 
Butlons fbi Ihe bells maybe puichELsed, butilis cheapei lo make them m Ihe foUowu^ 
way TEike a pece of wood Eind cutitiaiind, aboul 2-1^2 m indiaiiketeiand IM m 
tlnck. Fig 3, and bare two holes, C and D, throi^hil Then gel two posts, aboul I in 
long, CbRlteiy posts ^nll do) Riidpnttliem thioi^h tlie hales as in Fig 4 Cut out a pece 
of tin, 3y3m wide, punch a hole tliroughil and put in under postE, so that when it is 
piessed down, it will louchposlF IlmEiybe eilhei nailed aiscie wed dawn. 




Ho^ lln Ulti^lflr pLjno l» CQ'Ulcimf4 

How the Eleclnc Piano is Constiiicted 



Pvfeke two holes m Ihe table foi each button Eind its wires, ns eiI H, Fig 2. Kail eii 
screw the buttons to Ihe Inble, as shown mF^ 5, with Ihe wiiesurulemeEilh The 
comiections are simple 1, Fig 5, is a wiie nmimig fioni one end of the lab le to die other 
end, allEiched to a poslateach end, Jisanolhei wue altaclied m Ihe SEime way, L is tlie 
CELibon wire lumung from Ihe bEiltenes lo I, Mis Ihe zinc wire iiinning front Ihe batlenes 
lo wue J, D mdicales Ihe batlenes. Pis ei wue nmiung fioin J to one posi of abullon, Q 
IS anolhei wiie rumiii^ fiointhe other post of Ihe button to one of the posts of Ihe bell, 
R IS a wire running from I to one poslof Ihe bell When Ihe bultonS is pressed, die bell 
willnng Each button sliouldbe comiecled wilh its bell in the SEime way — Conliibuled 
byVincentde Ybanoiulo 



Iinil4tHn ArHT inl Aiin*r - FART III [248] 

K1flce:3 and battle -a:ies patterned aflei and made in imilationof the ancienlweopsris 
which weie used fioni Ihe 




F-j I 



F4« 




flO< 



Ancient We epoiiE 






fourteenth la the gixleenlh century ptodiice fine aniEinients for the IieJI aideii, ^sys the 
English t'leclianic Tlie iniitRliDnai"ticLes are made of iffood, llie steeLptuls lepieisenled 
by liiifDil stuck on Willi giue Riidtlie ornaments carved out with a canng tool 

An Ei^hshmace used about the middle of Ihe fifteenth century is shown in F^ I 
The entire lenglh of tins weapon is Eibou[24 in , tlie handle is round with a foiir-sided 
shaip spite ei:Ieiidii^ out Sam the points of sik Inangular sliaped wu^s Cut the handle 
and spike fioni one piece of wood and glue the wmgs on at equal distEinces apflitEuaimd 
tlie base of the spike Tlie tivobanEls or wmgs can be made bygluii^ two pieces of lope 
around the handle andfastemng it with lacks Tliese ni^s can be caiuedoiit, but Ihey 
are somewliat difficull to make After the glue is diy, remove all the siuplus that lias 
been piessed out fioni the joints with the paint of a shaip knife blade and llien sandpaper 
tlie surface of the wood to make it smooth liecuie some tinfoil to CD\'ei Ihe purism 
imilationof steel A tliin coat of glue ls quickly applied to Ihe suiface of Ihe wood and 
the tiiifbd laid on evenly so Iheie will be no wnnkles and without making anymoie 
seams llianis necessaiy The entire weapon, handle and all, is to appear as steel 

Anengmved uanmace of the fifleenlh centiuyisshownm Fig 2 Tliis weapon is 
about 22 in long, mounted wilh an eight-sided oi octagonal head it wiUbe easier to 
make this mace in Ihiee pieces, Ihe Dclagonalheadmone piece and the handle in two 
parts, so tliattlie circular slueld shown at the lowei end of the handle can be easily 
placed between the pails The cuculai piece oi slneldcanbe cut from a piece of wood 
about IM in Ihicb The circle ismaikedoul wilh a compass A liole isniade lluoi^h the 
c elite I for the dowel of the Iwo handle pdrls when they are put togelhei A ivood peg 
about 2 m loi^ sei'h'es as the dowel A hole isboiedm the end of both handle pieces 
and Ihese lioles well coated with glue, the wood peg uiseiled in one of tliem, the shield 
put on m place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to sel The head is 
fastened on tlie end of Ihe liandle wilh a dowel m the same mannei asputlir^ tlie handle 
parts togelhei 

The head must liav-e a patlem skelchedupon each side m pencil marks, such as 



aiiiamentiilMtolls, leave?, floweis, elc Thege amEiiiieiili; mu'slbe caiued oiil to h deplii 
afaboutlMui wilii a sliatp carvir^ tool If suclia loalt; nalathaiid, or Ihe ainaleui 
caiinaluse il well, rii excelleiilsubsliliile will be fbmidm iisuig a sliarp-pomled and led- 
liDtpDkei, Di pieces of heovywue lieated la bumouldie pattern la die de^iied deplh 
The lianrlle also hag a sciolllobe eiigiEived When Ihe whole is finished and cLeRiied 





Or 






D 



D 





^•^9 



Batde Ases of Ihe Fouiteenth, FifleendiandliixteenlhCenlunes 

Up, il iscoveied mlhliribilin imilalian of sleel The tuifod should be applied carefully, 

asbefoie menlioned, and fiiinly pressed mlo die er^iaved paits widi Ihe ftiiger hps di 
diuiiib 

A Frenchniace iisedm Ihe siKteendi centiiryw shownuiFig 3 This weapon is Piboul 
22 in Idi^ and has a wood handle covered widi dark red clolhoi velvet, the lawerpait 
to have h goldot led silt caid wound aioiind il, f\s shown, the wliole liandle finished olT 
with sniELllbiass-headed nails Tlie top has six DinainenlaLcaived wii^s wluch Eue cul 
ant, fastened on the handle and coveied with linfDil, as descnbedm Fig 2 

Figure 4sliows a P.^mii^ Slai wluchis about 26 m long The spkedballand Ihe 
foui-sided and sliarp-poinled spite are of steel The ball maybe made of clay ai wuod 
and covered wilh linfail The spites are cut autaf wood, shaip-pomled andcane- 
shaped, the base having a brad to slick into Ihe ball The woad spikes are also coveied 
with biifoil Tlie liandle is of sleel imitalian, coveied in the midElle widi led clolhor 
velveland studded with laige -headed sleel naib 

A war liammeiaf the fifteenth centiuy IS shown inF^ 5 Its lenglhis about 3 ft The 
loweilialf of die handle is woad cov-eied widi red velvet, with a golden ai yellow cord 
wound spirally o\'e I Ihe cloth Tlie upperhalf of Ihe liandle ls sleel, also, Ihe hammer 
and spike Tlie entire handle should be made of one pece, then the hanmiei put on the 
base of the spike The spike made with a peg m its lawei end and well glued, can be 
firmly ]:iaced in position by the peg fitlu^ m a liole made faiils leceplionm llie lopaf 
die handle Finish up Ihe steel paits with linfoil 

The fallawing desciibed weapons can be cansliucledof Ihe same matenals and buill 
up 111 the same way as desciibed mtlie faiegoii^ articles A hoisenian's shoit-handled 
baltle-axe, used at Ihe eiidof Ihe fifteenth centuiy, is sliownm Fig if The liandle is of 
wood and the a:ie munilation steel F^uie 7 shows an English haise man's baltle-axe 
usedatthebegmimig of Ihe reign of Queen Ehzabelh The handle and ai:ebalhare la be 
shown m steel A German fool soldier's poleai:e used, at Ihe end of Ihe fouiteenlh 
cenluiy IS sliownin Fig 3 The liandle ls made afdait woodand die axe covered wilh 
tinfoil F^me 9 shaws an English foot saldiefsjedbuigh axe af the sixteenth cenluiy 
Tlie lianrlle is of waod, studded wilh laige brass ai steel nails The axe is shown m steel. 
All af these axes are abautthe same lenglh 



Flaying BqsAaJLwith 4 PocktrKnift [2501 

Aiimleteslu^ gfliiie a f baseball can be played by two peisDna wilho CDOiman pocket 
kiufe on h ramyday or in 



F-ic a 



f,-. 4 



t.w 9 




Fi» a 



Pasilions of tlie Knife Indicole tlie Play^ 

tlie winter time ffhen Ihe legulai game CEiiinalbe played Dutdaois The knife is opened 
and la DseLy stuck into aboEiri as in Fig I, and with a quick 

upwRid maveinenlof Ihe forefn^ei i1 ls lluaivn into Ihe aiito fall and land in one of the 
poalioiis sliown Tlie pla^ are deteiiiunedby Ihe position of the knife aflet the fall 

A fbulballis indicRledbyF^ 3, die kmfe lesluig on ilsback The small blEide 
sticking in the boaid which holds the handle inanupi^hlposiliDn, as sliown m Fig 3, 
calls fot h home run Both blades slicking in Ihe boaid{Fig 4), a Ihiee-base lut A two- 
bEise Inl IS made ffhenthe la^e blade sticks m Ihe board. Fig 5 A one-bRse lutis se- 
emed iffhen the laige blade and Ihe endof Ihe liandie touch Ihe boardasmFig 6 The 
knife fEdhr^ onils side (Fig 7) calls for one oul Eachpeison pl^ys until tliree ouls liav-e 
been made, then tlie other pla^, andsD onfbi nine mniugs — ConhibuledbyHeibeil 
Hahn, Chicago 



How n Senuiv« Faiptr Stuck t« 3 Negalivv [250J 

When making phDlagiRpluc pruili; fioiii a negalive, SDmelmies a diapof moisluie mil 
cause Ihe piuitlo sTick la Uie gelatine filiii on Ihe glass ReniDve a:3 oiuchaf tlie paper as 
can be leadilytoni off and soak l!ie negative m h fresh hypo bolhaf 3 ar4oz hypo tn 1 
pi of walei foian liom 01 Iwo Tliena liltle genlle lubbir^ with Ihe finger-nal the finger 
nEul wiUiemave anylluog Etdheiuig to Ihe filaii llQiRybe fbmid tliat the negaTive 1:3 nal 
calaied If itisspotled htfiH, the negahve muslbe washed fai a few minulei; and placed 
ma combined toning Find Bxii^ bath, iffluch wJI remove the spot^ ma couple af 
lioui^ The negative must be leell wfluhed afhi going tluai^hthe sohilians to take 
awny Riiy liRce of hypo 

OM-TimeMagic- ASuckTriikpSl] 

The DiELgLciEin appeals accompdoiedby his assistant He has h sack sunilailD a meEJ 
bag only an h laige scale The upper end of thLsbag is slioira m F^ I, with the rope 
Ificed m the clath He then selects seveial people from the audience as a coiomillee lo 
e:ie[mine the sack to see Ihat there is Eibsolutely no deceplian wlialevei in its makeup. 
When Ihey are satisfied tlial the bag or sack is alli^ht, Ihe magiciEin places lus 
assistant uiside and drawing Ihe bj^ aiaiind him he flUows Ihe cammiltee to be lam ap 
wilhas many kiiols as Ihey clioose la niEike, as sliowniiiF^ 2 

The bag wilhits occupant is placed m a small cabinet which Ihe coinmitlee 
sonaund ta see Ihat there is no outside lielp The luj^ician Ihen lakes his watch and 
shows the audience tlial mless tlian 30 seconds his assistant will emeige from llie 
cabinet with the sack mhis hand Thw lie does, the sack is j^am esammed and found 
to be the same as when il was fust seen 




Bach trtek— HeUlns rbt Bupr Ini'Ulr lEi* Bib 

Sock Tnck-Holdiiig Ihe Rope Inside tlie Bag 

The solution is when Ihe asaistani enleis tlie bag lie piiUs inaboul 15 in of the rope 
and liolds it, as shown in F^ 3, wlule Ihe committee is tying liim up As soon as lie is 
m the cabmel lie merely lels out the slack thus inaktng enough looni foi lus body to 
pass through When he is out of Ihe bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps 
from his cabuiel.-Conlnbntedby J F Campbell, Sonieiville, Mass 



Th« Entiiaik Li^r |Z51| 

The magician places Iwo common wa:i candles on a table, one of lliembuinii^ 



biiglitly, tlie olher wilhaul h h%b.t Members of tlie audience are allowed to inspect 
both the tflble Find the candles 

The niELgtciELii i»elk^ Dvei to the bunuog candle, simdes the l^htfot a feiw 
seconds, turns to Ihe aodience with lus luinds h feiv mclies apRit, sluDwmg tlie) Ihere is 
no Ihir^ between Ihe in, at Ihe same lune SEiying llial he lias a Lghlbetiveen Ins liands, 
invisible lo Ihem (Ihe audience), with which he is gair^ fa l^htthe alher candle He 
then wallcs over lo Ihe other candle, ani in. plain, s^hl af llie audience lights the 
candle appaiently with nolhii^ 

InieEihty the nu^ician has a very fme wue in his Imiid ivhich lie ls heatir^ while he 
bends Dvei the l^hled candle, and the audience gaze on and see notlung He lams lo 
the Dlhei CEindle and touches h giam af phasplioms llial lias been previoosty cancealed 
m the wick mlh Ihe healed wiie, thus causu^ il lo Light -ContiibutedbyC Biowii, 
NewYoikCily 

U:«ing tht Sun's Lighrini Magk L^nttiii [251] 

The Lght fumished with h small iiiagic lanlein does very well for evening 
e:iliibiliaiis, buttlie lantern CRnbe used m the daylime with goad results by diiectir^ 
sunl^hl throi^h liie lens insleadof upii^ Ihe oil lamp 

A window facing the sun is selected Riidthe sliade is diawnalmosldawn, tlie 
remaining space being co\'eiedbya piece of heavy papei A small hole is 



^-^ 




LAKioav 






^^t*. 




Siin'p Biyi PdUd TEichiieIi Luiiem 



culin Ihe pniKi Find tlie lanlem placed on a lable in front of the hole, Ihe lamp having 
been remov-ed and the back opened Tlie lantern niuslbe arrEir^edso IhRl Ihe lens will 
be on a hanzonlal line wilh Ihe liole in tlie paper A minoi is liien placed just oulside af 
tlie window and at such an angle lliat Ihe beam af l^hl is Ihiown tluough Ihe hole mtlie 
ptipei and Ihe lens of the lanlem 

The shades of Ihe reniEiinmg windaivs are then drRwii and tlie lanlem is opetRled m 
tlie usual way -ConlributedbyL B Evans, Lebanon, Ey 

A Hind; DriU Gauge [152} 

Tlie accompenymg sketch slioivs h simple diiligEii^e which will be faund very handy 
for PimRleui's The gauge cansisis af a piece of liard wood, 3/4 ui tliick, with el widlhand 
ler^lhlhat wiUbe smiable for tlie sise and number afdiills ynnhave on hand Drill a 
hole through the wood with each diiU you hove and place a screw eye ui ane end lobe 
used as h liangei When ^u wpintlo drill a hole for a pipe, ball. 



Dnll Gauge 

screw, etc , ynn lake Ihe gai^e and find whalsise diiUmuslbe usedui diilling Ihe hole.- 
ConliibuledbyAndiewG Thome, Louisville, Ky 

Stovt Fohsli [2521 

A goadslove polish CEin be made bymizii^ togelhei 1 lb of plumbago, 4oz of 
tiupenluie, 4nz of walerand I oz of sugar Whx well and apply with a cloth oibmsh 



A Hanu-Made D^iiirn CfJI [252] 

Aiiefieclive Daniell galvanic cell iiiEiybe coiisliucledfiDm inaleiialcasluig veryliHie 
money A caminaii liii loinato can with a copper wiie soldered to Ihe top forms the jar 
and positive elecliode A piece of discaided stove znic rolled into anopencjdinder nf 
about l-i^3-in diEmieter, 5 in long, with a coppei wiie :3oldeied atone endfoniis Ihe 
negative electrode 

To niEite the paiaiis cell, roll a piece of heavy biDwn wmppmg papei, oiblatluig 
ptiper, into a tube of several tluckneisses, aboul 5 m long i*ilii an mleinal diameter of 2 
m Tie Ihe pepei finnly Id prevent imiollii^ and close up one end with plaster of pens 
lOm tliick Itis well to sLghtly clioke the tube tobetlerietam the pla:3tei Tlie paper 
used must be unsized so Ihal the solution scan iningLe through the poieg 

Two liquids are necessary foi Ihe cell Make a stior^ solution m a glass di wooden 
vessel of blue vitnol in water Dilute some oilofvitnol (sulpliunc acid) with aboul 12 
tunes its measiue of wateiandteepinabDltle when not m use In making up the 
solution, add the acid to the water with constant sturing Do ncl add natei to th^ acid 

Tlie cell IS cliaigedbyplacu^ tlie zmc mtlie paper tube and both placed into Ihe tin 
can Coruiectlhe two wires and pour the dilute aciduito the poiaiis cell aiaiind the sine, 
and Ihen immediately turn the blue vitnoI solution mto Ihe canoulside the paper cup 

A current generates at once andmelaUic copper begins to deposilon the uiside of the 
can ItLsbesI lo lei Ihe acliDEi continue for a half hour or so before puttii^ the cell into 
use 




Several hours workup will be required before the film of coppei becomes suiTicienlly 
tluct lo prolect the tmfiam conasion when the cellslands idle For llus reason it will be 
necessaiy lo pouroul Hie blue vitiiol solution mto another receptacle immedialely after 
tliroughusir^, as otlierwise the tm would be soon eaten full of holes Tlie porous cap 
should always be empliedaflei using to pievent the difTusion of the blue vilnol solution 
into the cup, and tlie pa|Mr tube must be well nnsed before puttir^ away to dry 

This makes one of the mostsatisfactorybalteiy celb on accoimt of tlie constancy of 
its current, nmmiig for hours at a time witlioul mateiially losii^ strengtli^ and the low 
cost of maintenance makes it es|Kcially adapted foi amatems' use Its ciinent strength is 
about one volt, but can be made up mto any le quired voltage m series Abatlery of a 
dozen cells should cost not to exceed 5Q cts for the material, wluch will give a strong, 
steady c line lit, amply suiTicient for all oidinaiyexpe rune ntal work 

A stiar^ solution of common salt maybe used m place of the oil of vitnol in tlie 
poious cup, but IS not so good -Contributed by C H Denniston^ Pulteney N Y 

AHome-M3dtEqu4tozinl[2?J] By Harry Clark 

The ordinary equatorial IS des^ned and built foi the latitude of the observatory where 
it IS to be used This is necessary since the houi axis must point to the noith pole of die 
heavens whose elevation above the hon^DU is equal to tlie latitude of the observei's 



:3lE[liDn The fiiuiladjiL'Stiiieiilof Eiiioidinary eqiialDnal is veiy tedious ^o lliat when once 
:3el up it IS iiotlobe moved Tlus callsfDia siulable house la piotecl Ihe instnuueiil It 
lias been tlie aim of Ihe wntei ta builda very :3ini pie uisliumenl foiamateui woik which 
would be E[d]uslable ta any latitude, so easily set up ready foi ifaik and so poitable Ihat 

it need not be lefl out of doors tram ane e'v'enii^ luilil Ihe next 




iDBtfulJHDt ta LDEHUhC SUfB 

InsbunientforLocalir^ lilais 

The instiumentis mounted on a tnpod aiEmece of uon ppe canymg a shorl veihcal 
lod of 3/3-in steel Areclai^ulai i^oaden frame with smiable beaiings rololes about this 
shnfl The frame has also tivo lioiiaontelbeEuu^s carryii^ a short shiift to Ihe end of 
which Ihe fieme canymg Ihe horn axis is fumly clamped By Ihis aiiangemeni of two 
peijKiiEhciilai sliafis Ihe liouiaxis maybe directed lo any pomtui Ihe heavens without 
CEiie as to liow Ihe tiipod or pipe is setup 

The frame for the lioiir axis is about 13 in long with Rbeaiii^ at each end The shiift 
which it CEimes is 1/4-in steel, canymg Ihe houi cucle at one end, Eind al the olhei Ihe 
frpime foi Ihe dec lum lion axis which is sunilar Id Ihe other, bul somewhal l^hlei The 
declination Eizis IS also of il4-ui steel, canymg oloiie end the decluiEitionciicle and die 
pointer at tlie otiier 

The eiitue fmme of the uislnimenl is made of clieny Eindil willsa\'e Ihebmlder much 
time if lie will purchase clieny Tiinutuie" iiduchLS usedbypmlers Riidcanbe oblained 
from Piny punters' supply company II ls best quahty ifoodfiee from impeifections m 
sti'a^hl sinps one ^idlong and of r uniform width of aboul 5^ m As to tluckness, 
any mnlltple of llT-poml (about 1^3 m) inaybe oblEuned, thus saving inncliivaik in 
fitting up joints FiRy cents wiUbuy eiioi^li woodfoi anentiie mstmment All 
comeis are CRie fully mortised and braced with small brass ar^le-peces Tlie fiaiue is 
held logelher by small bipss niaclune sciews Aftei much expennientetion wilh 
beanies, it wns found best to make them m lialves as melal bearings are usually made. 
The loose half is held in place by guides on all foui sides and is t^htenedbytwo 
scieivs wilh milled nuls A great deal of liaubte loas eKpenenced mboni^ out tlie 
beanies uiilil the folloivii^ nietliod was devLsed One hole wnsboied as well as 
possible The beaiiiig was tlien loosened and abil iiui tluoi^liil to bore tlie other 
Finally, a pece of sliafling was lai^lienedby lalluig it on a file placed mboth 
beanies and turned with a brace The bearings were giadually hghteneduntd perfect- 
ly giound 

The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the liour axis and Ihe line of 
sighlov'er Ihe psmter To insuie tliis, a posilp'e adjuslnienl was provided Theendof 
the sliaftis clamped in a slioit block of wood by means of abeanr^ like the ones 
desciibed One end of Ihe block is lurked Id Ihe axis frame, whde the olhei end is 
attached by two sciews, one drawing llieni logelhei, Ihe otiiei holdup Ihem apait The 



a:iis IS ad] listed by luinu^ fliese serene Eachshafl, save Ihe one m the pjK. is 
piovided with Ihi^ adjiistnieiit 

The pomler is of two very thmistiijF placed atr^ht angle:; Riid lapeied sightly at 
eachend The claiap is attached a:3 isliownuitlie iliastialiDii The eye piece is ablatk 
uoii washer supported an a small stiipaf ivoad The apertoie sliouldbe 1/4 in., smce 
the pupil of Ihe eye dilate? very much uidfliknes? The enoi due to large aperture is 
redacedby iisir^ a very lor^ paintei ivhich also makes it possible to fbcos Ihe e^ 
upon the franl s^htand the stai siniultaneDU'sly Tlie forward s^hl is abr^hlbiass 
peg illiuiunaledby a Imy eleclnc lamp with a leflecloi to slueld tlie eye The pointer 
anai^ed m Ihis way is a greal inipravenieni aver Ihe halloiv tiibe sonielinies iised, 
guice it allows anunabslrucled view af Ihe heavens wliile mdicafii^ Ihe exact painl in 
queshan 

The circles af Ihe mstinment are of aluminiun, attached ta the ishaft:; by means of 
wooden clamps They ivere nicely graduated by a hame-made dividii^ ei^me af very 
simple consbuclion, and llie flares weie er^raved with a pentagiaph The readir^ in 
indicated by a cnl on a small aLimimum plate attached ta a pDuitei The houi circle is 
divided mta 24 parts and subdl^^ded to every foiu niinutes The funics are aiiai^ed 
so that ivhenthe uislmmenl is set up, Ihe iiumbei of lioors increases ivhile Ihe pointer 
ba\'els oppositely lo Ihe slars The declination circle is giaduatedfrom zeio to 90 deg 
m each direclian fram Iwa pDints I3Q deg apait It is, adjusted ta read zero when Ihe 
pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicolar as sliowii in the picture 

To adjust the inslrumenl il is setapan the iron ppe and the pointer diiected ta some 
distant object Allsel screws, e:iceplii^ those on Ihe declination axis, aie l^htened 
Then the pointer is carefully turned Ihroi^h ISO deg and if it is not again diiected lo 
the same poml, it is nal perpendicular ta the declination axis \VhenpopeiLy set il 
will describe a great ciicle With the declinalian axis uianappiaxinialelyhaiiaanlal 
posibon Ihe place wheie Ihe pomler cuts the lioriEonis noted The decbnabon aKis is 
then tomed tluai^h I3Q deg , when the pouiler sliould again cut at the same place 
Piaper adjiislmenl will cause itta do sa It is desuable tlial Ihe lioui circle shaiild read 
approKiiiiPitely zero ivhen Hie declination axis is lionzonlal, but this is not necessary 
for a reasan saon lobe explained All these adjuslnienis, once carefully made, need 
no I be changed 

Innsmg Ihe inslroment Ihe hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the 
followii^ metliod Poml ilapproxmiatelylo Ihe naithslar The pole is 1 deg andl^ 
nun from the stai on a sbaight line fram the star la "Misai," the stai al the bend of Ihe 
liandle in the B^ Dipper Turn the hour ciicle into a posilian where the pointer can 
desciibe a circle throi^h "Misar " Only a loughsetlii^ is necessary Nai* turn the 
pointerso Ihata leadir^ of 3S deg 45 mm shows ontlie declinalioncircle on llial 
side af 90 which is toward "&'1i2ar " When this is done, clamp both axes and turn the 
shafts m Ihe base until Ihe pomler is diiected accuiately to the north slai It is e\^dent 
from a study of Hie picture that the position of the smEill pomler wliichuiElicates the 
readily on Ihe haiircucle is noliiideiKndenl of Ihe way m ivhichthe Inpodoi pipe is 
setup II would then be useless to adjust it carefully ta zeio ivhen the pamtei cuts Ihe 
"zemlh" as IS done with a laige eqoatonal Instead^ Ihe adjusbnentis made by setlir^ 
the clock or ivalch which is pail of Ihe oatfit The pomteris directed lo Alpha, Cas- 
siapiae, and Ihe hour reading subbacted from 341iauis (tlie appioxunate right 
ascension of tlie star) gives Ihe tmie which Ihe clack shauldbe sel lo indicate All of 
these settings should require nal more tlianfive minutes 

To find a stai in Ihe heavens, laok up its declinahon and right ascension m an atlas 
^el Ihe declination circle lo lis leadir^ ^oblractthe clock lime from the i^hl 
ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and sel Ihe lioui circle to the resoll The star will Ihen 
be seenonthe lip of the pointer 

To locale a known slai an the map, turn Ihe pomler to the ster Declination is read 
directly Add tlie clock lime to the houi readir^ lo getr^hl ascension If the result is 
more tlian 24haurs, snbttaci 24. 

A Giaund Ghns S'lib^tiiure [2S5] 

Ordinaiyplam glass caaled with the followir^ mixlore will make a goodgroDnd 



glass sub^hlule Dissolve 13 gr of gum sandRiac and 451 of gum mR^Qc m 3-IO di 
of elhei, then Eidd 1 3-3 di benaale If Ihi^ will he loo hansparent, Eidd h liTtle moie 
beiiEole, Idbu^ caie not to Eidd loa much Covei one ^ide af a cleai glhss andafleidiy- 
u^ il wiUpioduce a peifecl suiface fai use a:3 h giouiid glass m cametas -Coiilribuled 

byRfiyE ^tiosmdei, Plam Cily, Ohin 

AMinumieWaxDqncF [2SS] 

A pece of papei, 3 ai 4 m long, la folded seveiEil tmies, rs shown m Ihe skelcli. Find 
the fust fold lodcked outta repieseiilone-half of Ein Indian Cut out all the folds at one 
tmie on the dotted line andyaii will have as many men]ained together as there iweie 
folds in the pepsi Join the hand; of llie two end men with a httle paste so 
as io foiiu a ciicle of Indians lioldir^ hands 

The next tiling to do is to punch lioles m heavy caidbo aid that is taige enough to 
cover a potai sleiff pen, and 




Fndinn War DjncF 

Indian Wai Dance 

paitially fill Ihe 'v'essel with iwaler Set Ihis covered vessel aver a lieat and bring the 

walei la a boiling point and Ihensel Ihe miniature IndiaiLS on the peifoialed cover 
The dance will be gm 

If Ihe Indians are decked oat with small feallieis to lepesenl Ihe head geai and 
hailing plumes, a gieateJTect will he produced —Contiibuled by Maurice Baudiei^ 
New Orleans, La 

Siting 411 En^iiit [2S5] 

Tunung the water anhefoie starting Ihe gas ermine may prevent breakuig a c^diiider 

an a cold day 

OLD-TIME MAGIC |256| 

Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handhag 

Tlie magician produces a sinall liandbag and informs the audience Ihalhe has il filled 
with 20-Ih cannanballs He opens up the bag and lakes oulaball it'liichlie passes la Ihe 
audience 




haUtt JAiit 4il ScnDS Win 

Balls ^^de af ^pimg Wiie 

for exaimnation Tlie hall is found lobe the genuine article He mates a few passes wilh 

tlie wand and produces anolherball, and so onuiihl 3d af them lie on Ihe floor 

Inreahlytlie firslhall, which is tlie one e:iamined, is Ihe real caiman ball, Ihe a Ihe is 



are spual-p^phencRl springs co\'eied wilii black cloth (Fig 1) Tlieise baUs canbe pressed 
tDgelhei ui flRldisks aiidpiitm the bE[g, Fig 2 witliout lakiog up aiiygreataiiioimt of 
space When Ihe spni^ is leleEised it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannoii 
bpJI liiatcELiiQDibe disbr^mshed fioni the real article. 
— ContiibuledbyJ F Campbell^ Some rville, t'lasa 

A Rising Card Trick [156] 

A.risir^ CEud tnck canbe accomphphed wilh veiyLtlle skill by usn^ the simple 
device lUustiated Tlie only 





Card EJIec icoio UlB Petk 

Caid Shps ficiti the Pack 

tlm^a needed are four ordinary plEiyu^ caids and h sliorl rubber band Pass one endcf 
tlie rubber band fliroughone card and Ihe othei end through the otiiei card, as shown in 
tlie illustiatian, drRwir^ Uie card; close togelhei and fastening llie ends by putting h pin 
tlirough them Tlie leinauiuig Iwo card; are pasted to tlie first two so Eis to conceal the 
pins and ends of tlie lubbeibELiid 

Put the caids with the rubber band ma pack of c Rids, lake Einy alhei cardfiam tlie 
pflck andsliow it to Ihe audience in such a WEiytlialyauda not see and know the card 
shown Re Imii the card to the psck, but be sure Find place it between Ihe CEiids tiedtn- 
gelher with the lubberband Grasp tlie peck belwe en your thumb Find finger lightly at 
firsl. Find by gradually Loosening ^lu hold the card previously shown to the audience 
will stowly iise outof llie pack — ContiibuledbyTomiO'KawEira, SEinFiancisca, Cal 

Slidiiig £dx Cov« FuteiKr [256] 



s^. 




While traveLi^ thionghllie coonlrya? a watchmaker I found ilqmte convementto 
keepmysmpJI drills, laps, small broodies, etc , In boxes having h sliding cover To 
keep the contents fromspilLi^ oi getlii^ mixed m my CEise I used a small fastener as 
shown mtlie accompanying illu^tiation. The fastenei w niEide of sleel oibmss and 
fastenedby me Eins of small screws oi tacks on Ihe oulside of the box A hole ls diiUed 
on Ihe upper pflit to receive Ihe pmUiatis driven mto Ihe slidir^ covei Tins pm should 
not stick oulbe^nd Ihe thickness of the spring, which is bent up at Ihe pomlso the pui 
will freely pass under it The pmcanbe dnv'en Ihioi^h the covet to pievent il fioiu 
beuig pulled enbrelyoutof tlie box — ContribuledbyHeiinGiabeniELnn, Milwaukee, 
Wis 



How to CluJnaDog [157] 

A good way to chama dog and give hnuplenty of ground for exercise is to stretch, 
clotheslme or a galuanised 




,y-nitf 



^^.cr- 




Tht Dog Hii PLi'Tily of Poom lor EtrccHE 

The Dng Ho? Plenly of Rnnin for Exeici^e 

win between llie lianse andbeinoii which is pieced a ring kige enoi^hla shde fieely The 
chein fram the dog's callai is festeiied Id the m^ This me Iliad c en alsa be used for lellieiing 
a caw or liaise, Ihe edv'Biil^e being Ihe nse af b shDil lie rope ehiiimatu^ llie possibility of 
the annual be eoming entai^bd 

W4l«-C*br Box |2&7] 

Tliere ere iiipiiy diiTereiittra^ffl in the iiiprketfor llie pniipose of lioldii^ weter colors, but 
theyaie eilhei toa e:ipeiisiue foi Ihe Ei^'eiage peisonoi lao small la be canvenient I do a 
grealdealof WBlei-color walk and always fell Ihe needaf b suitable coloi dish Allesl I 
found some Hung thBtfiUedmyweiilandsmledmypocketiDok lboi]ghl22 individual sail 
dishes and made PiboK to hold lliem, as sliawninthe illustration ThisbaK liau done good 
ueivTce 

IJoine of the advantages are Each caloris ine sepfliete dijh which can be easily take naal 
andcleened, the duhes ere deepenoi^hla prevent spilling Ihe calois into the adjoinii^ ones, 
and the bo:i can be mede aubig oi e^s smell as mdividiial needs require The tray contamii^ 
the color dijlies E^iid brushes reuts on l'4-in lonnd pieces 2-1/4 in fioni Hie batlomof the 
baz, thup gluing emple store loamfai calais, prints, shdeu and CKtra blushes 




Color Tinyt M,lc oE 3jII Diihf* 

Coloi Tisys Made nfliall Dishes 

-CantnbutedbyB Belief Hartford, Connecticul 

Sning Ink Fens [257] 

Inknsually canodeu pens ma short lime Tluscanbe preventedbyplacir^ pieces of sleel 
psns or steel wiie intlie ink, winch will absaib the acid and prevent it fram. corroding the 
pern 



A Ftint-F<Pod Ftnohlor [25S] 

Obtmii tioa butler tubs aiidbaie a tmge iimiibeiof 1/4-in hale^ inHiebDltDLU of one, 

then CDV'ei llie psrfbiated pent with a pece of fine bie^ gause (Fig 1)^ lackuig llie 
gauze well al Ihe comeis The oilier tub should be filted willi a faucet of some kiiid-B 
wood faucet, coistir^ 5 cents, will aiiswei Ihe puip]se E*ut tlie fust tub on top of the 
olhei with titfo nanawsliipsbetweentlient (Fig 2) Fill tlie uppei tub, aboul thiee- 
fouiths full, with well packed horse manure, andpaui water on ilunlilitis well isoatLed. 
When Ihe watei has percolated tliioi^h into the lowei tub, it is ready to use on liouse 
and gaiden plants andisbetlei than plEuinvalei, as il Eiddsboth feitiliser and moistuie ~ 
ContnbuledbyC O Daike, West Lyiui, Meiss 




Fl».l 



ncE 




Tt± 



Lafhe Abfety [251] 

Always CEili|Ki the work ui a laihe while ilisstandu^ still 
Ne^'ei U3e tlie vmys of a lathe foi anaovil orstorp^e plalfbrm 

Folding Qidldng-FruiiieK [2SZ] 



The frame in which Ihe material is kept gtietched whenmatii^ a qmlt is usually too 
large lobe put out of the way conveniently when oilier duties niuslbe atteiuledto, and 
especially aie the end pieces objectionable This can be remedied by liiiigu^ Ihe ends so 
tliey will fold underneath to tlie center The endpecesare cutm two atone-fourlhtlieu 
distance fiam eacherui a hinge sciewedto the luidei side to holdtliem together, and a 
liook and eye fastened on tlie otlier side to liold Ihe parls iigid when Iheyare in use 
When Ihe ends are turned under, the fieme is narrow eiioi^h to be easily earned from 
one room to another, or placed againsla wall 



A Dz^ ShvH foi Qit Arms [25S] 

When looikuig willi llie lianrls ma pan af waler, oil di olhei fluid, itis'h'eiy 
disagieepible Id have Ihe liquid iiui down llie ann?, i*lien Iheyare laisedfiom llie paii^ 
aflenla soil Ihe sleeve:; of a clean gannent Adiip slueld wliicli will slop Ihe fluid and 
CELiise it Id run back inlo the pan CEiiibe eaisilyniade fiDoi el piece of she el rubber oi, if 
llup Ls not a\'EiilEible, frani a piece of Ihe inner tube of abicytile hie Cut a washei with 
llie hole laige eiioi^h Id filsni^ly pbautthe wix^t, bul not so light as Id slop Ihe 




SMrliLt {« the Am 
Sluelds fni llie Anns 

ciiculEilian of Ihe blaod A pan af these shields will always CDioe ui handy — 
ConttibuledbyL M EifeLCIiicago 

H«w n Cint Churs [159} 

There are bulfei* households that do nolhave flI least one or Iwd clmiis witliouta seat 
01 bock Tlie same households may have SDine one who would eii]Dyrecanir^ tlie chniis 
if he only knew how lo do it, aiidako make consideiable pn niDneybyiepaiimg cliaus 
foi Ihe neighbois If Ihe folio wir^ duectiDiis are earned out, new cpine seals and backs 
con easilybe putm cliair? where Ihey are broken or sagged Id Pin uncDinf orlable 
position 

The fiisttlung necessEuy is Id remove tlie old cane This cpinbe done by tmning Ihe 
chau upside down Find, wilh the aid of a sheip knife oi chisel, cutlii^ Ihe cane belween 
llie holes Aflei this is done Ihe oldbottDin canbe pulledout If pli^s are found many 
of tlie lioles, Ihey sliDuldbe knocked out If Ihe begmneiis m doubt aboul finding which 
lioles along Emy curved sides sliouldbe used for the cane niniung iieaily peiallel lo tlie 
ei^e, he may find it to Ins a(t^nlage to mark Ihe holes on Ihe underside of llie frame 
before removii^ Ihe old CRiie 

The woikei should be povided wiiha small sample of the old cane Ataiiy fust-cl 
liaidwme store abmiElle of smolEumateiiEd maybe secured 

The cane usually comes m lenglhs of aboul 15 fl and each bundle contains 










r,« 4 



Three Stage? of Wea'r'iiig 



eiioi^li Id re seol several cliaus In addilioii lo tlie cane, the waikei should povide 
lumself wilh a pece of bacon iini a square pointed i*ei^e, as isliownmFig I, and E or 
10 njund itaod plugs, wlucli Eue used for tempomnly holding the end; of the cane intlie 
lioles 

Unhe one of llie istiRiids wlucli lias been i*eU soaked, put about 3 oi 4ui down 
through tlie liole atone end of wliatis to be the outside strand of one side Find secure it 
in llus liole by means af one of Ihe small plugs mentioned Tlie pli^ should not he 
forced in loo haidnoiculoff, as it must be removed agpiui The other end of Ihe slrand 
should be made pomled Find passed dawn through the liole althe opposite side, mui, 
afbi having been pulled light, held llieie byuiseilmg analhei pli^ 




o 

ct 



ffnn 



I I 



Q 



r 



a 






TT-r 



FiTft Layer of S hflncls 




Firsl Tivo Lay^iPf in Place 



Ihe endup through the ne:ilhale, then rcioss Riiddown^ and hold while Ihe second 
plug IS moved to the last hole tlirough iffluch Ihe cane iffas diawn In Ihe same niannei 
piaceedacioss the chaubotlom Wheiie\'eitlie end of one sliand is readied, itsliouldbe 
held by a pli^. Find a neiff one started m Ihe iie:il liole Eis mtlie beginning No pli^s 



ishDuldbe peimaneiitlyiei[iD\'eduiilil Riiothei sbEindaf cane is Ihioi^h liie sdDie hole la 
hold Ihe fuslslieod in place Aflerkymg Ihe isti'aiLds eciDss Ihe iseal inoiie duecliaii, put 
iiianalhei la^i elIi^IiI ELnglei; and lyii^ eiitrely above die first la^r Both of these 
Ib^is iffheiiui place appeal as sliownm one of the lUustiatioiis 

Aflei cample ling Ihe second layer, slielch the tluidoiie, iising Ihe isaine holes asfai 
die fiisl la^i This will iiiflke lluee la^is, Ihe fiulbeii^ hidden by Ihe tlmd wlide Ihe 
second layei is at r^lil angles to andbehveenflie fiist Eind durd No weaving has been 
done up lo this tune, notlungbul sQelclung Enid thieading die cane Ihioi^htlie holes 
Tlie cane will liav-e Ihe appearance sliownin Fig 3 The next Ihii^ to do is to start Ihe 
cane across m the same diiection f\s the second In^^r Eindbegm Ihe weaving 
The lop 01 tlmd In^r simnds should be piislied loivnid Ihe endfiom ivluch Ihe wearing 
sIeuIs, so dial the sliandbeii^ woven inaybe pushed dDwn between Ihe Srsland Ihiid 
lEiyBrsaiid upagauibetweenpaiis The two fiisl siraiids of the fourth lay^rare shown 
wov'enmFig 3 Dimng Ihe weavir^, the simnds shouldbe Liibncaled with Ihe ruidof 
bRcon lo niEite tlieni pass Ihioi^h wilhease Evenwidi litis lubncation^ one cansekloin 
wea\'e nioie tlianhEilf wayaciass the seat with Ihe pomled endbefoie fiiiEhng it 
advisEibLe Id pnllthe lemaindeiof the sliaiid tlirough Aflei fmislung llus fonrlhlEiyBr of 
sti'ands, iIls quite piobable diat each slrpind will be about midivny be twee nits two 
neiglibois uislead of lyii^ close lo lis male as desued, and lieie is where die squEue and 
pomled wedge is used The wedge is dir-en dawn between die proper sdands lo move 
diem inlo place 

Start at one coinei and wssvc dip^onally, »s shown m Fig 4, mEikii^ suie tliattlie 
sd'aiid wdl slip m between Ihe two winch form the comer of Ihe square meach cnsc. 
One moie weave across on die diaganaLandthe seRl will be finished e:icept for Ihe 
bniEluig, as shown mFig 5 The binding consislsof one sdand thai covers the rowof 
holes while it is held down wilhanotlier simiid, a loop over die first beu^ made every 
second artliirdhole as desired It will be of grealassislEince to keep Einolhei chair with a 
canebattom al liand lo e:iE[niir[e while recanir^ die first chair — Condibuledby M R 
W 

Rf^uring a Cncktd Compasitnn DnelopmgTrqy [2£B] 

Fill the crack with some powdered rosui Riid heap it up on die outside Heat a 
soldeiii^-iron or any piece of nielal enough to mellthe rosm and let it flow Ihioi^h Ihe 
bieEik When coal, Itim off Ihe surplus rosm If liandled with a little care, a Iray repaired 
in lliis manner will lasla long lime The clienucals wiUnolaffecl Ihe losm -Conlribuled 

byE D Patnck, DehoitMiclugan 

Htm la Lay Out 4 Sindnl[261| 

Tlie sundial is Ein mslrumenl foi measming hmebyusii^ Ihe shadow of Ihe smi They 

weie quile caniman in ancient times before clocks and walclies weie invented At Ihe 
present lune they are used more as an aniamenlalion than as p means of measimng lime, 
althangh Iheyare qmie accurate if piaperly consdiicled There are several ±iferenldes^ns 
of sundials, but Ihe most coniman, and Ihe one we shall desciibe mlhisardcle, is Ihe 
lianzonlal diEd II consists of a flal circular lable, pipcedfmnlyana solid psdeslal Eind 
liaving p Inangular plale of nielal, F^ I, called die gnoniDn, iisu^ from its cenlerand 
inclined toward Ihe meiidian line of Ihe dial alan pngle equnllo Ihe ladtude of Ihe plnce 
wlieie die dial is lobe used. The shadow of the edge of Ihe biEingular [iale moves around 
Ihe northern pait of Ihe dial from moming to afternoon, aiidlhas su[f)lies a loi^h 
ineEiaurementaf Ihe hour of Ihe day 

Tlie sb^e oi gnomon, psil alwa^eqapils die ladtude of die pipce, can be laid out as 
fallows Diaw a line AB, F^ 1,5m loi^ andal Ihe one erderecta perpendicular BC, Ihe 
height of which is lakenfioni lable Na I It maybe neceaspiryto mteipolole faro given 
ladlude.ETsfoi example, lal 41-30" From lable No 1 lal 42"is45m andfailpt 40", the 
iieKt smallesl, il is 42 m Their difference is 3 in foi ?", andfbi I" il would be 15 in For 
3D' It would be 1/2 of Tor 075 in All Eiddedto the lessei ar40^ we liave 4 2+15+075 
m.= 442 m as Ihe height of Ihe line BC foi IpI 41 "-30' If ^uhnv'e a table of natural 
funclions, Ihe he^ht of llie line BC, oi the slyle, is die base (5 in m this case) limes Ihe 



laiigeiil of tlie dcgice af klitade Diawlhe line AD, and the EiDgk BADu tlie CDiiecl angle 

far Ihe sl^ far Ihe gR'eii 




D«bUu itfDIfJ 

Delail^afDml 

TABLE No 1 
Height of stile ui inches for 

base, foivaiiaiis latitodes 



B 5lD 



Latitude 
25'^ 


Heighl 

2 33 


Lalilude He^hl 

42" 4 5D 


26" 


2 44 


44" 


4S3 


27'^ 
22" 


2 55 
2 66 


4fi" 
43" 


5.1s 
5^5 


30'^ 


2 39 


W 


596 


32" 


]12 


52" 


6.4a 


340 
36" 


3 37 
3a3 


54" 
5fi" 


6.SS 
741 


38'^ 


Z9i 


53" 


SilD 


40' 


4 2D 


fiO- 


SM 



latilude. Its Ihickneas, if af iiielal, maybe CDiivenieiiliy from l^to 1/4id , or if of stone, 
an inch 01 two, oinioie, accaiding la llie size of llie dial Usually far neatness af 
appsaiance Ihe back af the style is hollowed a:3 uhaim The upper edges which cast Ihe 
uliacbitfs must be uhaip and utiaighl, and for this size dial (10 in in diameter) theyulianld 
be about 7-1 '2 m long 

Td layoultlie lioni cucle, diaw Iwo paiallel lines AB and CD, F^ 2, iffluch will lepreseiit 
the base in lenglh and thickness Diawtivo semi- cue les, usu^ the pomts A and C au 
ceiiteia, with a radius of 5 ui The points of uileruectionwith the hiieu AB and CD will be 
Ihe 12 o'clock marks A line EF diawn. tluoi^h the pouits AandC, and pterpendicular to the 
baue orsl^, andinteisectu^ the senucucles, gives the 6 o'clock pomts The point madded 
X L3 tobe used as Ihe center of the dial The iiitemiediate hour ardhalf-liom lines can be 
pbttedbyusu^ table No 2 forgiuenlalitudes, placing them to the nghl or left of the 
12-o'clDckpoinls Foilatiludes not giv'en, mteipolate in. lite same manner as foi the 
lie^ht af Ihe sl^e The l/4-haujand Ihe 5 and ID-minule dwismns iiiaybe spaced 
wilhihe' cys or they may be computed 





TafctNO.2 










Cliords in mclies for a 10 


in circle Sundial 
JRS OF DAY 






Lai HOI 




1 


li2-3o a 


1-30 


2 


2-3D 3 3-30 


4 


4-30 5 5-3D 


11-30 Vl 


10-30 


10 


9-3U g 


3-3D 


S 


7-30 7 6-30 


20 2S .56 


S7 


1 19 


1 57 \99 


2.49 


311 


3 87 4.S2 5 93 


30 33 i5fl 


102 


140 


IS2 2 30 


2it5 


3 49 


426 5.14 filO 


35 33 .7fl 


1 \6 


159 


2 06 2 57 


3 16 


3 31 


455 5 37 6 23 


"40 42 85 


130 


177 


2 27 2 32 


3 42 


407 


479 5 55 6 32 


45 4fi 54 


142 


193 


2.46 3 03 


3.64 


429 


497 5.63 fi3P j 



50 50 


IDI 


3 53 


1Q6 


2.62 3 21 


3 S3 


44d 


5 13 5.19 6 46 ' 


55 54 


IDS 


1 63 


j\y 


2 11 3 37 


3ys 

4.1 D 


4^0 


524 5.S7 fi49 


1 60 57 


114 |171 


2 m 


3.39 3 49 


473 


5 34 5.93 6 52 



Table Ho 3 

Collections iiLiiLmules In cliflii£e 
Sun tune lo local meaiilinie.- odd 
Hiase maiked + suhliju:] Ihose 
I!^4aiked- &Din Smidial Luue 



Day of itiDnth 


1 


10 30 


3D 


Jaiiuaiy 


+3 


-1-7 +11 


+13 


Febniaiy 


-1-14 


+14+14 




Z\^]ch 


-1-13 


+11 -IS 


+5 


A-pnl 


1+4 


+3 -1 


-3 


May 


"-3 


-4 -4 


-3 


June 


-3 


+1 +1 


+3 


July 


■+3 


+5 -tfi 


-ifi ■ 



Almost 


-^6 


+5 +3 


+1 ■ 


Seplembei 


-to 


-3 -5 


-10 


Oclober 


-10 


-13 -15 


-16 


November 


■ -16 


-16 -14 


-11 ! 


Decembei 


-11 


-7 -3 


+2 1 



Wlieii placing Ihe dial in position, care niusllie taken la gel il perfectly level and 

have Ihe styls at i^ht aisles to the dial fiice, withiE? slopi^ side pointing to Ihe 
Norfh Pole An a idiiiaiy compass, after allowing for the dechiialiaii, will enable one 
Id set the dial, oritioaybe selby placu^ it Eis neRi north and soath rs one mRy judge 
and CDnippni^ with a watch set at slaodaid time The diEil tune and the iwalchtime 
should agree Edtei the iwatch has been coirec led for Ihe equation of time fioin lable 
No 3, and for the diifereiice between slandRid and la celI lime, changing the posiTion of 
the dialonlil anj^reemenl is reached ^ontinie andslandaid time E^iee oiJyfaiii 
times a year, April 16, June 15, ^ept 2 and Dec 35, Find on these dates the dial needs 
lUD correction The conection^ for Ihe various days of tlie luonlh CRube taken from 
Table 3 The -I- means llml the clock in fastei, and the - means llml the dialw faster 
tlian Ihe sun ^tiUanolhei correction inusl be inade which is caiislantfoi each given 
locahty SlandRid hme is the correct lime for longitude 75" New York, 9D" Clucago, 
ID5 'Denver and 13D"fai ^an Fiancisco Ascertam. in degrees of lai^itude liowfiu 
your dial IS eRstai iwesi of tlie neRiesl standard meridian aiul dnde this by 15, 
reducir^ Ihe ansivei lo nimutes Riid seconds, iwhich wilibe Ihe correction in minnles 
and secands of hme If the dial is eRstof Ihe meridian chosen^ then Ihe iwalchis 
slower, if wesi, il will be faster Tins cairechan canbe added lo Ihe \'aliies m lable 
No 3, mflking each value slower when it is eostof Ihe slandflid meridian siid fastei 
when it IS wesI 

The st^ or gnomon with its base canbe made incemenl Riidsel an h cement 
pedestal which lias sufficient base placed in the graiindfa mEike il solid 

The design af Ihe sundialis leftta the ir^eniutyaf Ihe maker — Contributed by J E 
Mitchell^ Sioux Cily^ Iowa 

IinilationAimi qnd Annor-FulIV [263] 



The ancient Enins of defense as shown in Ihe accompsiiyir^ illuslrahous make good 
aniaments for Ihe den if they are cultiam wood Find finished in uuilalion of the real 
weapon Tlie des^iis sbowii lepreseiitaiiginalaims af tlie sixleenlh and seventeenth 
centuries As Ihey Rie the genuine leproduchons, each Riticle CRube labelled with Ihe 
UEime, addii^ to eEich piece mie rest and value, shys Ihe Ei^lisht^clianic, London 

Each weapon IS cut from wood The blades of tlie axes and Ihe cutting ec^es af tlie 



iSivDrds ere die^^ed down aiid finished with SRiidpepei and Ihe steel paits represented by 
coveniig the wood with tuifail Whenputlu^ on liie linfbil, brush a Ihin coelI of glue dq 
tlie paittobe coveted and qmcklyiay ontlie fail If a cutlii^ edge is la be co^'eied Ihe 
tinfoil on one side of Ihe blade inustD\'eilnp Ihe ei^e which ls pasted on Ihe oppasile 
side. The otiiei side is then cave red with Ihe tinfoil of a size Ihal will not quite cover Id 
the catlii^ ei^e Aflei laying Ihe foil and Rllawing time faitlie glue la diy, wipe Ihe 
smface with lightsbokesupanddawnseveml Tunes using a soft piece af clolh 




Fi* 1 *i-P l^*" 3 

PjTliijii, Fork BTlfl Hflllieiii 

PaitisEin^ Fork Riid Halbetd 



A French parbsEin of Ihe siKleenlh centiiiyissliownm Fig 1 Tlie weapon is d-lO fl 
long with a iDuiid handle liavir^ Ihe same cucuinference for Ihe enlue lei^lh wluchis 
covered with cnnison cloth di velueland studded all over with laund-headed 





BpDnlHHi. Clllve tnd TnuEfi 

^pontoon Glaive and Von^e 



bmssnails The speai head is of steelaboul 15 m long from Ihe pouil where il is 
atlachedlD Ihe liandle Tlie widest part of Ihe blade from speai to spcEiits about S m 
Tlie lenglh af tlie lassel aifnnge is ebouMm 

F^uie IT shows a Geiiiianniililaiyfaik of the sixteenth cenluiy, tlie length of which is 
about 5 fl with a lianrlle of waod bound with lieavycordm h spiral fonn and Ihe whole 
pfluiled a daik colai The enlue lei^thof Ihe fort fiam tlie handle to the pamis is about 
ID 111 , Find IS coveted wilh luifail miiiiilRlionaf sleel 

A Swiss halbeni of tlie sixleenlhcenluiyis sliowninFig 3 This canibuiationaf an 
a:ie Enidspeaiis about 7 fl long from tiie pouitaf tiie speai to the end af tlie haiuUe, 



which K squeie The ispeELiaiidaxe is afsleel wiiha handle of plaiiidaik wood The 
holes III Ihe sxe can be bored oibuiiiedoulwilh red-hot uoiiiads, liie holes beir^ aboul 
W4m indiameler 

F^uie 4shoiffs an Anstiuin officer^ spontoon^ nsed about tlie se\'eiileenlh centuiy. II 
isaboul6fl long iwiiha round ipaodenhaiidle Tlie spear head fiom lis pami to where 
fixedon the hiindle isabout? HI loi^ The edges aie shmp The ciassbfii wluch luiis 
tliiough tlie loiter end of Hie speai can 




^ 



fa T Fin fl 

Ifltbarnl, BBBienr oHd LfiPft 

Halberd Ranseui and Lance 



r.o a 



be mode mtiw] pieces and glued into a liole on each side The ler^lhof Ihisbar is about 
5 in Tlie smeJl cuciilaiplaTe llirough ivluch the bpiiia fixed can be cut&am a piece of 
CEiiiiboEiid and glued an Hie wooden speai 

A gLsaim Qiglaive, iisedby llE[hE[iis intlie sixleenlhcenluiy, IS shaitfii inF^ 5 The 
enbie lei^lhis about 5-112 ft The blade is ei^iavedsleel with a lei^lh of inelalwork 
from the pomlof the spepulo inhere iljains the liandle ai staff of about 13 m Itlus a 
loiind wooden liandle pointed black oi daihbiawn The ei^ur^'ed i*oik must be carved 
m Ihe wood and when putting llie tinfoil on, pess it well into the carved depressions 

Figure 5 sliows h liaxon'h'au^e of the sii:teenth centuiy, 6 ft long, with a lound wood 
liandle and h steel a:ie oi blade, shaip an Ihe outer et^e and held lo tlie handle by two 
steel bands, ivluch are a paitof Ihe aKe The bands can be made of CEinlbaanl Eiiid glued 
an la the wood rkc Tliese bands can be made very stroi^by leinforcmg Ihe caidbapini 
with a pece of CEtn^'Eis A small curved spear pomtis cai\'ed fioma pece of wood, 
CDveied with hiifoil Find fastened on Ihe end of Ihe hEindle assliown Tlie baiidof melal 
an Ihe side is cut fiom cardboard, covered wilh tinfoil and fastened an wilhroiind-- 
lieaded brass ar steel nails 

A very handsome weapon is Ihe GenuEinhalbeidof Ihe sixteenth centuiy winch is 
shown in Fig 7 The enbre lei^lhis abaul if-lO ft, with a raund wooden liandle &tled 
at Ihe lower end iviiha steel ornament The length of Ihe speeii point lo tlie lower end 
where il joins onto Ihe liandle is 14 m Tlie extreme widlhof Ihe Pixe is Id or L7 in The 
outer and miier ei^es of Ihe ciescent-shnpedpfirl of tlie axe are sharp This axe is cutout 
wiiha scroll oi te^^le saw and covered with linfoil 

Anllalianranseurof Ihe sixteenth centuiy IS shown inF^ 2 Tins weoponisabautfl 
ft loi^ with El loiind slEiifor liaiulle The enbie lei^thof Ihe melRlpaitfrom Ihe paint of 
tlie spepir lo wheie il joins Ihe slEiifis 15 m The spear is sleeL sliPirp on Ihe outer edges 

Figure 9 sliows h tilling lance wilhvamplale usedm loiiniamenls in the sixteenth 
century The wood pole is coveied with clolhoi pamteda dait color Al Ihe end is a 
four-pioi^ed pece of steel Tlie vamplale can be made of caidboaid coveied with hiifoil 
lo repeseni sleel and studded wilh brass nails The extieme lei^lhis 9 ft 

The tassels oi fiii^e used mdecoratii^ the handles can be made from h few inches of 
worsted fruige, Eiboiit4m long Eind wound around tlie handle or staiT twice and fastened 
with biess- headed nails 



All EmcTgtiify Bobbin Ladlt|264] 

Take Einoldslove leg aiidir'ela liandle on it and Ihen break liie piece off which 

fastens ontlie slove Tlie laige and lauiidii^ pail af llie leg makes Ihe baivl of tlie ladle 
Tins ladle will be found conveiuenl foimellmg babbitlor lead -Cantnbaledby R. H. 
Workman^ Laudooville, Ohio 




How Id Mqlv J^^qnevF ForlvRii l^^l 

Tliese veiyu'seful EiiidomELiiientRldiapenes CEinbe eaisilyniade at lioine by Riiyane 
possessuig a ktlle ir^emnly Tlieycanbe made of venous inalenaLs, Ihe masldmable 
beuig bamboo, EJtlioughbead; of glEis^ ai rolled pti per wiUpioduce good lesulti; 
liubslances 5ucha^ sliEiff, fflule readily adaplable and having h iieatap|Kaiance, aie les^ 
durable Find will quickly show wshi Tlie peper beads are easily made a:3 shown in F^s 
l,2and3 InFigs 1 andlT are sliownhowtlie papeiis cut lapeiing, andas itappears 
aflerioUing and gluing down Ihe ends A :3traightpepeibeE[dissliownmFig B 

The fuslslep is to selecl Ihe kuid of beads desuedfoi stru^u^ and Ihenprocnie Ihe 
harming cord Be sine to gel el cord of such size thai IhebeEids wiE slip on leadilyand 
yelhave Ihe leaslpossible lateialniovemenl Tlus is miportanl lo seciue neatness One 
end of each cord is lied lo a rDondpece of wood, or in holes punched m h leather sti'ap 
IrDnoi brass ni^s can be used if desired 

Cat Pill Ihe coids the SEinie lengUi, mEikii^ allowance for the niuiibei of knots 
necessary lo produce Ihe des^n selected ^onie designs leqiuie only one knot at Ihe 
bottom It IS best lo make a roi^hskelch of tlie design on pupei This will greatly aid Ihe 
inakei incanying ontlie woik 





r** 



BflinboD and fi baw Poitieies 



StEiilHia dod Sli'" FiittirEai 



When Ihe mampeitof the screen is finished, tlie cross cords, used for spticmg and 
biiuling Ihe whole together, aie piilui place This is done with a needle made from a 
piece of small wiie, as shown mFig 4 Tlie cross cords are woven mas sliownm Fig 5 
As many of these cioss coids can be put in as desued, and if placed from d lo t2 m 
apart, a solid scieen will be made instead of a porbeie The twisted cioss coids should 



be of guchniEilenal, aiid pul tluDi^li in such maiinei Ilia 1 they will iiotbe leeidilyseen If 
ptipei beads Rie used Ihey canbe colaied lo suiland liardeiiedbyvanushing 

The Sislde:3ign:3hawii is foi usii^ bEuiiboa The cdieIs Rie kiiotled lo hold tlie bamboo 
pieces HI place Tlie finisliedpailiere lfiU resemble disiFiLwoib uiclalh Maiiybeaubfijl 
hangups CEUibe easily fashioned 

The second des^ii is lobe conshucledwilha plain giound of eilhersliaw, bamboo or 
rolled pepei Tlie cords are liuiig upon a round stict wilh iii^s of iiielaLlo mate tlie 
slidir^ easy Tlie design is made byslnnging beads of coloied glass at the i^hl places 
betiffeeiitlie lei^tlis of gioiindmalenal One bead is placed at the extreme end of each 
caid The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced — 
ConbibutedbyGeo M Hanei, Lockpoit, New York. 

MokeiEliifl Cair^tr's Lanl«in 1166] 

Wlule out cainpir^, oui only lantern wns accidenlally smasliedbe^flind repair, andd 

WRS necessary to devLse sometlung tlial would lake its place We took an empty 
tomalo can andcutoul the lin, 3 in wide, fai a lei^th e:ilendir^ fioin a p^int 2 in 
belowthe top lo within IM in af Ihe batloiu Eachside of the cnl-out A wasbent 
mward in Ihe shape of a letlei S, in which was placed a piece of glass Faui V-sliaped 
nolclies were cul, as sliownatB, near Ihe tap of tlie can and their poinis liuned 
Qutii^id A sill was cul in Ihe batloin, shaped as sliownatC, and Ihe painted ends thus 
formed were turned up to make a place for lioldir^ Ihe base of a candle A laigei can 
WRS securedand Ihe balloin pei&raled This was lumedover 
the lop of Ihe otiiei can A heavy wire wns run Ihrough Ihe perforations and a shorl 
piece of broom luindle used to make a bail — Contiibuledbyt'lauiice Baudiei, New 
Oileans, La 



A"^^ ^ '"a^^ 



----E 




LiBicm Undo ol OIA Cm 
LanlemMade of Old Cans 

New Tilts for Cupti-^ttper Wheel? [266] 



The i"abbei hies on caipel-sweepei wheels often become sa badly worn and 
sirelclied tlial Ihey fail la giipthe carpet firmly enai^h lo rim Ihe sweeper To remedy 
tlus, piociue some rubber tape a little wider flian Ihe nms of the old wheels, lemove 
the oldrubbei lues and wind the tape on Ihe iims to Ihe proper tluckness Tnm the 
edges wiiha sliarpkmfe and rub on some clialk orsoapslone powder la pe'v'eiil the 



Iflpe f[Di[i sbckiDg Ea the carpet Asiweepsi tieated mtliis iiianiiei will work a^ will as 
anewaiie — CaiilribuledbyW H Shay, Nei^bnigh, N Y 

Gvailltts aiL Gkvu [2&6] 

Wlieii the fingeig di palnig of glove? with gRunllels wear duI, do not Budio nwaylhe 
gloves, butcatoff tlie gfliuitlels aiid piociue a peu af gloves wiHi short wnsis ta wliich 
the Dldgauiillets can be sewn after Ihe wnsi bands have been removed from the new 
gloves The sewii^ maybe done eilhei by liand or on a loachuie, gatlieni^ many 
fullness m.tlie bellows of Ihe cuff on llie under side A pair of gaonllets will outwear 
three or four pairs of gloves — Contiibutedby Jo^epliH Saiiford, Pasadena, CelI 

How n Mike 3n OmameiiralBrafiE Flag [2d6] 

The Dullinea of Ihe flag— winch maybe of Einysise to suit Ihe luelalathand-and Ihe 

irnnie aie fiKtdrBwnoiia sheetoftlim paper Riid Ihen tiansfeired to Ihe bmssby 
tiacii^ through a sheet of carbon ptipei The biaas should be somewhat target tlian the 
design 

The biass is fflstened lo a block of soft wood with small nails diiven Ihroi^hthe 
ei^es liideni Ihe name Find aulhiie of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground 
flat, about 1/16 m wide This aliouldbe done gradually, siiilii^ the hues deeper and 
deeper by goii^ over Iheina nuinbet of times After llus is finished^ the brass is 
loosened &om the block, turned over but not fastened^ and the whale oulside of and 
belween llie letter's is indented with the rounded end of a nail, giving the oppeamnce of 
liammeiedbrpiss 

The edges are nawculoff andfaiu lioles drilled, Iwo for tlie cliRinby which to liaiig 
llie flag lo Ihe wall, and Iwo along Ihe side far atlac lung Ihe slRff The staff l^ a small 
bmss rod with h knab atloched lo tlie lap end 

It would be well lo pohsh Ihe brass atfusl, if Ihe flnislied woik is to be 




The Fimshed Flag 

br^hl, as it camiotbe done Eiftertlie flag is completed A cool of lac que i is opphed lo 
keep it fioin laimslui^ Tlus is done by healing Ihe bmss and quickly applying a coataf 
shelloc — Conliibiitedby Clias Schpiffnei, Pvbywoad, 111 

AnAdjusiqbk Func liing- Big FlnlfiirTii 124(71 

A punching -bp^ plalfbrm, suilable for Ihe tallalhlele as well as Ihe small boy, is sliown 
in Ihe accompanying skelch The plalfann is secuielyfpislened la two stiar^ wooden 
aims or braces, wluch in turn Eire nailed ta a 2 by 12-m plank as lai^ as the diameter af 
llie platform This plunk, as sliown m the small drawii^ at Ihe uppei left- hand comer of 
llie sketch, is placed m grooves or slots fPLSlenedagEunsI Ihe side of a wall The plank 
with Ihe platfann attached maybe laised or lowered lo tlie desired height and held tlie re 



bye pui Dibollpul Ihioi^li llie bait- hole af llie plRiik aiidmlD a hale iii Ihe wpJl — 

Conliibuledby W A Jaquytlie, RiclimDnd, Cal 




Ad]DBldblB Pkifemi 
Adjustable Plalfaim 



Cli^ for Holding FIrdife Lamp Cordr \261] 



A very easily made diap-Lght adjuster is sliownmliie lUustniliaii Itconsisls of a 

piece af cappei ivue 7^ in indiametei, beiil eis shown Tins clasp is capable af slaiidu^ 
a stiai^ pull aiid will liold the lampand sackel witha glpiss sliade — E K Pvleisliall, OEit 
Fait, m 




FfocccI CanelH^iir Brmhn [267] 

CEimelliau blushes for painters' use should iie\'eibe allowed to coine m contact 
with water. 



Hanw-MadF El^trii C'brk [2(S] 

The clock illuslrated lierewith is drrv'eii by means a f electromagnets acting duectly an 
tlie pendulum bob Unlike masl clocks, the pendulum swings 




^■feEllellc Clock 

forweid aiid backward instead of kleipJly The coiisliuclioii is verysuiiple, aiid llie 
resiillis nalonly nD\'elbul i*ell im]illi wlule, because oiie does iiDtliPve la bother obaul 
wuidu^ a clack, such as tins one, :3a^ tlie Scienhfic Amencaii 

The clock is mDuiited on a ivDodenbase measniii^ 3-3l4hy6-ll2ui ,by 1-5115 in 
lluck deemed cenlmlly on tins base is a 1/Sby 3/4-m bar, 6 in loi^ aiidaleach side of 
llus, 5/lfl m away, t3 an e tec tia magnet, 314 ui indiamelerand l-7/l£l in li^h Two 
upr^hts, 7-1/3 in h^h aiid lJ4iii m diameter, aie seemed m the base bai, aiidare 
connected al Ihe top by a brass ^ke pece an wluch the c kick frame is suppoiled Just 
belaitf the yoke piece a liote is drilled iii eachupi^hl lo leceive the pivot puis of Ihe 
ciosspiece secured lo tlie uppei end af the pendulum lad The peiidulmubob attlie 
lower end IS adjusted to swing just cleai of the eleclroinagiiets l^^unted at tlie i^hl- 
liand side of the base are tliree lallbuiding-posts, the center one beii^ 2-3Min h^li^ 
and Ihe otlier twa 2-5^ in lugh Eachis fitted with a piece af copper wire pro- 
vided iFiIha small brass spiiiig tip Tliese spruigsLe m Ihe plane of the pendulum, 
which serves lo swing the cential tip fiisl against ane and then p^amsttlie othei of Ihe 
side tips, theieby closing Ihe circuit af first one magnet and tlien tlie otlier Each magnet 
athacis tlie pendulum uiilil its ciicuit is brake n by release af Ihe center tip, and an Ihe 
letuniswii^ of Ihe pendulum the ciicuitaf tlie otliei magnet is similarly closed Thus 
tlie pendulum is keptm molionby the alleinate mp^nehc impulses The clock traui is 
taken from a stenrlard clack and the nsotianof the pendulum is mipertedto Ihe escape 
wheel by means af a paifll,beaiii^ on the lalter, wluch is lifled at each foiw^id stiake of 
tlie pendulum by an arm piojectmg forwaidfrom Ihe pivotal end of the pendulum rod 



Mfthad «f Joining Bauds [269} 

Tlie amateur woad-warker aflenhas tiouble mjouung t^vo boaids togelhei so llial 
tliey will fil square andt^ht The accompanying sketch sliows a simple and effective 
metliod of doii^ tins Secure aboaid. A, about 12 m wide tlialis perfectly flat Faslen 
anothei boards B, abantfi m wade, lo tlie first one withscrews oi glue Kow place the 
boaidta be joined, C, on the board B, lettu^ it extend over tlie uiside ei^e about I m 
andfaslenmg ilta the otheis wilh clamps aleach end Lay tlie plane on lis side and 
plane the ei^e shaight Place the secandboaid mtlie clamps m Ihe same mamiei as the 
first, only have Ihe opposite side up If the culting ei^e of Ihe blade is not veiiical, Ihe 
boaids planed m tlus mamier will fit as sliownmtlie uppei sketch In using this metliod, 
first-classjoinls canbe made withaut much Irouble - -Contributed by V rvlelsecli, 
ClucE^a 




Toy GuBbr Throwing Cardbaird Sc|uarts [269} 

The perls of llie gunaie atlached to a (lun pece of wood 1 m wide and 5 in Inr^ It 
lubeistta upe a piece of wood cat Bam the side ot caver of a cigEirboK Areclar^ijlar 

hole 3^1 d in wide and 1 ui lai^ is cut in the wood loogituduially Eilong its a:iis and I- 
3/S ■□ ftoni one enrL as sliDwnat A, Fig 1 A siaall natch is made wiUi the poinl of a 
kmfe blade al B Riid notches aie cut in the end of the woad a^ sliown atC Rubbei 
bELiid; ELie fastened in lhe?e notches as showninF^ 2 The ti^gei, wliose dunensions 
are gP'en in Fig 3, is fiislened in tlie liole A, Fig 1, by driving a pn through the 
wood The Rsgembled parts aie pliDwn uiF^ 4 

Place the cardboard isqiiaie uithe luci B, attach Ihe rubber bRiid; and pull Ihe 
tiigget The lop rubber bRiid will fly aff and diiue the CRidboard 



t^t^ r^ 



* FJtt.4 

Tint 

Details DfToyGmi 

j^quEire 75 fl ai more The cardboard sliould be about 1/2 in squEue These can be cul 
framanyold pasleboaidbos — Contribute d by E^ner A Vanderslice, Phoeimville, 
Pa 

Plwtogzaiphir Devtloping Tr^y [269] 

PlEiles develapedin Einordinary Iray inuslbe removed fiain Ihebalhaccasianally 

for esEiniuialian The filni when m a cliemicEil-Boaked canditionis easily daioj^ed 
The Iray ill usliEL led lierewilhwai; made fortlie purpose of developing plale? witlioat 
having to late liold of Ihein until the bath had campleledit^ work, Ihe examination 
beir^ made Ihroogh the [iate and the boTtani of the tiay 

Apockel IS piovidedfor Ihe Lquid developer mone end of Ihe hay when it is 
turned up in a vertical position A Iray for develapmg 5 by 7-in plates should be made 
3 in isquaie inside The side pieces wilhtlte gioaves for the glass are shawnmF^. 1. 
Two of each of these peces are made with nuteiedends The shait groove shown m 
the lop piece of Ihe lUuslralion is fai inserting the plale coveiing on Hie pocket end of 
the Iray 



i 



— -4'— 





F,H 




DmrkiiiDE TrDF uiJIlt ClABn BonoiD 

Developing Tiay wi Hi Glass BoHoni 

Tiwo blacks, oiie-half Ihe lei^lhof the side pieces, aie pulinbelween Ihe gla?^ 
plele^ Id liold liie ptale beu^ de'^'eloped fiam diappuig down iffheii the liay is lipped 
up in a vertical pasition The glassbatloia af Ihe tiay is S-IO in squaie, iffhich Eillowa 
U4m Dnall edges ta ^etuithe gioaves af the side peces The wood peces should be 
well soaked m hoi paiRffin, and the mileied earners well glued eiid iiailed 
-Conlnbutedby J A ^rniDois, Fo^taiia, Ohio 

lion Piuty U69] 

A goad filler used as a putlyonuoncashi^s inaybe made as follows Take, by 

we^hl, 3 parts af stiff keg lead, 5 putts afblack Qllei, 2 ptiits of wlulii^, 5 ptiils of 
piilveii3ed silica aiid luake into h peiste with a iiuxtore of one part each of coach ]E[pan, 
rubbing \'anushaiid tiiipeiiluie 

Rubber BiiidiE inKiit BihiKuig String? [270] 

Kite flyeis will find il lo Iheu advantage to plRce lubbeibEiiids of 



Pjll^rG^ 




BenUe In Bir Ids 
Bands m String 

suitable size intliebalEincii^ stints la the kite, as sliownui the lUustiRtiDn This will 
pievent h 'bieak-away" and eJso make the t^hlpull, if onlytwobRiids are put intlie 



lDivei:3tiii^:3 -Coiiliibuledby Tlios DeLaof, GmiidRapids, t'lichigan 

An Aid in Khttcliiiig [27D] 

^telchir^ reqmies SDDie htlle Imiimig, bill with Ihe apparatus lieie illiisfiatedan 
iiie:ipsiieiii;ed pelican can ob lain e:icellenl ie:3iilt:3 The apparatus is made of a box 3 iii. 
deep, 2 ui wide aiid about I ft La i^ A double caiiv'ei: lens, G, is filtediii abmsi; tube 
which shaiild liav'e a sLidii^ fitinanalhei shaileiaiidlaigei tube faslenedto Ihe end of 
tlieboK A minor, II, is :3el elI an angle af 45 deg 




m Ihe apposite end af the boK This leflecls Ihe lays af l^hlpassu^ thiai^h Ihe lens to 
tlie surfiice K, ivhich maybe eitliei of gioiind oiplam glhss The lidoi coveiEF protects 
tlie glass and keeps die strong l^hl out ivhensketc lung Tlie uiside of tlieba^: emd brass 
tube aie painted a duJl black 

In use, Ihe device is :3el with the lens tube directed toward the scene ta be painted oi 
sbelchedand the lens focused so Ihe reflected pic hue will be seen in sharp detail on the 
gla:3s lieleclyour colors and put Iheiu an Ihe ie:3pec1iue colors depicled on tlie glass If 
you wish to make a psncil drawu^, aEyou hEive to do is to fill m Ihe lines m Ihe picture 
an Ihe ground glEiss If a plain glass is used, place liecu^ IS'P*' "nils surface, and Ihe 
picture can be diawnasdeisciibed 

How » Make Miniature 'Elrctzic Lump Shekels [27S| 

A socket fai a miniature lamp can be made es ishownmtlie sketch A brass spring 

wire IS wound Eiraund Ihe base of die tlireEid; on die lamp and an eye turned on each end 
to recerue a :3ciew and a binding-post, as sliownm Fig I A piece of metal, preferably 
capper, is attached lo a wood base as sliownm Fig 2 and the coil-sprmg socket fastened 
aciass il mtlie o^^isile direction Bend Hie wiie so Ihalthe ispnr^ presides the lamp 
against Ihe metal If Ihe iviie fili; Ihe lamp loosely, lemove Ihe lamp and press die sides 
af the coil claserlogelher The metal perls can 




'WEi« Scckn 

Wue Socket 

be attached to any smaolh surface af wood wiHiout making a regular base — 

Contributed by Ab iier B lihaiv. No Daitiuaulli^ Pvfess 

Imitation Arms uid Armor-Put V [271] 

The pieceding chapteis gave descnplians of making anu^ in imitalian of ancient 
weapan^, and now die amateur aiuiorer must have some liehuels to add lo his collection. 
There is no hiuilta the size of tlie helmel, andil maybe made ag a model or fuUsised 
lncaiisli"ucliiig helmets, a ma^s of clay af any kuidtlialis easdy workable and faiily 
stiff, isnecessaiy, says the Er^hshPvfechamc, London 11 must be kept luoisl and ifell 



kiieaded A laige 




UiVIn^ rh* Chy Uodfl tuS Ttirtt tliliDrl [><dgu 

^^tlll£ The Clay Mndel and Thiee Helmet De^igiip 

BDatdoi several planks, ]DmedclDMLylo|e1hei, on ivhichla pkce Ihe cloy, will be 
necessary The size af this board will depend antlie size of Ihe wort thai is miended to 
be modeled upon il 

Tlie iffay to make a helmelis descnbedm Ihe folia wir^ nietliod of piaducmg h 
Gennanmonon, shown mF^ 1 Tins helmelhas fleui-de-lism embossed woik.and 
on each side is a badge of Ihe civic legimentof the city of Munich Tlie side 'h^ewof tlie 
heLnet is shown m Fig 1 

Tlie clay, is put on Ihe boaidaod modeled mio Uie shape sliowninFig 2. This is done 
with Ihe Rid of a paii of compasses, a fewclay^mo deling tools, Riidtlie defluse of Ihe 
fuigeis Tlie fleur-de-Ls are slightly raised, as mbas-iehef To aidm getluig Ihe liehuet 
m coned pioporlion on both sides, and over the crest on top, cut out Ihe shape from a 
piece of ivood, as shown inF^ 3, wiiha ke^iole shw Tins ivoodbeu^ passed 
caiefuUyand firmly over tlie clay willbni^ il mlo shape, and will also show wliere 
tliere niEiybe any deficiencies in the modehi^, which can Ihenbe easily remedied by 
addii^ moie clay The cut-out pflHeni shown m Fig 4 is the side outhiie of Ihe helmel 

licraps of Ihin, brown, wrflppii^ pupeiare put to soEik m a basm of water to wluch has 
been added about a lablespiDiifiilof size melted and well sliiied, or some llun glue, and 
left D\'ei mghl to soak Tlie paper should be loin m irregular sliapes about f\s laige as Ihe 
peJmof the hRiid Aftei the clay model is fuiished, giv-e ila llun coelI of oil-sweet or 
ohve oil will answer Ihe purpose veiy well All being leEidy, the clay model oiled. Find 
tliebasmof soaked paper neai to hand, lake, up one piece of paper at h tune and very 
caie fully place il upon the models piessir^ it well on the clEiyand mto and Rioiind Piny 
crevices and patterns, Riid continue until tlie clay is completely covered 

Tills beir^ done, give the paper a tlmiaiide\'encoaluig of glue^ which musi be quite 
hot and put on as quickly 






AnEirn HdmolB 

ais possible Put do a second La^r af pe|Kr f\s carefully as before, then another coatir^ of 
glue, and so on, unhl Iheie aie fioinfoui to ^ix coats of glue and paper Wliendiy, the 
ptipei coaluig sliouidbe quile stout and sliong enoi^h foi the lielniel lobe used for 
onianientRl purposes Before lakn^ iloff tlie model, which shouki be no difficull milter, 
owu^ to Ihe claybemg oiled, trim off any ragged ei^es of peper widia sliaipkiufe, and 
smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper Tlie paper is tliengR-en h Ihincoal 
of glue andseclions of linfbilsluck onto give it a finished appeamnce Wlienthe lielinet 
IS oJTlhe inodel, niEike holes wilh a sinall awl RlequRl distances, tluough which to uiserl 
some fancy brass nails, beiidir^ Ihe points o\'ei and flRl against tlie uiside of the helmet. 

Avizorhehnetis sliDwiimFtg 5 This lielmet lias el movable vizoi in the front IhRl 
can be lifted up, a creslon lop, and around Ihe neck a nEirrow goigel iffluch rests upon 
tlie weEirei's sliouldeis The iffliole liehnet wilh Ihe e:iceplion of Ihe \^zor, sliouldbe 
modeled Eindmade mone piece The \izor can Ihenbe made andpului place with h 
bmss-heflded nail on each side Tlie obloi^ slils in front of tlie vizor niuslbe carefully 
marked out with a pencil and cul Ihroi^h wilh a knife orcliiseL 

InF^ 6 IS shown Ein Italian casque of el foolsoldiei of Ihe sii:teeiith century Tins 
helmet may liave Ihe appeaiELnce of being iiclilyer^iaved as shown m one-half of die 
diawu^, or, a few lines nmiiing down, as seen in die other pari of the skelcli^ wiUniELke 
illoot neELl The band IS decorELled widibiass studs 

Anllaliancabassetof the sixteenth centuiy IS shown mF^ 7 This helmelis 
elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nads, els shown m Ihe des^n 

InF^ 3 IS shown el lELrge bassuiet with el lunged vizoi winch comes very much 
foiTVELid, so as 1o allow the weaier lobicELlhe fieely This liehnet was worn ELbonI Ihe 
si;:teenth century, ELnd wels probably used for lilluig and loumELnients 

Abuigonetskull-capof Ihe sevenleenlhcenluiy IS sliDwnmFig 9 Thevisoiis 
composed of a su^le bar of metal, square ui sliape, which slides up and downm an iron 
socket attac lied Id Ihe front of die helmel, and is lield many position by a Ihumbsciew 
as shown m Ihe illustration 

A liole in tlie peak of die helmel allows it to liang mftontof the weaier's face Tins 
contrivance shouldbe made of wood, Ihe helmet to be modeled mtluee pieces, Uie 
skullcap, peak and lobsler sheE neck guard m one piece, and tlie ear guards m hvo 
pieces, one foi each side Tlie cenler of die eai guards are pei&taled All of tlie helmets 
are made m Ihe same mamieras desciibedfor Fig I They are all covered with luifoil. 

How n Rtp 3ir Limolcuni [113} 

A deep crack or fissure i^htm fronlof the kitchen cabinet spoiled Ihe appearance 
of Ihe new linoleum The damaged spol was removed with a sharp knife and from a 
left-ovei scrap a [iece was cul of tlie same oulline and size The ei^es were 'v'armslied 
and Ihenthe patch was set in the open space The knoleimi was grveiia good coat of 
varnish making itnioie durable When peifecdy dry, the piecing could nal be 
delected —Contiibuled by Paul Keller, Indianapolis, Indiana 

How w Mike^nEkctEk Stove P73] 

The parts necessary for luakuig an eleclnc stove are Two melalpie plates of Ihe 



same 13136, 4 tb of fue clay. Two aidinarybindir^ po:3li3, about 1 lb of mineial lvdoI, 
Qi, if [lus caiuiolbe obtRined, Ihick isheel aisbe^tau, one oblai^ piece of wood, 1 in 
tliick,12ui wide aiid 1 5 in long, one small ^wilcli, one fuse block, aboatSQ ft of 
Nd 23 gai^e lesistaiice wue, Geniian-sit'ei wue ts be tier, rs it stands a higher 
tempeiatiue, Iwa middle-^ized islave botts with iiut^, one glass lube, abaul IMui in 
dianieleiandP m long, winch can be bought fiaiu h local dn^gist, and two large 3- 
III ^cieiws 

If F[ nefll appeaiEince is desiied, the ivood cfliibe tliotongUy SRiidpapeied on one 
:3ide and the comeia andei^es laiinded oJf an the uppei side Punch holes m one of 
the pie plates, as shown in Fig 1 The two hales, E and F, Rie on Ihe tini andshanld 
be e:iflclLy an a line wilhtlie liole D punched m Ihe center The hales B and C aie 
about 3 ui apart and sliould be elI equal dL'Stances fiain the center lioIe D The run of 
the second plRle is drilled to make two liole?, AA, F^ 2, tlial will match the hole? E 
and F in Jlie fustplRle, F^ I A round collar af gatvEiiuaed iron, FF, F^ 4, 3 m high, 
IS mRde with a diEimetei to leceiue the first plate singly Two sniEill flRps aie cut Riid 
turned out and holes punched m tlieii cenleig, AA, to receive screws foi holding il to 
the base Two bolls are soldered in Ihe holes E FiiidF, Fig 1, Enidosed lo hold Ihe 




ral^ 



r>D.] 



^s^^-wi 


^M 


^K 




fc.^; 1.' ..f 


! T^^^^^j 








'Mi 


"^e, 


n ■- 


'i 


n 



Detail? of Electiic ^lcr\'e 



runs of both plates logethei, when they Rie placed ui apposite positions, as shawnin 
F^ 4 This willniake anapenspace between tlie plaleg The coUaiis Ihensciewed to 
one eiidof the base, as shawn inF^ 2 

TwD lioles ELie bored through the base to coirespond wilh Ihe holes D and A in Ihe 
boltani plate The gla^s tube is cul lo mEike two pieces, eRch 4-IJ2in long Tins can be 
done easily by fillip h met in the tube hi the proper point and breakup it These tubes 
are forced into the lioles bored in tlie base, and, if Hie measure me nts aie conect, 
should extend abaul l/4m abo\'e the collar The mineral wool, JJ, Fig 4, is then 
pflckeddown inside Ihe collar, until il is witliin 1 in of the top Tliis will allow the 
plale. Fig 1, lo reslontlie wooland the ends af Ihe glass lubes, GG, Fig 4,loprDject 
tluai^h the lioles D and A of flie plale, F^ I The nni of the plate should be le'v'el 
with the top ei^e of the collai If adieslos is used, Ihe sheets sliouldbe cul mto disks 
having the same diameter as the inside of Ihe cotlai, and lioles cut la couicide wilh Ihe 
holes D and Aof tlie plale The small scraps sliouldbe dampened and made inio pulp 
to fill Ihe space H, F^ 4 The plate, F^ I, la held to Ihe base by two screws which 
are inn tluai^hthe holes BC and take the position sliowii by DD, Fig 4 

The two binding-posls are atlached on the base atD, Fig 2, also Ihe switch B and 
the fuse black C, lioles be ii^ bored m Ihe base lo make the wue connections The 
reverse side of the base, ivilhshts cut for Ihe wiies, is shown m Fig 3 TIte poinis 
marked BB are the glass tubes, AA, Ihe hales leadii^ to the switch, and C, Ihe fuse 
block The wires run Ihiough the glass tubes GG, F^ 4, are allowed lo project aboul I 
m. forcanneclions 

The besi way lo find Ihe correct lei^lhof Ihe resistance wire is lo lake a large clay 



ai diELiu Jile aiid wuid tlie wue tightly aiouiid it, elUowu^ a space belweeiieach tuin 
The tic IS then set an i1? side wilhablaci Dibiick undei each end It should not be sel 
an eiid, as llie tuius of the wues, iwheit heated, will dip and came mcoiitaci with each 
other, causuig h shaitcucuit \Vheiithe tile is in place, a shaitpece af fuse wiie is 
fastened la eachaf lis tioo ends A 5-E[iiipeie fuse wue is abaulstiai^ eiiongh A coii- 
nechan is niRde to these tioo wiies finni an electiic -light sacket Tlie wise will gel hot 
but probably leioain Ihe sanie colai If tias is tlie case, one of tlie feed wires is 
disconnected fioni the fuse wue and giadiially loov'ed fnitliei down the cnilnntil a 
point IS found where the lesistance wue glows h dull red This pjinf niEiibs the proper 
length to culil, rs the wire should not be allowed to become any ha tier If the wiie 
gets blight hot when the cunent is turned aii^ more wiie sliooldbe Eidded The wire is 
then made into along c ail by winding il Eiraiinda large wire nad The coils should be 
open and abaut IVS in apart 

NeKt, the fiie clay is moistened and well mixed, usuig caie not to get i1 too wet It 
should ha^'e the proper consistency to mould well Theclayll.F^ 4, is then packed 
in the fiisl pLate to a heightof about l/4m above the run While Ihe clay is damp, one 
end of tlie cadis cannected wilhihe wire uitlie ceiiTinl glass Tube, and the coil laid in 
a spiral winding an the damp clay, KK, and piessed into it When this is done, the 
other end IS cannected to the wue piojecling tram Ihe oater glass tube As these 
connections cannot be soldered, the ends of the wires should be Iwisted closely 
together, so llial the circuit will not be come broken Mate sure that Ihe coils of wire 
do not touch each olhei or Ihe top plate The fuse wue (abaul 5 ampeies) is putmto 
the fuse block, and wires with a socket adaptei cannected to the Vwa bindii^-posts 
The tap plate is put in place andsciewed down Tliis campleles the stove 

It should be set aside ma warm place fai a few days lo dry out the packing Ifilis 
nol Ihoioi^hly dry, steam will form wlien the cunent is applied II should not be left 
healed in litis condition Tlie top plate is used when caoku^ and lemo^'ed when 
makii^ toasi — ConlribuledbyR H Cnaiiyn, ^1 Calhemies, Can 

How ID Mike Weights for Allifeles [27^ 

Many times boys would like la make Iheii own shots and we^hts for 




r*.) 



tiai 



HOH Eor Uie t»d 



Mold for the Leed 

atliletic simils, bul do not know how to go aboul il lo casi Ihe metal Inmakir^ a lead 
sphere as shown m Ihe illushation, it is not necessary to know Ihe metliod of molding 
The lound lead we^ht for shot-pultir^ or liammer throwii^ can be castm a holla w 
cardboard or pressed- paper ball, sold m department and lay stores for 10 cenis Cut a 
lO-m liole in the ball bs shown in F^ I and fiace it with the hole up m damp sand 
and press or tamp the sandl^htly around Ihe ball as shown m the seclion, F^ 2 Co\'er 
over aboul 1 m deep A wood pli^ inseiledm the hole will preveni any sand felling 
inside When Ihe sand is tamped m and tlie pli^ removed, il leaves a gate for Ihe metal 
Pour melted le ad ui to tlie gate until iIls full, then, wliencool, shake iloulfiom the sand 
andremcTv'e tlie chaiied paper A fde canbe used to lemove any roi^h places The dry 
papeiballpre\'eiits any sputlemig of the liDtlead -Conlributedby W. A Jaquythe, 
Richmond, Cal 



Remmin^PJH ftomP^iv J275] 



lioiiielmies Ihe juices fiDoie liol pie make ilsbck la tlie pan ^d tglitlytliata bmfe 

blade iiiuslbe run under la ciilil loose If a bmfe wiiha flexible blade is nalused, Ihe 
pie will be damaged 




liepnialmg Pies fiom Pans 

If liie pe pans are provided wilhtlie simple Rltiiclimentsliownm Ihe acconipaiiyiiig 
sbelch^ the baked dai^h can be sepeiRledfrom Ihe lin with one revTilulian of Ihe ciiltei 
Tlie cutler is made fioina piece of lieav-y hii^bentlD Ihe same outline as the uiside of Ihe 
pan and pvotedatils centei 

Stretcher for Di7iii«Pho1ogr3ph Prints E2TS] 

A quick and coiivemeni iffay to diypiints is ta place them on a cheesecloth stretcher 
liuch a slrelchei can be made on a l^hl wood frame, canshucledaf 3/4-ui square 
material m any size, but 12 by 24 m is laige enough The endpeces B are fastened an 
top of the loi^ side pieces A, and the cheesecloth C siretcliedand lacked over Ihem^ fls 
shown 

The piuils shauldbe placed fece up on the clolh^ and the &ame set near a window If 
tlie siretcliei is made m 




CliHb on Ihfl Famt 
Cloth on the Frame 



tins way, Ihe aircanenlei fiambolh lop andboltom, and Ihe prmls will dry rapidly 
^ev-eml of Ihese fmmes can be slacked and a la^e number afpimts Ihiis dried at Ihe 
same tmie — Conlribuled by Aiidiew G Tliome, Louisville, Ey 



A Temparuy Fiumel [275] 



Tlie amaleui pliologiajiier often lias some salulian ffluch he desues la putmto a 
bottle winch his glass funnel will not fit, says the Photagrapluc Tmies The fUmiel made 
by rolling up a piece of papei usually allows half of the solution to rundown the onlside 
af the botlle, tlie reby causing the anialem to be dubbed a "musser," Abetter way is lo 
late an ardinaiy em-elope and ciititotf as sliownby Ihe doited lines Thenchp a htde 
off Ihe 




Fiprr FiDuKl 

Pepei Funnel 

poml, Dpeiioul, and you have a funnel !hal will no! give any liouble II ischeapand^a 
can Eiiroiii Id lluawil away wlien diity, tlieteby saving luiie and waslunfi 

AnElHtric Engine [176] 

The put; of Ihis ermine are fuppoiled on a base 3/4 in. thick^ 4 in. wide and Tin lor^ 

The upightB, F^ 1, 




F4.I 

Shall TurrtcS by Mmwic'iani 

Shaft Turned by MBgiielisin 

which is 1/2 in Ihict and 3 in high, is seemed aciDss tliebase aboutone-tlmdof Ihe 
distance fioni aiie end and faslened wilh a wood screw pul Ihioi^h from Ihe undei side. 
The magnet core C is made of el CEiinagebah, 3-lf2 m Lar^. wluch is fastened ma hale 
in Ihe lop perl of Ihe upi^hlB so Ihiil Ihe eiidC will protiude shghtly Before plRcuig 
tliebaltin Ihe liole of tlie upnght, slip on two caadbaenl washers, each I m in diameter, 
one attlie headend and Ihe other agauisl Ihe upiightB Wmp h Ihin pece of pepei 
aroimd Ihe boltbelweentlie ivasheis and wmdihe spece full of Na 22 gaoge niE^nel 
wiie, allawu^ each end lo pojectfbi coiuiections 

The diiv'uig anu D, F^s I Find 3, ls made af a pece of soft sheet unn, 1/2 m wide 
and 3 m long A sinallblock is fastened Id Ihe loweiendof Ihe inetaland pivDted 
belweentwo upr^hls, 1^2 m high, wluch Eue faslenedto Ihe bpise. The uprights on each 
sule of Ihe blockaie belteishawn inF^ 3 

Two supports, eRch 1/2 m Ihickaiid3ui li^li^ are foslened wilhsciews abont half 
way be twe entile end af the base and Ihe upr^htB, F^ I Tlie endviewof tliese 
supports IS sliownui Fig 2, atGG A 1/S-in hale is bored Ihioi^h Ihe top ptiitaf each 
support so they will be ma line fai the axle The Eixle is made of a piece of sleel US m 
indiEinieler Pir[daboul4ui lar^ An ofTsetis bent mtlie center, assliown, fortlie ctEint 
A small flywheel IS attached lo one end af the sliafi Tlie coimectuig rodE, Fig 1, is 
made of wood Find fastened to Ihe upper end of the driving arm D with a sniRllscrewar 
UEul The contnctF IS made of a stiipof copper, 14 m wide Tins is to open Eindclose 
tlie circuit niien Ihe engme isnmiimg The comiections are niEide as shown mF^ I 

Conned Iwo dry cells lo the buidir^-posls and turn the flywlieel Tlie cunentpessing 
tliroughthe niELgiietpuUs the dn^'ir^ aim toward Ihe boll head, which gives Ihe sliafia 
hfdf turn The tiinui^ of Ihe shEifl pulls Ihe aim Rway fiom Ihe copper piece F, CRiisuig a 
bieEikintlie current As tlie shaft revah-es, the EirmLS agambioi^hlback E^ainstthe 
capper sliip F, thus the cuiient is broken Euid applied at eachrevalulianof Ihe slmfl — 
Contributed by S W Heiioii, Le t'lais, Iowa 

Child's Homt-Mqde Swing Seal [27«| 

A very useful swing oi senlfor cliildrencanbe niEide fioni a box or packing case 
Procme a ba^: of Ihe light size Enidsaw iloului the shape sliownm the illustrRlion The 
apionoiboflid mfiaiit slides on the two front lopes The boaidcanbe raised to place 



tlie 




Hitft HtT B Box 

Made of a Eox 



cluldmtliebax and Id remove hini The ropes are fastened Id Ihe box by lying knalsin 
tlieu enrJs Eind diivu^ slaple^ Dveitliem 

Clay FhnvFr Fob Used for Bird Houcfs [277] 

A iiDvel use of the camiuDngaidenflDiver pDl maybe uiEide by enlaigmg liie small 
apeim^ elI Ihe botlDm with a pen af ptieis, and carefully bieakir^ the clayaieay nnlil 
the DjKiur^ K laige eiioi^h ta adiiiil a small bud 

Place Ihe p]l, boltam side up, an EtbDanL 3 m wider than the diamelerof the largest 
polused, ELiid fasten it to the board with wood cleats andbidss scieiws Fit the cleals as 
close as possible to the sides af Ihe pot One or more pots mRybe used^ as sliownm 
the sketch 

The boELidon wliich Ihe pats are fastened is nailed oiscieiwed lo a posi nipole 10 ni 
I3fl inheight Tlie board is braced withlRthDi sumlar strips of wood, makir^ a 
fiainewQik suitable fai h CDOst Indesigmng the loast, the lath CRube anai^ed lo 
make itquile RHraclrue, di the braces maybe of twigs andbianclies of a tree to make a 
rustu: effect — CDntnbufedby WiEiRin F litecliei, Dorchester, Moss. 




Pots Fastened lo the BGairi 



Loiqdanaf a Giie MtRr [271] 

The ga? meter sliould iiofbe located in h iwaira place niihe ghs will expand before 
the metei meaisaies it and the gas bill will be piapoiliaiialelymc leaded Gels expands 
by Eiboul 1/491 paitof its^'Dlmae fai eflch deg F tlial itis heated If die iiietei is 
wflimed 10 deg F , il mill make the gas cast ouei2 per ceiilmoie, wilhoul any cone - 
Epoiidii^ benefit 

How » Mike Kop e GziOr [277] 

Beaatiful aiid useful liDusehold Dinaiaents, gulls Riid gifllir^s foidoai's, windows, 
shelves, odd conieis, etc , CRiibe made bytlie folio wiiig loetliod elI h shght cost and by 
aii]fl)iie possessir^ a little ingenuity The maleiials reqmied Eiie rops oi, pEefeiEibLy, 
camioon window caid (called SEishcord) about 5flfl m mdiEinietei, oidmary glue, 
pfliafTui and paint oi vanosh A few sinps of wood ai maiding aie very handy to use 
aioond the ei^es 

The design must be considered fust and when one is selected, if it is other than 
sliaighl lines, adopt the method descnbed 

Take a snioalh flEilboaid and layout the des^noi des^ns which, ivlien combined, 
will produce the pa Item desued Dnve finislur^ nails at Ihe angle pomis oi along 
cui\'es as reqniied Coat Ihe baeiid alor^ Ihe lines af Ihe patterns with melted paraffin, 
usii^ anordinaiypamlei'sbiushta pie\'enl the lapes fioni sticking to Ihe board; Edtei 
theyaie soaked m glue andninaiaiuid Ihe nails 

^oak tlie sash coid m common glue sizmg foia slioittmie, Ihenbend oi twist it 
along or aiouiid Ihe lines desired, as shown m Fig 1, and give it lime to diy The 
boltani part of llie sketch, F^ I, shows a metliodof windir^ the rape on a lound slick 
In make cucolai objects Wind the 








Fig 2-Desigiis foi Giills 

defiled nuiiibe I of Euins Find ivheii diy, culand glue Iheoi tDgetliei 




Fig. 1— Uc<1iDi] DlFininLiU llir Rima 

Fig I-MeliiGd of Foiiiiuig Ihe Rape 

InFig 2, siK designs are ^hawn These si^gestideas inmaimg up CDnibinations oim 
plain f^oies end the iiamberis bmiled oniyby flie u^eiiuiTyof the des^iiei — 
Ca iiliibuted by Geo M Haiiei, Lockpori, K Y 



A fStrnfit and EffHtivt Filler J27B| 



Piacuie anordumiytaiapcliuajiey andfil Vwa oi thiee tluckiiesse? of cheese clotli 
oveiihe end af it Press a tofl of ab^oibeiil catTaii into Jlie saxhll peitaf Ihe neck In a 
depth of about 3 m Inseil the chuLmey uia hale cul ma iwood shelf iised rs a supporl 
Pool the loatei in until the filler is filled, leheii il will be absei\'ed timl Riiyoiganic 
inattei, chips of ironnist, elc , will be lelainedby the colton The fine oiganic matter 
inaypenetrate the catloiifoiaboul 1 in, butno farther The resultant filtered iffalei 
tvdlbe deal aiidpure 




Cutting T*ob|278| 

The cutluig point of a tool should never be below the centers 
linil4t»n Arms inl Amwr-Fut VI [279| 

A mass of Einy kind of clay that is easily modeled Pind fairly stiff must be peppired ond 
kept maiataiid ivell kneaded far making tlie modek o^'er which paper is formed to make 
the shape of the articles illustrated m these sketches A mode hug board must be made af 
one large board arae'h'eral peces]oiiied closely tagetlier upon which to n^rk the cloy, 
aa^ the English h'leclianic, London The size of the boEird depends upon tlie size of the 
work ta be made 




Armor and Clay Models 



',a 4- 

Anbor and C\aj UchKIa 



An open chmiifion af the fifteenth century is shown inF^ I This piece of harse 
amioi, which wns used ui front of a horse's heeid, makes a splendid center for a slueldon 
which are fiKed tlie swords, etc , and is ii goodpece far tlie Euuateiir aimorer to try his 
hand anui the wayof niadehi^ in clay oi papiei niache work The opemi^ far the 
ammal to put his headmta is semicuculai, and the sides do natcavei the ]aws As the 



mam part of Una euiiidiiu WDnimfiDiil of llie head the eKtierae deplli i:3 about 4 m The 
entire lieadpece must be modeled ui clay with the liands, aflei iffliich it is covered with 
a timi and even coetir^ of sweel or puie olive ail A daybefoie iiiEitii^ llie cky model 
uame peces aftlmi^ blown wiapping papei aie tDrnmmegulEirsliapea to Ihe, :3ize af the 
peliii of the liand aiidpul lo uqeiI mabpismof walei in which a lableapaoiiful of :3ize has 
been dissolved If siae cannot be oblained from your local painter, a weak solution of 
glue will da equEdly well Allbeii^ lepidy, arid the clay model oiled^ take np ane pece 
af piipei Ella tune andveiycaie folly place it on the siirfoce of the model, preHing ilon 
well Pind into Eind aiomid allycre'h^ces Pind patterns Cantiniie this aperatian mitil tlie 
clay model m completely co^'eled an every pwt Tlus being done, give Ihe paper a thin 
and evencoalii^ of glue, which must be qnile hat and laid anas quickly as possible 
Lay on a secandlo^i of paper as carefully eis before, then anothei coat af glue, and so 
onunlil there aie five oi six coats of glue Eind paper \Vlien Ihis is dry it will be slioi^ 
eiiai^h foi Eill ornamental purjBses Tlie mgged edges of the paper aie Inmmed off with 
a sharp kmfe and the whole suifpice smoothed with fine saiidpii|Ki Then carefuUyglue 
on sections of tinfoil to gp'e the armor the appeaiance of steel The armor is now 
removed from tlie model 

A niilten gauntletof Ihe fifteenth cenluiyis shown mF^ 2 This can be made ui one 
piece, with the excepbonof llie thnmb shield, which is sepaiale The Ihiimb slueld is at- 
tached to the thumb of an old glove niuchis fastened wilhiound headed nails on the inside 
of llie gamitlel 




Combated BieastplEite and Fonnei 

The pari covering the wnstLS a circular piece, bul Ihe back is iiol necessary, eis il would 
not be seen when the gaunllelLS hai^ir^ mits place 

In Fig 3 IS shown a gaunlLelof Ihe seventeenth centuiy with se para lelyatlicula ted 
fingei's This gauntlet maybe molded moiie piece, ei:cept llie thmnb andSiigers, wluch 
must be made sepaiately and faslened wilh the thumb shield to the leather glove tliat is 
attached to Ihe inside of the gEiuntlet, die same Eis mF^ 2 

Abreastplate and tasselsof the siKleenlh centuryaie shownui Fig 4 The tEissetsare 
separate and altEiched to tlie fronlplale with strEips Eindbuckles, eis shown mtlie sketch 
Tlieie IS abeltaiaiind Ihe imisf which helps to hold the back plale on Altnched lo the 
back of Ihe pLate would be Iwo shoitstiaps at Ihe shouldei Tliese are passed tliio;^h Ihe 
buckles shown at the topr^hland lefl-handcomeisof the front pLate Foi decorative 
purposes the back pLate need not be made, and therefore it is noldescnbed The inelhod 
of makir^ annor is the same asof luakuig helmets, but as laiger pieces are fonnedilis 
well to use less clay owing lo Ihe bulk and we^hl 

Anaiiar^enientis shown mF^ 5 to leduce tlie amountof cLay used This tiiangiilar- 
shnped support, which can be made in any size, is placed on Ihe modeling board or 
bench and covered with clay This will make Ihe model light and easy to nio^'e aiound, 
and will lequue less clay It is not necessary to have smooth boairls, the lai^liei die 
belter, as the sui'fiice will hold Ihe clay The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the 
palclies of brown paper on die surface are shown in Figs 6 and 7 

A Geiman fluted aimor used at the begumii^ of tlie sixteenth centuiy is shown m 
Fig 3 The bieastplale and lassets of tlusaimorare supposed lobe mone piece, bulfor 



canvenieiice in making it will be fbmidbesi lo make liie in separately aiiri lliengliie litem 
tDgelhei after Ihey Eue laten from Ihe model A tmiroiff lealiier bell ploced around tlie 
armor will caver Ihe joml Fluted aimai takes its name from a series af combated 
giaov'es, 1/2 in m depth, imming down the plate A piece of board, cut mio Ihe shape 
shown mF^ 9, willbe veiy useful for marking out Ihe fluted lines 

Honu-Mide Hand Vke [230] 

Avise forhaldmg small articles while filing can be made as shaifii mtlie illustration. 
Tlie vise cansisls af Ihiee pieces of waod, two for Ihe jaws and one a wei^e The lunge 
for comiecling Ihe two jaws is made af four small screw eyes, two m each jaw Wlien 
locating Ihe place for Ihe screw eyes, place Ihe two m one jaw so they will fil between 
tlie two of Ihe alheijaw Pula nail Ihroi^hlhe eyes when Ihe jaws aie malched together 
and Ihey are ready for Ihe wedge mclampmg Ihe aiticle lobe filed -Canlributedby 
JolmG Buxtan, Redonrlo Beacli, Calif 







D«ltctar for Slight Eltitrual Clur^s [281] 

A tlun glass battle is Ihorouglily cleaned and filled wiiha mbbei slopiKi A liole is 
made Ihroughtlie cenlet of tlie stappei laige enough to admit a small brass rod Tlie 
lenglhof llusiad will be goveniedby Ihe shape of Ihe botlLe.bul 3-10 in will be abaut 
right The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aiiuninuin foil, eachabaat 1/4 m 
wide and 111 m long, aie glued lo it The two pieces of foil, fastened to the rod, are 
belteishown mF^ 2 Faslena p]hshedbrassbalHo, tlie lop of tlie rod, and liie 
inslnunenl IS ready for use Place Ilie article which you wishta leslneai the ball, and if 
ilhaldE a 




Fa. I 
AliiDiiiiLiia ¥ml ill a Bolth 

Aluminum Foil in a Bottle 



slight electncal chaige, llie two pieces of foil willdiew together If it does nolhold. 
cliarge, Ihe foils willnolmove —Contributed by ELalphL La Rue, Gasheii, N Y 



Fi«liuig through IcFwilli a T^-Up [281] 

The tp-up, iisedfbr s^npihi^ ttie fishennEin wlien a fi^is caught, is made of a U-4-m 
pine board, about 15 in long, 2-112 uv wide atone eudand iianawu^ down to about I 
III at the other At a paint d in from llie :3inatler end, the boaid ishoiildbe cutshghtly 
wider and a iy2-in holeboied through it Two oi lluee wiappir^s of fine copper wue 
inaybe wound aioiind the board on each side of tlie hale ta give odded strer^th Both 
end; of the board shouhi be notched deeply 

A long gash 15 culm the ice Riidthena round hole in made with h cluiseL ^^ tliK will 
cutundei the walei wilhoutsplaisliii^ The chipped ice can be leinovedwitha pail A 
rod 01 round stick of wood is passed tluai^h the liole in llie tip-up and placed across Ihe 
round hole, assliownm the illiisliELlion 



=:i-=-*--,-.™lrilll[iltill 



Tl^Uff in PltTE 
Tip-Up ui Place 

The fi'shhook is baited in tlie usual way Find hung on a line fiani tlie slioitendof the 
tip-up V'Tiena fish is liootei the otiier end will tip up and s^nalthe fisliemiEin Any 
niuribei of lioles CEinbe cut m Ihe ice and a bp-up used m each, thus enabling one person 
to lake care of as many lines 

Honu-Midf Candle Holder [281] 

The candlestick or liokler sliownm Ihe illustration is made of anordumry tui can, 
nuchas IS used for camiing SRhnonorpoltedham Tliree Triangular cuts are niEide iiiihe 
cover or bottom of Ihe CEinand the pomts turned up about the CRndie The CEmniEiybe 
biansed, silveied, enEinieledorotheiwise decorated, tliU'S niatii^ it oniainenlal as well 
as useful — Contribniedbyt'lrs A M Bryan, Corsicana, TeKas 

How to MnlvnMqifhHoUFEofWood3ndMftil[2S2] 

Avery simple piece of art ciafl work is easily made, as follows Secure a pece of 
paper and uponitdiaw Ihe outline and des^n, as uirlicated m the 




Unwti Hoidn 



^^lcll Hotdei 



ace DILI pfliiyu^ ^kelcti The sise iiiaybe oxhdc Id suit Ike ta^le of liie iworker A goad 
size Ls 5 in wide by d m lai^ over elII The melalholdei should be pioportiaiied lo 

tins size, as shown 

Having completed the diRwing, take a piece of lliin wood, 3/8 or U4m Ihick, and 
tiace upon il Ihe design and outluie, upii^ a piece of caibon paper A couple of Ihnnib 
tacks shaiJdbe used to fasten the papei and des^nui place Put llie tacks mtlie lines 
of Ihe design so tlial Ihe holes will not shai* in Ihe finished pece Any kind of ivood 
will da Bassivood ai butternut, or even pine, will do as well as the more expensive 
woods 

NeKl prepare Qie metal lioldei This may he made of brass oi copper and need no! 
be afvety heavygauge-No 22 is plenlyhea^'y enoi^h The easiest way lo get tlie 
shape of Ihe mela! is to make a pupei pattern of the development The illustration 
shaivs lioiff this wiUloak and the size of the ptiils for Ihe back dimensianed above 
Tiace tlus sliaps an the nielal with the caiban papsr and cul il out by means of melal 
sheai's Pohsh Hie melaE, usir^ powdered pumice and lye, then wilh a nail, punch the 
holes, tluai^h iffluch small round-head brass screws are Id be placed to hold Ihe melal 
to Ihe wood back Carefully bend Ihe metal Id sliaps byplacir^ itontlie edge of a 
boani and puttir^ another boaid ontopandovei Ihe lower ei^e so as lo keep Ihe 
beiidii^ true 

The wood back maybe healed mqmte a variety of wa^ If soft wood, such as 
basswoodoi pine was used, it maybe Itealedbybumu^ with Ihe pyiogiaphy outfit If 
no outfit Ls at liand a very satisfactory way ls to lake a knife aiidcuta\'ery small V- 
shaped graove around Hie design and border so as Id keep the colors from "nuumig " 
Nei:t slam the leaves af Ihe convenTianal plant with a htlle gieen wood dye and with 
anolliei d^ slam the petals of the flowei red Ivlalachile and mahogany are the colors 
to use Rub a coat of weathered oil stain aveithe wlioLe back and wips dry with a 
clolh The gieenand red are baibaiouslybnllianl wlien fust put on, butby cavenr^ 
them at the same time the bacl^iound is coloied brown, they are "gre^d" m a most 
pleasing manner \Vlien it lias dried overmghl, put a coal or two of wax and polish 



aveitlie wood as liie duecliaiis on the crii suggest. 

The metal liolder may nest be fastened m place . 

If one ha? some insighf mcaiving, Ihe bacl^iDuiid in^htbe loiffered aiid the plant 
modeled, the whole beir^ finished m linseed oil !f caRir^ is conleiapkled, hard 
woods such as cheiiyDinialiogaiiy should be used 

Prattcdng the Fingtrs from Chtrnk^Li [i91\ 

The fir^ei nails and fillers maybe easily pro lected fiam slams of chemicals by 

coaling them wiiha wax made up as follows Melt wlute ws'a in the same maiuieias 
meltir^ glue Tlus maybe done bycuttir^ tlie ws'a into sniali pieces, placing them in 
a\'esseLand seltii^ Ihe vessel mboiling walei To each ounce of melted ws'a tlioi- 
Qi^hly stum I di of pme olive oil The fir^eis should be dipped into Ihe wax while 
il IS in a liquid stale This will form a coalii^ Ihat will psrmittlie fiee use of the 
fillers, yel piolecis Ihe skmfrom the chemicals It is useful foi pholographeis 

Combined Tuining Ring:« 4iid Skviiigs [293] 

This trapeze, with nr^s foi Ihe laige boys and a swing for the smaller ones, can be 
made onElie same standaids Instead of Ihe usual two slioit ropes, tied and bolted 
tluoi^hthe iDpciosslimberboie two lioles large enough for the lopes 1o pass through 
easily Pass the rope along Ihe ciosspiece and dowiitlie post and he it to deals nailed 
at a height tlial can be easily leached 

At the ends of the crosspiece dnve two nails, alio wing them to piojecl I oi 2 in 
This will keep Ihe rope from shpping off when tlie nr^s and swing aie I'aisedand 
lowered All sliaip edges should be sandpapeied to pe\'enl 




1 



Eingi Bnd SwiDg 

Rii^s and Swing 



the lope from being cut Aboard with notches cul m the ends will make a good swir^ 
boaid wliichcanbe lemoved uislantly —Contributed by W A Jaqaylhe, Richmond, 

Cal 

Honvnude Tek^aphKey J2SJi 




Krr Bad CoDrEClLOU 

Eeyand ConnechDns 



A piece of wood, IJ2m thick, 3 m wide and 5 m lor^, is used for the base of this 
uisliumeiil Two wiie nails, each I m lor^, are used for Ihe cores of Ihe magnets 



Each nail is WDund wilh Ihiee di four layer? of fine msDleledDiELgnet wiie, about No 
25 gai^e, siniilaita [lml used inelecbic bells, leavii^ Eiboat 1/4 in of Ihe endbaie ^a 
tlial Ihey loaybe dnveninto Ihe iffoadbase The cnnneclions for Ihe coils aie ^hawnm 
the sketch, al A 

About 1 m behind Ihe coils is fflsteiieda small blact of wood, the lop of which ls 
jiisl even wilh the lop of the nails uitlie caJs A pece of lin^ culm the she[|K of tlie 
letter T, is fastened with two scieiws la the top of tlus block, andtlie end bent shghlly 
so as lo clear the top of the nails pboul 1J32 m 

The key lever IS cul from a Ihui pece of wood, m Ihe shape shown m the sketch, 
and pp'aledma slotted block which is used rs a base foi the key A piece afbere 
capper wue la fastened alor^ tlie under side af Ihe key, es shown by Ihe dolled lines 
A rubber band, ptissir^ ovei Ihe end of Ihe key and attached to the bRse with a lack, 
acts as a spnr^ to keep Ihe keyopen A small piece of tm is fastened to the base uiuler 
the knob of Ihe key TIas is for making the CDntaclbehveen Hie coppsi on the key and 
the wires fioni the coils, when Ihe key is puslied down —Contributed by W H Lynas 

ProtHdng Sknts J2S31 

Bicytrle housers-goards make excelleni sleeve bands when the ciiiTs aie turned back 
and lolled above the elbows 

linil4ti*n Anu inl Amwr-Farl VII [284] 

Tlie helmets, bieaslplfiles and gauntlets desciibed mpaits V and VI can be iisedm 
making upa complete inodelfoi a fullsiulofannoi of any size, as shown mF^ 1 All 
of the pails for tlie armor liave been described, except tliat for Ihe legs Figure 3 shows 
howlhe armor IS modeled on tlie side of the left leg The clay is modeled as desciibed m 
pievToiis chapleis, the paper coveiu^ piilon, and Ihe tuifoilapphedinimitiiliDnof sleel 
Tlie chain niELil seen between andbelund Hie lassets is made by sewing small sleel rings 
ona piece of clolhas sliownui Fig 3 These iiiigs niEiybe purchased al a liardwEire store 
01 harness shop 

The whole f^ure when compleled is placed on a square box CD\'eied wilhredor 
gieenbaize Tlie armor should be suj^ortedby a l^hl frame of wood built up on Ihe 
inside, sa^ Ihe Enghsh Ivlechanic, London Two vertical peces are firmly atlac lied to 
tlieboK so Ihey will ei:teiuiup inside Ihe legs, andal Ihe topof Ihem is atlaclieda 
crosspiece on which is [iaced a vethcalsbck high enough to cany tlie helmel Tlie Iwo 
lower pieces miislbe built up and padded out wilhstiaw, Ihen covered willi red clolhor 
baize Id represent Ihe legs 



Piiir Suit a( Aimiii 

Full Suitaf Aniior 

InniEilu^ up Ihe VEiiious piece:; for h full model it will be fDmidverycanveiiieiillD 
use lope, h :3tDutcDrdoi ^tnngu in inEitiiig up Ihe peHeiiis an Hie perls Instead a fu'Sii^ 
bm^u he Elded iieils, brass paper S^sleneis will be found U'seful Tliese CEinbe piucliased eiI 
a slfltaneiyslaie Secure Ihe kuidheviag a loiindbia^s headfiam winch hang Iwd brass 
tongues Tliese aie pushed tlirougha hole and ^pieRdoulflatoii Ihe oppa^ile side Olhei 
iiiatenaLs can be iisedm Ihe place af Imfoil to lepieseiilsleel liilver pupei ivill do\'eiy 
well, butif eithei Ihe Qofoiloi silver paper are faiind difficulllo iiiaiupulate, go over Ihe 
armor miha coalof sih-ei pflintputDn with abinsh When diy give Ihe suiface a cqeiI 
af\T[iiush 

A Honu-Made Tr^od HoU«r [2V41 

Aniiie:ipen5ive Inpod holdei, one tliat will preveiil Ihe Inpadfiom shppmg Dna 
smoalh flaoi, and prey's ill tlie pomis from doii^ dEiniELge la Ihe polislied siufece oi 
piincluiing ane:ipeiisi%'e rug ai caipel, CEinbe made ma feivmmules' hine, shy^ Camem 
Cmft 

liecure two sinps af wood, ai ordinary plaster laHis will do, Piiid plane liieindawnlD a 
tluckness of 3/lfl in , for the sake af l^hlness Cut Iheni Id h Ienglhai40 in and raiind 
aff Ihe ends la miprove then appearance Take Ihe piece shawn inF^ 1 and drill el H4- 
in liole in the center, and e^lit small lioles, I m Eiparl, elI each end In ane end of the 
piece, F^ 3, make Ihe same series of eight small lioles Eiiid, m the other end, diillsi:! 
il4-ui lioles, 3 m apart A iy4-m flatheEided CEiniagebalt, about I m long, completes 
tlie equipment 

Tlie Iwd pieces Eiie bolted toge the r, not loo t^ht, Eindthe panils of the Inpod legs 
insetled m their respective small lioles So setup, there is Eibsolulelyno daiigei of ane af 
tlie legs slipping oulof posihan By moving Ihe position of liie bait fiom, ane to anotlier 



af the laiger hales mtlie stnp, F^ 3, Eiliiio:3taiiydesiieduic!uiatioii af liie caineiR can 
be seemed 

Tlie SELiLie gaitof smiple appaiolus built slightly stiai^ei, and with a 
small caste tundei escliof Ihe Ituee senesofsiuali hales, makes on 



1 




Thr Tnpcd CjuddI Slip 

The Tnpod Caimol^lip 



eiicellentlnpadclmiip farose whenihe cainemha^ la be shifted pboul, es in paitrailuie 
and Ilie like 

How tc Wnt«4 S1ui«(riiigW3tchFal> |Z85| 

Ha\'ir^ piaciued a pen of aniinaiy shoestiii^s, lake both ends af one of Iheinand 
force the ends tliiDughthe middle of the alhei, leaving a loap I-IO in lai^, as sliownm 
Fig 2 In this skelcli^ A IS the fuslslmig and B IS the secaiid, daiibledandnin lluDi^h 
tlie iveb of A Take hald of Ihe loap and tiuiL il as ^hown in Fig IT, allomng the foui 
end; la liang infoui diieclions ^tait with one end, the ane marked A, inF^ 1, for 
instance, and lay it over Ihe ane to Ihe right Then lake B and lay it aver A, and the one 
beneath C, lay Caver B and the one under D, and llienlayD oveiC andshck Ihe end 
luidei A Then draw all faur ends up snugly Canimence Ihe nextla^rby layir^ tlie end 
Aback aver B andD.D over A and C,C oveiD aiidB, IhenB ov-ei C and Ihe endsluck 
uiideiA Pioceedin Ihe same mamieiaiidkeeponuiitilabDut l-l^ m aftheends 
remain unwoven Faiir puLS stuck tlirougheach comer and into Ihe la^is will hald Ihe 
ends fioiu caiuir^ apeil Tlie ends af the slnngs aie raveled oul so as lo make a tassel 
This LFillmake a square fab iffluch will appear as shawn mF^ 4 

A laimd fab is made in a smiilar way, taku^ the same stiul as for Ihe square fab, bat 
instead of leveisir^ 





Fd14 IfBdr rriHD S}iHilrij]|A 

Fobs Made fiom ^lioestmigs 



the cqeIs of eEiclialleniale layer, Eilwii^ffikpDiie shiiig, Eis alAin Fig 3 over liie one lo 
ilsnghl, as B, slippir^ tlie ksl eiidaf the fain istiii^s midei Find l^hteim^ all, a^ ui 
iiiakiQg the isquaie fab Fasten Ihe ends with puis aiidipivel autfbr a tassel The loiind 
fob IS ^liownui Fig 5 

A fob in Ihe isliape of a hoRe^hoe can be made by taku^ foiu slioeslimgs and tying a 
isniall sltJiig aiaiuid Ihe middle of lliem, liien weaving the layers bolh wa^ fiom llie 
point wliere Ihe :3tiii^:3 aie lied A loop, 1-1^3 m lar^, is left out at tlie ceulei before 
glEulmg on one side The loap w far atlac lung Ihe fob to the ivalch Aftei Ihe i^eaviQg is 
complele and the Ifissel eiuls made, a small stiff wire is faiced Ihioi^h the ceiitei lo fbiiu 
Ihe shape of h liorseshoe 

Olhei designs can be made in tlie same niannei ^tiir^s of different cokiK will make 
upaveiypetly fob, especially if silk slnnfis aie osed —Contributed by JoluiP Rupp, 
Pvloiuoeville, Oliio 

How bo MaktaTqblFMqIcfLnlluz [2B£] 

The table mat, the design of wliich is isliown herewith, is lobe made af lealhei It may 
be made of Russian calf and the bactgiaimd madeleddaivn 




FiRirn !w tix Tabh Itf 



Paltem foi Uie Table ^.^f 

as has been descnbed uisffh'eral pievians Eulicles dealing wilhleolher work To do [his 
llie leE[lheiL'3 moislened on tlie back side ]ijsl enough la make Ihe leotheilEile Ihe 
impreHion of tlie laol,bul iial enai^h lo make the moistiue sliow Ihioi^h an Ihe face 
Any :3inoDth pece af sleel, sucha^ a nul pck, tlial willnol cut ai scratch Ihe leather and 
willmEile a V-shapsd depression will do 

A secandmetliod is lo secure a pece of slieepskin and, usu^ Ihe leveise 
:3ide, Dutline Ihe design by means af a pyrogiapliei's oulfit This maiinei of QeEilu^ 
leather IS go comniDn lliatil needs no deiscnpTiDn 

A tluid metliod is Id secuie a pece of ^lieepoi gaatstin, tince Ihe des^n on the 
leveise side by means of caibon paper, and put Ihe aiitluie anddes^n in with biiish and 
glEuns :3uch as are :3old for this pirpose 

The accompanyii^ pntteni uhowsbutone-faiirthaf Ihe mat DrRwthe Dne-fbiulh on 
paper lo tlie sise desuedand then faldan lines A and B, tracing this ane-fouith on the 
alherpnitsby Ihe inserlronof dauble-siirfEicedcaiban paper 

On Ihe calfskin llie pellemis ta be held on Ihe lealherand Ihe tool woikedover llie 
paltem lo gel Ihe authiie Irpinsferred After tlus tlie ptilleniK la be lemaved and the 
leather modeled. 

Sad IionFolisliFr 12961 

A sniaL amount af wii?: is necesspiry an an iran far successful wark The wax is 
usually applied by liand lo tlie heoledsuifEice of Ihe iran A mnchbeller and handier 
way IS toboie five oi six lioles in one end of Ihe ironing boaidta a depth of lialf it:3 
lluctness, filling them ^nth wa:i,beeswa:i arpfiraffui, and covering tliem over with two 
lluctnesses a f muslin 




The rubbing of llie hot iron over Ihis cloth absorbs just eiioi^h af the wax Id make the 
Iran work smaotlily When Ihe supply of wax is exhaiisled, itcpinbe easily lene wed. — 
ConlribuledbyA A Hai^htan, Noitli^'iUe, Mch 

Mikmg Coiiu Stirkta Woodsy Vuuum 1237] 

Take a quEuler and place it flat E^ampt a \'erlical surface af wood such 




as tlie side af a bookcase, dooi facu^ or doai panel, and ginke it hard wilh a downwani 
glidir^ ma tan, pressing il against die wood Take Ihe liand away and Ihe coin will 
remam on tlie woodwork The shikii^ and pressure ei:pel Ihe air between tlie quartet 
and Ihe wood, Ihiis farmu^ a vacuum sufficient to liold Ihe coin. 



Siinpb 3iid &if«MFlh4dfor Stnding Coiiubj MaiL[2S7] 
Sendu^ corns by mail is na I as a role advisable, but some luiies tl 





>" 


-''': 
t 


[ 

1 

* 


--^: 


; 


■ 


m 


c c 

■"■1, 


P 


^ 
t 


'f 

i 


,^-' ^ 


>^-- 


• 
• 


i 

i 






:::iJ 


h 



Hl>iv rtir Paper la Paldcd 

How the Papei is Folded 

becomes necessEuy, aiid nsupJly b regiilEir com mailer is iiot availpible A very simple aiid 
iseciire i*ay Id iviapa comoi coiru; faimailii^ l3 as follows Procuie a pece of lieavy 
pepei, iieaily as ^nde a:3 the envelope K lar^, aod Eiboul 12 m loi^ Faldoii the dotled 
lines isliDwiiby A aiidB iii the skelcli^ and shp Hie coinm the pocket llius fanned Fold 
iDgelheioii hiies C, D, Eand F, iiiakii^ Ihe last Iwo folds wide enai^h to fit:3iii^lym 
tlie envelope This iiietliod liold; Ihe com m Hie center of Ihe envelope ivheie ilcamiot 
woik around aiid cut HuDugh tlie edges — Conhibutedby O J Thompson, Pelerdiiiig, 
111. 

Mouiidng Pholograiplu in Pbsler Fbiquu [237] 

Pmchase a feiopoiuiEls of plaster of pans from youi locEddiiiggisI aiid select a dL'sh of 
llie desiied shape m wluch to make yoiu cast Tlie size of tlie dish will depend ontlie 
?ize of the piiiil lo be mouiiled Selecl Ihe piint ^u wish to iiiouiil, Ihose onmalle paper 
will work best, Pind aftei welting, place it face downui the disli, press mto place Riid 
lemove pJl drop; of water with a :3ofl cloth Be siire Eiiidhiive Ihe pnnl in the center of 
llie dish EEirlheii dishes will be found moie coiivement, allhough linones cpinbe used 
with good success, says Photographic Times 

Mix same of Ihe plaster incleEii walei so il will be a htlle Ihict Enoi^h plaster 
should be mixed lo covei Ihe botloinof the dishaboul 1^ m thick Poui Ihe pilaster mlo 
llie dish over tlie pnnl Find allow lo stand until it becomes quile liaid Tlie cast cpin Ihen 
be lemovedaiid Ihe pnnl sliouldbe fast to it If Ihe pnml orpilastei is iiichiiedio slick, 
lEike a knife and genlly piy aiaiind the edges and ilcanbe leinoved witlioulbieaking 

Pmils of ELiiy size maybe used by having Ihe moldoi dish la^e enough lo leave a 
good niaigin This is a 'h'ery impoitmit pcml as it is tlie niELiginllial adds richness lo all 
piuits Platmum orbluepmntpiflpeis woik well, but any kmdtlial will nol slick maybe 
used Aflei Ihe plaster has Ihorouglilydnei Emylinl maybe imiked on Ihe inargmbyihe 
use of wale r colors, if blue pruils aie used, il is best Id leave a plain wlule maigui. 

Iron Rest for on Ironing Board [288] 

A flpibiDn reslcpinbe made on an iromi^ -board by dn^'ing a number of large lacks into 
one end of Ihe board Tlie lacks sliouldbe about 1 m apeitprd driven m only pflil way, 
leavii^ about I Mm reinaming abcrh'e Ihe surface of Iheboaid The hot iron will not bum 
Ihe wood and it caiiEol shpolf the lacks This iianieslLS alwpys wilh Ihe board and lepidy 
when wanted -CanhibuledbyBealnce Olrver, New York, N Y 




IiLi»n»nfoii? Cijr^lallizalian [28 S] 

Dissolve I5D pputu of h^ipouulphile of sods in 1^ piuls of walei and pDoillie SDlnlum 

slowly inio a Icsl tube which has been warmed uiboiJu^ walei, fiUu^ Ihe same Piboulane- 
lialf full Dissolve m EiDDlher glass IDQ jhiIs of acetale of soda ui 13 pails of boilii^ iffaler 
Pom this solution sloiffly on lop of Ihe fust in such a way Ihat il fomis anuj5Krlpyei, willi- 
out miKir^ Ihe sahihons The Iwa solutions aie llien covered over with a thin loyei of boil- 
ing water Eind allowed to cool 

Lower into the test tdie a wire, bI 




Ihe extremity of uiuch is fi^ed b small ci'^lal of hyposulphite of soda The cr^hil 
tmveises Ihe salubon of acetate williout causu^ trouble, but crystalhzation will 
immedialely setuias soon as it louches Ihe lowei hypDsulphile of soda solutiaii, as eIidwii 
at Ihe left UI Ihe sketch 

When Ihe hyposulphite of soda solution bee oioes cr^tallizei lower in the u[f]er 
solution a cr^tal of ocetate of soda suspended by another wire, eis shown ul Ihe nghtof the 
sketch, andtlus will cr^tnllise the same as the other solatian 

DtcoloratHnof Flowtrs by Fiunts of Su^hur [29t] 

Dissolve some sulphui ma small dish which will inflame by contact wilhaii thus 
formu^ 

siilpliuiic acid fumes Co^'er the dish with a conical clumneymade of linaiid e:ipose to tlie 
uppei openu^ the flowers thpilare to be decolored The action isveiyrapidandma sliort 
time myrtle, violels, be II flowers, roses, etc , will be rendered perfectly wlute. 




Hov loPrticFiYFF^ShtlLc [28B] 

Manynaturalisis experience difficultyinEMeseivu^ valnnble egg shells. One of the 



most effective vmy^i of pieueivuig them is as follows Aflci tlie egg t^bloim, meltcDiiiiiiDn 
beeswpix and force it into the sliell with a discarded fountain pen fillei ^elma coal place 
until Ihe wax haidena Tlie mosl delicate sheLls heated ui Hop niamiei canbe hpndled 
without feai of bleating, and the liansperencyof the wax will not Eiltei the caloi, shading, 
or dehcate tints of Ihe egg -ConliibuledbyL L Shabina, MiUutown^ ^outhDEikata 

HomemadF Phonograph [289] 

Mpile aboK laige enough lo liold foui dry cells and use it f\s abase to mount the 
inotoi on and lo support the re^'olvjiig cylinder Anyone of the various balteiy mo toii; 
may be used to supply tlie pawei Tlie suppoitfor the cyLiidei isfiistinade Pind located 
on llie co^'ei of Ihe box m such a position that it will give ample loom for the motor Tlie 
inotoiba^e and the :3upport aie fastened by screws luined nptlirough Ihe cover oi lop of 
tlieboz Tlie location of these pait; IS shown inFig I 

The coie for holding the c^indncal wii?: recoids is 4-1/2 m lai^ andniEide of wood, 
turned a httle tapeiii^, the diametei at tlie smpJl oi oulei end being 1-5/E m, and at the 
larger end, l-?i7m A wood wlieel with a V-shaped gioo^'e on its edge is nailed to Ihe 
larger end of Ihe c^^inder The hole m Ihe core is fitted with a brass tube, dnven m 
t^litly lo seive as abeEinr^ A rod tliat willfil Ihe biass tube, nol loo lighdy, bul wliich 
will not wabble loose, is threaded and turned mto Ihe upper end of the support The core 
withrts attaclieddiivii^ wlieel IS shown mF^ 3 Tlie doltedhnes sliow the brass 
bearing and rod axle The end of the axle should be provided wiiha tlireadover Clinch a 
washei and nut aie placed^ to keep Ihe core tram coming off ui turmi^ 

The soundbox. Fig 2, is about 2-1/2 m ui diameter and I m tluck, made of heavy 
tm The diapliragin, which should be of tlun fenotype tin, should be soldeied to the box 
The needle ls made of a pece of sewing needle, about l^sm lor^, and soldered lo tlie 
ceiitei of Ihe diaphragm Tlie first point should be giaiind blunt, es sliownin the sketch 
When soldering these parts togelher, lake care to have the diaphragm he perfeclly ffat 
and nol made warping by any pie ssuie apphed wlule the soldei is cooing 

The linhom canbe easily made, attached lo tlie soundbox with a piece of rubber 
liose and lield so it will swii^ Ihe length of the record by a rod attached to Ihe top of tlie 
box, as shown 

The motor can be conliolled by a small Uiree or four- paint battery rheoslal 




PJi(iji4iEriiii>i ind ConitmeLLoB at Paris 
PItoitograph and Constiuctujii of Parts 



— Coiitiibuledby HeibeilHEilm, Chicago, 111 

A Substiturt br a Campus 12391 

Anea^y way [d make a pencil compass when Die js iiotal hand, is Id take a knife with 
Iwa bkdes alDne end, DpenDne Id llie full e:ilenl and Ihe olhei only half i^ay Slick Ihe 
point end of Ihe fully open blade into Ihe :3ide Df b lead pencd and use Ihe hEilf-open 
blade eis the cenlei leg af the CDiitpiiss Tmn wilhlhe knife liandle to niEile Ihe cucle - 
ConliibuledbyE E Gaid Ji Victai.ColD 




P«Dcil gh Ihr KniEr BLjd« 

Pencil on Ihe Kiufe Blade 
ArinelRalTrap [290| 




Aboy, lohile playing in Ihe ytiid clone lo a giRin lioupe, di^ a hole andbunedan 

ald-fa:3hionedfrmtji^ oijai that his molhei liad Ihiowiiaway, says die lawa 
Homestead The loppeilof the ji^ was left uiicDV'eiedas shown in Ihe sketcli^ and a 
hole wasb i kenmitjusl abov-e llie giouiid The bay Ihen placed some slielled com 
m IhebotlDin, put abaRid on. top, and we^hTedit with a heEivy stone 

The ]i^ had been faigatlenfoi several dhys when a fannet found it, anrL wandering 
wlialit was, lie raised the boRid and found nine fuU-^iowniEils and four, mice m Ihe 
boHani The tiaphas been in use fai some lune Find is opened eve ly day or two and 
iievei fads lo liave fioin one lo six lats or mice in it 

A Nui- Cracking Blotk [2-10] 




Hem jd BIkIl Ii^ Nl.Ii 
Holes in Block foiNiils 

In the skelch lieiewitli is sliowii an appliance for cracking mils iwhicli will prevent 
many a bruised Ihuiiib Ta an^fline wlio lias evei tried to crack biille mats it needs na 
further reconuiiendEitian The device is notliing more timn h good block of hardwood 
wiiha few holes bored in i1 lo fil the diffeientsised nuls There is no need of holding 
the nut with the fillers, and as liard abtoiv maybe siruck Eis desued h-lELke the depth 
of Ihe hale tieo-lhiids the height of the nut and the bioken pieces will no! scatter — 
Coiiliibuted by AlbeitO'Bnen, Buffalo, N Y 

A Jel^-M^km- Si^nd [290] 

Every housewife ivho niEikes jelly is only too ivell acquainted wilhihe m- 
coiivenience Riiddai^ei of upsets wlien iisir^ tlie old luetliodofbEilancu^ a 




Cheesecloth libameron Stend 



]elly-bag on a couple of chair; stood on the kitchen table, with the Etdditional 
inconvenience of liaving a couple of cIirus on Ihe kilchen table outof corcinussionfor 
such a lenglhof time 
The accoiupanying skelch shows hoiv h sland canbe luade from a few pieces of 

boards rhut will help jelly makers and pie\'enl die otd-time darters and disadvEinlages. 
The stand canbe stood in Ihe comer af Ihe kitchen, oi under llie kitchen table wheie il 
will be out of danger of being apset —Contributed by Lyndwode, Peieira, Ottawa, 

Can 



How taMaktuiE^-BFaltr [291] 

Tlieie IS iio reaajii why aiiycaot oi hausewifr sliouldbe wiliioiil Hik eggbealer, an it 
can be niEide qiuckly many sise All Ihalis needed L'S anaiiiuiRiy cem wiiha t^lil-filtmg 
covei-EL baking-powder can will do Cata round piece of wood 3 in loiter IliEin llie 
lenglhof llie can Cut el neat hole m Ihe cover of the can to allow the ?tick to pa?s 
lliiough, and alone end of Hie istick fasten, bynieEinsof el flELlheELded lack, a pece of Im, 
culiDund, Ihiough wluthsev'eial lioles liave beenpunclied Secure FLnolherpece of 
hea\^e[ linof Hie ^ELiue ^ize, andniate 



d 





Made Lite a Climii 

a hole ui the ceiitei la pass the stick llmjngli Put a ^mallnail 3 m abo\'e the end of the 
dELsher, which allows the second tin to puss up and dawn m Ihe opposite direction to the 
dELshei Tlusbeater wjllda the waikmless time than Ihe legiilai kilchen utensil — Con- 
tiibutedbyW A JELquytlie, Richiuand, Cal 

Cqrt Without in Axle [291] 

Tliebay wha lias a couple af cart wheels is notalwa^w lucky enaugh to have an a:ile 
af the propel lei^lh la fit the wlieels In such a CELse Ihe cart can be constnictedas p;liown 
m the illiislration This cart lias na aj:le, each wheel beu^ attached with el short pn for 
an ELxle, on Ihe side and elI Ihe lowei edge of Ihe box The aiitei end of the 
pin IS earned on a pece of LPH^adexteiuJing Ihe fulllei^fliof Ihe bos and 




Wheels Fe'Umi to m Ben 
Wheels Fastened to Ihe Bdk 



suppaitedbyciasspieces nailed to Ihe ends. Els shawn — ConlribnledbyThas De Loof, 
Giaiid Rapids, Mch 

An I]tujnin,iled Tugel [291] 

My ^ulhful nephews some lime ago were pesenled with FLnairnfle and il walked so 



well Ihatitbecame iieceis^aryfbt me to coiBliiicta taigel IIiflI iin]uld alloiv Ihe fun Id be 
earned DnatiL^hl 

I leveiseda daor goiig, sciewedilontlie uiside af a sloiebax, Riid fitted Iwa CEUidles 
an Ihe mside la iHiinimRte llie bullseye Tlie CRiidles, af caiiree, were belaiff the le\'elof 
tliebullseye Tlie jnsilionaf the candle:; and goiig are ^liowiim Fig 1. At lught the 
Llluminiitedinteiioi of the bell could be 



"3 




Tacf rl rW HIhIiI SIicidIIiii 

Fig 1^ F^ 2, Taigetfoi Night^hoolir^ 

plainly seeiias sliownm Fig 2 — Contiibutedby James M Kpine, Da^stown, Pa. 

Sowing fOieet Mtlal [29 11 

^heet metal [iacedbetitfeen twoboaids m Ihe jaws of a vise and clamped t^htly^ can be 
?a wed eRsily with h liacksRW. 

FefdBoxfoT Cldcknv [292] 

The sketch sIidu^ the consti'Dcttonof a feedbcx designed to pieventthe Ecalteimg 
af feed and gp-e Ihe cowaid 




Cbl(k<r, P«d Box 

Chicken Feed Box 

loostei fl^ much chance la fatten as the game cack The base maybe made af a 1/3-in 
boari 1 ft wide Riid 3 ft long, although any of the dimensions mnybe VRiied fa snit 
special lequueinents The enrls aie ^emi-ciicularpeces with el natch, H4m deep and 
3 m wide, cut m Ihe centei of tlie roundup edge The end; aie connected logelher 
with a pece of wood set in the notches The slnpof woodis H4m Ihick, 2 m wide 
and fls lai^ as the box Notches l'£ m wide and I'E m deep Rie cut on the luider side 
of Ihis pece of woad, 1-1^2 m aptiit Heavy pieces of wue are benlin Ihe form of a 
aemi-cucle, as shown The wiies Rie set m the l^S-ui notches cul on Ihe nndei side of 
the toppece of woad The ends of the wues aie sel in holes m woodpeces jaining 
the bases of the end pieces The bflseboard and top aie separable — Confribuled by 
Maitnce Baodiei, New Orleans, La. 



ABoak Rest [2921 

Aboak thaldaes nat apenflRt is mlher inconvenienl to wnte m when one af ils 
sides Ls in llie posiJian shawnmF^ 2 A wedge-shnped piece of 




r*2 



^^T-Jl^f^^^^ 



F^( 



r^3 



Book Bock Halden 

laelal, flDoe or wood, ns ishawnmF^ I, will, when placed as mF^ 3, laise flie 
slapuig Imlf ta the level of the olhei pages Co\'ei Ihe block with nibbei, wide nibbei 
bands Difell, to prevent its sciatcliu^ the desk tap The bloct can also be iised as a 
pflpetwe^hl 

Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] 

On the lei^e faimedby Hie lop peil of tlie lowei sash of Hie window 1 filted abaaid 
7 m wide into each side af the casing, by cutting awny Hie ends I placed a small 
biackel at each end of Jhe shelf, so Ilml il woold fit solidly against the lower window 
sash to support the we^hl of Ihe plants 




Shelf in Window 

One of tlie biackels I nailed to Ihe shelf and Ihe other I held in place inlh a hir^e, 
the leasonbeir^ Ihatif both weie sohd, the shelf could iiolbe put on the window, as 
one end must be diopped in place before the alher Such a slielf wiU lioLd all the plants 
a person can put on il When not m use, it can be reinoved wilhout niainr^ Ihe casing 

-CantiibuledbyG A Wood, West Uniaii, la 

Mognel ioT ike Wozh Basktl [291] 

Tie a ribbon or sliong sTnng ta Ihe workbaskel and fasten a laige magiiel to Ihe 
other end Needles, scissors, etc , can be picked up witliout any tiouble Tliis device is 
very convenient for invalids — Conlributed by Nelhe Conlon, Worcester, Mass 



Knife Made ifrom a Hack- Saw Blade [293| 

Avery serviceable knife with excelleni cutting qualities can be made easily from a 
discarded liact-saw blade The dimensians given in Ihe sketch make a knife of 
canvementsize 

The sawteeth are giaund ofTon an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth ei^e 

paiallel with the back ei^e For the liandle, take two pieces of hard wood, diessir^ 
one suiface of each piece, and cut a gioov'e fis wide and thick as tlie saw blade Place 
the blade mllie groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood togetliei Aftei the 
glue has dned^ the blade can be pulled out of Ihe groo^'e and the wood shaped to any 
desired form A small wood-screw is put Hiroi^hone side of Ihe hanrlle to prev'enttlie 
blade from shding After completing Ihe handle, Ihe blade is put back intn the groove 



and ^hflipeiied lo h culhi^ ei^e 

— CantiibuledbyH A Hulchinp, C lev's iRiid, Oluo 





Delaik nf Handle 

Killing Mke qnd KiQ [293] 

A5iiii]:ie aiidme:iperisive lueans fnibiJlu^ mice andrals is Ea leRve yeasi CEikes 
lying aiouiid iwhere they can eRl Ihem — ContahatEdby Maud McKee, Ene, Pel 

RoIlFr Co^sler Illusion Tmelin^Up ui Incline [293] 

A toy car with, a puddle wheel and a sliafi an both ends Ei'a\'elir^ upn^id on a chule 
m which wnlei w flowing down, is ?liDwnin.tlie acconipflnyuig sketch The paddle 
wheels liavei in h re\'eise duection causing the ends of Ihe axles ta toll an the ec^e of 
the chute, Ihus canyii^ the caiupthe incluie If a rack is used nn each side of Ihe 
chule and a small pinian an the 




Cai Tiflvels Uphill 

ends af Ihe axles, a positive upward movenienl of Ihe cai wiUbe obtamed. ~ 

CanTribuledby W. ^ Jacobs, Maiden, Mhss 

Block fai Fbning OilagonalWood Pieceic [29 J| 

The hitle device shown in Ihe illustration will be found veiy useful m any 
WDiksliop TwD ai lluee of tliem wiUbe necessaiy for planir^ lai^ peces Eachoneis 
made of a hardwaod black, 1 ui square aiul 4 in long A notch is cut in one side, as 
shawninF^ I, so a [mece of wood which lias been [daned squaie will fit mil Pula 
screw in Ihe end of ench piece and fasten i1 down, to the bench If desuei a lenan may 
be made on Ihe boltain. of eachblock, as sliowii in Fig 3, lo fit a moclise cut in Ihe 
bench Place the blocks fat enoi^h apeitso Ihe board to be planed will rest fimily in 
the notches 



The Notch Holds Ihe Wood 

Plane llie boaid squEiie fii'sl aiid IheiL place ilm Ihe nalche^ and plane tlie camel's 
downta the proper duiienaa lis — Conlnhuledby WilLe Wnolsen, CEips MRyPoml, 
NJ 

A LHitr H*ldtr*f Pvrced Mtlol [294] 

Tlie letlei liolder sliown m the lUustrRliDn will be found coiiveiueni for holding oul- 
gou^ letleis Ihal await the paslniEin's coming It can be niEide of eitlier copper arbiass 
and need not 




Finished Letter Holder 



be ofvery lieavymRleiial Gauge 22 will be sufficienlly heavy One sheelaf melEl, 5 by 
9-1/2 m, abaaid on winch la wort it, and an awl and hammer, will be needed 
Prepare a des^n foi the froni If one such f\s is sliown is la be iised. 






ECND NJ^F 



^ 



:\--t,!P;^i^.;^^^ 



' — JT— 

La>nul for tlie fvfctal 

make one-quarter of il first, and Ihengel Ihe a Ihe i paits by folding an Ihe center lines 

and liacir^ This will uisiiie lia\'ir^ all parts alite The letters canbe pal onafleiwRid 



Fasten tlie melal lo the boaid, usii^ tacts and iiaihiig oulside of tlie reqmied space, m 
tlie ivaste melal Trace the design on die metal withcaitiDnpaiKi.oi, if desued, paste 
die paper design i^ht on die melal Witlianawlpeice the melal between the ina^mal 
line and the design, ns ghown The holes slioiild be imifann along the outlines but 
j^liDuldbe pieicedpiomiscuausly DlheiivKe On the back, only the maiginal hue is lobe 
pieiced 

Remove Ihe inetal, togetliei with Ihe papei if the laltei was pasled to the metal, and 
tiuii off the :3mpliL3 melal wheie die tacks liad been placed File aif any sliaipnesi; so dial 
die hand may nolbe iii]uied in handling it Place die melal on the ec^e af a table ai 
belweentiffo board;, and bend an Ihe tiffa lines indicated m the diawing, to i^hl angles 

A good finish IS ab lamed by ]iislletlir^ the copper age wilh ilg natural caloi If any 
pobshii^ IS required, it should be done befaie tlie melal is fastened to tiie boaidand 
pierced 

Iminting Gjoiuid GLi:«:« [294] 

iVfete a mixture of while leadm oil, 1 pait,varmsli, 314 pert, turpentine, H4parl, and 
addsi^aiof lead as a diyei t'lake a very llunpamtof Ihis and use abroad^ flatbiush, 
sa^ Pulastei Pamtei Wilhcaie youmaysucceedrngetling the pemlon quite e'v'enly all 
aver, whichis desirable One coat will da If itbecames necessary la remove this 
caating forienewal, il maybe efCectedby an apphcatian of potash lye, aitlie old maybe 
lenewedbya coatuig of a miKtuie af 2 pails hyiiochlDiic aciE^ 2 parls while vitnol, 1 
pait sidpliate of capper (blue vitriol) and I paitaf gum aiabic, applied by means af a 
biush 

Draw before Cutting [294] 

A detail diawing made of a piece of fiunilme befaie stalling the work will often save 
time and mistake e 

Maldns "^nits" Pb,y a Vnlin [295| 

A verypietiy Inck, that can be woiked ui your own parlor, wdlpioduce as much 
sensation as a fake "medium " In all appearance, a violin, mandolin, or guitai, placed 
an a table, wiUbegm lo produce music smiply thioi^h stainpu^ Ihe fa o I and a few 
passes of the hand The musx will no! sound natural, but weiid and dislant. 

The hick is done by placir^ the end of a small slick an a music bo:i m the basement 
af Ihe hause and allowir^ Ihe other end to pass uptluough llie floor and table tap sa it 
will project about lfl6 m The stick maybe placed by Ihe side of, beliind or Ihioi^h 
the center af a table leg Be caiefid iiotta have any obstruction in Ihe way af the slick 
The instnuiient IS placed sidewe^ an the pioliudii^ end of tlie stick The "fake" work 
af mvokii^ the "spiit" is peifoniied and ended by stanipir^ tlie foot, which signals 
the operator m the basement to start the machine, and tlie ^'lolin seemingly produces 
music witliout aii^ne laiiching il 

So mipiessp'e aie the lesults, dial many people really tlunk tlie spirits of Ihe 
departed aie playing Ihe violin wilh unseen hands The music is hansmilted tluough 
the stick from the music bo:i to the vialin 




Tlie Music Fioduced bv the FhonogiBf^is TisDsmitted to the Viohu dd the 
Second Floor by the Aid of a Lor^ ^lick 

^tiling 3 Tlireaded Hale [295] 

It ^oiaetimes becomes necessEiiy ta tiansfei the sise of a Ihieadedhole fiaiii SDiiie 
aiil-of-tlie-way place to flie sliopm order to make a pece lo fit il With piopei lonls 
tins IS ea^y, wilhaul Iheia, itio^hlbe daflicull One Bung is aliwa^ athRiid Euidtlml is 
wood \Vhit1te a slick lapeimg uiihl il Btaita m Ihe hale Then turn, it into tlie hole and a 
fautlueRd will be tnEide an the iffoad The slick can be carried m the pocket wrihaul 
risk of changir^ Ihe size, as wanldbe Ihe case with oidinaiy cahper^ 

Leadtd-Gbss Firt SfTten p-lS] 



The mam fmme of the fire screen sliowrimF^ 1 is loade from tiwo piece? of 1/2- 
m ^quaiebaruon The longest pece, ivluch slionid be about 5-lf3 ft long, is bent 
square SD as ta fbnn tiffo upiights, each2S m lai^ andmeasuiii^ 36 in acioaslhe 
top Tlie boltani ciasspece canbe eithernvetedoi iwelded to Ihe upr^hls Tivo pairs 
af feet, each 6 m long and spread abautS m apart, aie shaped as showii m Fig 2. 
These aie welded To tlie taivet end af Ihe upiighls 

Tlie ornamental scroUivork on the frame is smiple and effective, and is easy to 
cansbucl, sa^ Waik, London Tlie scioUs aie atlaclied lo the ftanie by means of 3/16- 
in loimd-head machine sciews The leaf oniamental Ihe leimination of the scroll is 
shaped andembossedas sliowiim Fig 3 The metallised foi llie sciolls is 3/lif m thick 
by!/2m wide The leaf omamenlis fonuedbytunm^ oveiihe end of a piece of metal 
and woikii^ il logelhei ata iveldir^ heat, and then shepir^ out Ihe leaf with' a chisel 
and files, aflei nvhich diey aie embossed with a ballpeen hammer 




rivj 



Cuniplrlrd Fue 5[J«a nnd Vaila 

Cample led File Screen and Pflita 

The cenleris made fiaiii colored gla:3s of ^peciEil niPile for leaded iffoik The design is 
formedm Ihe teEid, of iwhicha cross secliDnis shown inF^ 4 Use care lo gR-e tlie lead 
a symnietiical onlline The des^n sliouldbe drawn full sise on h la^e sheelof lieav-y 
paper and the spaces lobe occupied by Ihe leaden! out so as lo Leave the exact size and 
ishaps of each piece of papsr Ihe same as wanted foi each piece of glass These aie used 
a:3 petteins mniaikir^ Ihe glass foi cutting The gla^s is cut the game as ordinaiy 
window glass The glaiss, lead^boidei and special flux can be purchased fiDinanait 
glaisssliop 

Aflei the glasi; is cut, Ihe work of pulling Ihe preces logelheiinth Ihe lead between 
tlieinisbegun Secure a board as wide a:3 the scieen—iseveialnaiiow boards pul logetliei 
will do andbeginbyplacuig one vertical side border. A, Fig 5, and Ihe base boidei, B, 
on it as shown ETace the coiner piece of glass, C, in the grooves of the boideis, cut a 
long piece of lead, D, and liolditm place with two oi lluee brads or glaziei'spcinls The 
piece of leadE IS cutanda small tenon jomtmade as shown mF^ 6 While Ihe piece 
ofleadD,F^ 5, is held bytlie brads, the piece Ecanbe fittedandsoldeied The 
soldeni^ IS done with a liotsoldeiii^ uon and wire solder, using losm as a flu?:, nr, 
belter still, special fliiz puicliasedfor this purpose After tliejoinis aie soldered, Ihe 
piece of glass F is pul in place and Ihe lead held with brads as before until the cross 
leads are fitted and soldered Tlie brads are then removed, the glass pece as sliownby 
tlie dotted hues pul in, and Ihe leads around it held withbiads until Ihe ciasspieces aie 
putm and soldeied Tliis method ls pursued uiiTil Ihe glass is complete, then the Iwo 
remainmgvei Ileal and lop peces of border are put on and allcoineis soldered 

The leaded glass ls held in the uon fiame by means of eight U-sliapedchps, as shown 
inF^ 7 A hole isdnlledm Ihe fiame foi Ihe lelauiing sciew, the latleibeing lapped to 



tliebap;e af the clqj lipecial :3ciews maybe iiiRde wilhaniamentEJ heads, as shawii in 
F^ 3, and iisedfbi secunng Ihe ^ide midUs aiid clips togeliier 

A Bcvahing T«ltr Board [297] 




DeIbIIi at T*«LI Bourd 

Details of Teeter Bcaid 

The accDiiipaiiyuig sketch shai^ Ihe details of a levoMi^ teelerboRiii foi Ihe 
children's playground tliat can be coiistnicledm a few lioms Secure a pDs!, not less Ihan 
4 in squaie and of Ihe lei^th given in Ihe diawu^, and loundlhe earners of one end for 
a nng Tlusimg CEinbe made of l-in sirapuon Find il should be sliiunk on the post 
BDieE[3/4-m liole in llie endaf the postfoi Ihe centeipinta lestin Kfete tluee washers 
3-in indiamelerand H4 in thick and dull 3y4-m lioles Ihrai^h Iheircenlers DnllEind 
caunleisink twD smallei halesfDr2-in woadscrews ui each wasliei Faslen one of Ihese 
washers lo tlie lap of Ihe poslas sliown Tlie poslis naiff reEidy lobe set in Ihe graund 
Coarse gravel should be packed lightlyaboutitto make it solid Concrete is inuchbetter 
if it can be secured 

To make the swivel ^u will need twa H4by 5by 3-in plates, rounded at the lop f\s 
showily and two wood blacks, A andB, each 3-lOby 5 by ID m Drill Ihe lower ends of 
tlie plales for four 2-1 /2-m lag screws and Ihe upper enrls far a ^^E-in bait Fasten the 
plates to Ihe black B, then drill a SIA-m liole as shown and fasten Ihe twa reinauung 
washers lo tlie block, one on each side and central wilh Ihe hole Bore a 5/E-in hale 
ler^lhwise tliroughthe black A foi Ihe Il^-in rocker boll Tlusbaltshauldbe 11-1/3 m. 
long 

The teelerboard IS made of a 3 by 13-in plank abaut 1 2 fl long It shauld be slighliy 
tapered from the center lo tlie enrls Two sl^s of liand liolds are shown^butlhe one an 
tlie left IS the one mast generally used The handles are rounded al the ends and are 
fastened to Ihe board with lag screws ai balls The block A is fastened lo tliebaard wilh 
Ie^ screws and should be a woikii^ fit between tlie 

wo plales wliere it is heldby means of Ihe i/3-in boll The center pin is 3/4-in m 
diainetei andabautP m long -Conlnbntedby W. H Dreier, Jr , Cainden, N J 



H«nu-M4de Pot Covtri [297] 

Empty Ihre ad spools and Ihe tins osed as e:itra inside covers in lard cans aie usually 

llirownaway, but these can be put lo good use as kettle covets, if Iheyare inade upas 
follows Saw the spool m lialf as sliown, make a liole in tlie center af tlie linand iim a 
screw ar nail tliiough llie spool and the bn, then flatten its end on tlie nnrlei side This 



willmEite ane:icelleQtco\'ei fot a pot — Cantiibuledby Ivfemice Baudiei, New Orleans, 

Lb 




AnOHtloor GynrnutuPart I-Tlw HarinnrilBar [29ff| 

GyiiuiRslic appurefus cdsI^ money and needs to be housed, because tl will nal stand 
tlie weRlhei Gynuiasiuiiis aie nol always a^Tulable for the aveiE^e boywlio litei; 
e:iercise and iwha ivoiild like to LeEini the tiicksonlionsontRland paiEillelbais, liotse and 
rings, which all ^ur^ athlelei; are taught in [egulai gyinnnstic courses 

Any small CIO ipd of boys— even two— havu^ a feiw simple lools^ h will la use them 
and Ihe small amount of money leqoiied to buy the necessary 




■ Bi. 
i±rr Ft 1 

AdJotUlile HeHientjl Bar 

Adjustable HoriEontalBai 

wood, bolts and rope, cru moke a fust class gyinnRsiom If liees Eue convenient, arui 
some one can swing Einaxe, tlie money ouday will be almost no thir^ The following 
plans are foiinateiialpuicliased from a imll squared and cut to length To subslilule 
smalL stia^ht lieesfoi tlie squared tunbeis requires but httle chEir^es m Ihe plans 

The moslunpaitant piece of apparatus mthe gymnasium ls the horizontal beii Most 
gymnasiums have two one E[d]ustablebai foi^Tiiious e:ieicisesand h li^hbar for 
gymnastic work Tlie outdoor gymnasium combines the Iwo The niRleiial lequiied is rs 
follows 2 pieces of wood, 4 m square hy9-H2 ft taiig,4peces, 2 by 4 m by 2 fl long, 
4 peces, 1 by 7 in by d-l^ ft loi^, 4 fillei peces, 3Mby 3 m by 3 ft 9 m loi^ and I 
piece, 2-1/2 m sqiiaie by5 fl 7 m lai^ This iRltei piece is for Ihe bRi andsliouldbe of 
well seasoned, stia^ht-grEiinedhictoiy llmEites no difference wliatkmd of wood is 
used for tlie otiiei pieces, but it is best to use cedai for Ihe heovypieces tliatare selmihe 
giaund as il wiL tate yeEiis for this wood lo rot Oidinaiy yellow pine will do veiy well 
Tlie four 7-m boards should be of some haid wood if possible such rs OEit, luckory, 
maple, chestnut or ash The olheimaleiiEdnecessELiy consists of 2 bolts, 1/2 m. m duim- 
eterandTm long. Id screws, 3 m long, 4heEivyscieweyes with two lO-m shmiks, 
nOfl of hesvy geJvTLiuzed wue SO ft ofH4-in niamlEL lope and 4 pulley blocks Fom 
cleats are also required but these canbe made of wood at home 

Draw a line on the foui 7-in boards eJoi^ tlie side of each from end to end^ 1-1 f4- 
m froinoneei^e Begimimg atone end of eachboaid make pencildols on this line 5 
m Eiparl for a dislance of 3 ft 4 m Bore lioles throi^h Ihe boanls on these niRiks wilh a 
9/15-m bit Fasten Iwo of these boards on eRchpasI with the 3-m screws, f\s shown m 
tlie lapviewof Ihe post Fig 1, forming a cliamieLof Ihe ei^es m which Ihe hales were 



bored Two af the filler jiece:3 are fa^lened in each chamieLas shawii^ ^o a:3 la make Ihe 
ispflce fil Ihe squared eiid of Ihe baiisni^ly The ends af thebaaids with Ihe lioles should 
be flush wilh Ihe top of Ihe post This willinRke each pau of lioles intlie 7-ui baanls 
camcide, so the lO-in bait can be pul Ihioi^h them and Ihe squared end of Ihebai 

lielecla le\'elpliice where Ihe apparRlus is lobe placed aiidd^ Iwo hale^ 6 fl apart, 
each 3 fl deep aiidiemave alllaose dirt The eiid; of Ihe posl^ nol covered ffilhtlie 
boards are selintliese hales oiibncks or small stanes The chaimels farmed by Ihe 
boards miislbe set facir^ eRch other wilhthe inner suifaces of llie posts pflmllel Find 5 
fl S in apEirt The lioles Rioiind Ihe posis are filled wilheaith ELnd well lamped 

The hickory pece which is to form tliebai slioiildbe planed, scmped and 
sandpeiKreduntilitis perfectly smoalhandiouiidexceptfor 3 m ateRchend Bare a 
9li.5-m hole lluai^h each square end 1-1 J4 in from Ihe end The hhi maybe fastened al 
any desired lie ighl by slipping Ihe l^-in. bolts Ihioughtlie lioles baied mbalhtliebar 
and channel 

Each post must be well braced lo keepitiigid while a person is swinging on Ihe bni 
Four anchois aie placed ui die ground al Ihe earners af animagiiiELry leclangle 9 by Id 
fl, m Ihe centerof wluch Ihe poslsslandas sliownm Fig 2 Each Riichor is made of ane 
2-ft piece of wood, Eiround Ihe ceiitei of which four sliands of the heEivy gEthTLiiized 
wire are twisled, thenbnnedto h depth of 3 fl , the extending ends of Ihe wires comii^ 
up la die surfPLce al an angle 

The heavy screw eyes aie turned mlo die pasts at tlie lop Riidlei^lhs of rapes hedto 
each These ropes oi gu]^ puss Ihioi^h die pulleyblocks, wluch Eiie fastened to Ihe 
piajecling ends af the anclior wiie. Find letimi lo tlie pasls ivheie they aie hedto cleats 
Do nal lighten tlie guy lapss wilhoutihe hhi m place, as la do so will stiaiEithe posIs m 
tlie ground Do not change Uie elevRlion of Ihe bar witlionl slacking up an the lapes It 
tatesbulhttle pull on Ihe guy ropes to moke them laut, and once lightened HiebRi will 
be iigid 







Ground Plan 



Odthebai when it is finished and lemove it during Ihe winter II is well lo oil Ihe 

woodoccasionEillyduiii^ tlie siimniei and reverse Ihe bRi attunes lo [aeventils 
becomii^ cuived The waodpeils should be well painted lo pialectlhem from Ihe 
weather 

El«lrojt3tu llhuninitian [299] 



An^mie having Ihe use of a slahc machine canperfami the fallowing eKpemnent 
which gives aslnkir^ resoll A common tumbler is moimledon a levolving 




platfannand h iianowslnpaf tinfoil is fRslened i*ilh shellac vanush Id Ihe surface af 
llie glass as follows Slarlir^ beneath Ihe foot of the glass fiaiii a paint immediately 
belaiv the stem, it is taken la the edge of the foal, it fallaws tlie ei^e fai abaut I m and 
tlieii passes ma can's acioss the base, and ascends tlie sleiii, then it passes aiomid Ihe 
bowl in a suiuoiis coui'se la the nm, which it foUaiffs for about one-tluidaf lis 
cuciimfeieiice, aflei winch it descends on Ihe inside and leniiinates bI Ihe bottom The 
tmfoil on Ihe outside of Ihe glass is divided by cutlu^ with a kiufe ev'eiy l/3iii , Ihe 
pflils insiEle and bene E[lh tlie glEissbeuig leftmidivided Cmientis then ledfiani a sialic 
machine to two teiminiila, one lenninatbeu^ comiectedlD one end of Ihe tinfoil sEnp, 
andsumlailythe second lemunalmELkes cantaci with tlie other end As soanas Ihe 
ciinentis led mto Ihe appaiatiis, h sptiik is seen al each place ivheie the tnife lias cut 
tlinjugh the tinfoil If the liuiibleris lalated, Ihe effect will be as sliownin the 
illiislialiDn A vane ly of small Eindpeculiai effecis can be obtained by mEitir^ some af 
tlie gaps mthe tuifoil laiger than otlieis, in which case laigei spaiks would be praduced 
al these poinls Tlie expenment should be CRined out ma darkened room, and under 
lliese cucumslances when iiotlm^ is visible, not even tlie tumbler, the effect is 'v'ery 
sbikii^ 

BqlloanAic«LiBnIlhi^lDnE300| Sy C. W. Nirniui 

Inlhese dhys of stnrflii^ re^'elalions in aii-ciafl' fl^hl we are prepared to see any day 
some inaivelous machine dnvenbirdcutlir^ figuie-e^hls all o\'ei Ihe skyabo\'e oiii 
heads One boy recently la ok advantage of tins slate of expectancy la lia\'e an evening's 
hELimless amusement, tluai^h an illusion which dec ei%'ede\'en Ihe most mcrediila lis He 
caused a wliole liolel-fiiU of people lo gaze open mouthed al a sort of "Zeppelm XXIII,' 
which skmiined Eilong the distpint lionsan, just visible against Ihe dEuk evening sky, 
disappearing only to leappeai agEiin, and woiking the ivliole croiffd upto h frenzy of 
e:icilenient And all he used was a block line ad, hhig piece af cardboard and a pair of 
field glasses 

He siretcliedihe tine od between two buildings, about IQD fl apsil, manenrllessbelt, 
passing Ihroi^ha screwe^^ ateilhei end On tins llueadhe fastened a cardboard "cnl- 
aiit" of a diiigible, not much lo look alui daytime, but most deceplive at dusk By 
pulling one ar the oilier sliing lie niaved the "au'ship" m either diieclian He laok the 
piecaution of stielchii^ lus Ihiead just beyond a blackbenyliedge and thus keptover- 
inqiusilive peisons al a safe distance He also saw to it that there was a black 
background a I either end sa that Ihe re\'eisu^ of the duection af tlie craft would not be 
noticed 

111 atlrac ting Ihe ciowdhe liada confederate stand looking al Ihe niavii^ ship lluai^h 
a field glass, wluch alonce gave the suggestion of distance, andmateiiallyhe^htened 
tlie illusion When Ihe mtereslof tlie ciawd^ winch alonce galhered, was at its he^hl; 
tlie "aeronaut" pulled lus craft out af sight and lei the disillusion come when Ihe light af 
day laid baie his fraud 



A CozkExIractar [300] 

The device sliownm Ihe sketch i? foriemovmg a cork a r shipper fiam abaiHe 
wheliiei fullai empty where liie caik lias been pushed mside A wue aboulNo 14 
gfli^e IS belli fls ishDwii rIB, Fig 1^ to fil Ihe index finger aiid the other eiid filed la a 
pomi C, and turned in a spiml D, sa the poiiil wiL be on top liiseit this tool in Ihe botlle 
as shown inF^ 2 and place Hie eiidD midei tlie CDikand pull up The caik wiUcoine 
Qiiteasily --ContiibutedbyMaiiiice Baurliei New Orleans La 




F*.t 



An Outdoor <;yBui;i:ciuniF4rt II- Farqllel Bars [301] 

Parallelbarsholda high place in Ihe affection aftliose wlio Qei^uenlgymiiasiiiins as 

tliebest Eippamtus for developinenl of the back and shoulder iniLscles, as weEas a 
pianiDtei of ease Find grace of movement Tlie autrloai "gyiu" canhfive a selof these 
bflis with very Litle mare labor tlian wrs required for Ihe lionaantalbar 
Tlie material lequiied is eis follows: 




SiH ViFVj 



EhJoViEri 



DnroU ol llifl PlIlM Strt 



Detail of tlie PaiEillel Bars 



4pDsls, pre feiably cedar, 4 m square and if ft lai^. 2 base pieces, 4 in sqanie and 5- 
i!2 fl long, 2 ciassbmces, rby 4 m by 2 ft 2 m long, 2 side braces, 2 by 4m by 7 ft. 
3 in loi^, 4 knee biaces, 2by 4 in by 3 ft 3 m long, 2 ben's of stm^hl grained luckoiy, 
2 by 3 m by 10 fl long, 4 woadscieifs, dm long, 4bolls, E in lar^, E bolls, 7 in Idi^ 
and I doz laige spikes 

To make the apparatus, layoff Hie bases as shaivn m llie elld\^ew and bevel the ends 
at ELn angle of 60 deg Chisel out Iwd notches 4 m wide and I m deep, beguinir^ at a 
poml9m fiom eiflier side of Ihe ceiitei Tliese are to receive Ihe loweiends of the 
posts Be\'el Iwo sides of one end of each post down la Hie width of the finished bar— a 
bttie less tlian 2 m Cut notches m tliese enrls to receive llie oval bars Bevel tlie enrls of 



tlie knee braces, rs isIid^vii m llie diagram, and fasten llie lower ends to Ihe beveled ends 
of die ba:3e:3 wilhthe spikes Faslen llie upper ends of Ihe knee braces to Ihe upr^lili; 
with Ihe E-in boll:; put Ihioi^h Ihe holes boied for dial piiriBse, and coiuilei'sintii^ liie 
heads Laytlie ivhole endflatan Ihe giauiid ELTui make el niait 1^-10 fl from Ihe botlom 
af die base up flioiig the posts, and fasten the end braces with Iheir lopei^es flush with 
die marks, using four af the T-mboLls Finally toe-nail die base into the ends of the posls 
merely to hold Hieinm position wlule the wliole stnictuie isbeuig handled 

Two endpiecesmiislbe made These sets or ends of the apparatus aie to bebuiiedm 
tienches di^ to the depth of 2-1^ ft, with the distance belweenthe two uiner siiifaces 
af the |Bsls, winch face eocli other, of 7 ft After Ihe trenches aie di^, additional lar^, 
shallou' trenches must be made comiecting the posts to leceR-e die side braces Tlie 
funclionaf these side braces is to haldbolh ends lagetlier solidly It is necessary to bury 
tliese braces so they will be out of the way of the perfoiiner The side braces are baited 
to Ihe pasts J usi be low the cross braces, so Ihe bolts mbolh wiUnatnieel Tlie bars are 
dressed down so dial a cross seclionis oval as shown m Ihe elld\^ew They are to be 
sciewed la the nolchedends of the upi^hts withthe 6-ui screws Tlie holes shaiild be 
cauntersmik so they can be filled widi putty after die screws are m place The bars 
should be well ailed wilh linseed od to piotect liieni fiani the wealiier, and m the winter 
tliey should be reniov'edand stored 

Every piece of wood m Ihis apparatus can be loiind and cut from Irees, ezcepi Ihe 
bars If usu^ mill-cut lumber, leav-e il undressed, and if usir^ round timber leave the 
bark upon it as a protection from the weatlier II ls well to pamltlie entire apparatus, 
save the bars, before buiying the lower part af the end pieces The wood so Ireated will 
lasl for years, bule\'en impeinted they aie\'eiy durable Be sure to lamp down the eaith 
well aboulthe posts A smoalh piece of gioundsliouldbe selected on winch to eiectthe 
apparatus 
( To be CoiiQntted) 

Cambintd Ladle ami Slxuner P0J| 

V/henusing a strainer ui comiection wilii a ladle the operation requires bolh 




Ladle andShauiei 

hands A c a iiv-e me lit article wliere a ladle and strainei are needed is Ta swing a cup- 
shapsd strainei under the bowl of a ladle as shown mtlie illustiation The strainei can be 
held m place with small banrls that fit loosely ovei Ihe handle and a small hp soldered la 
die ladle These will allow die ladle to be luiiied, leaving the stiainei always m position 
A large sized ladle, equipped inth a stiamei, is just die llung forpamters to dip and 
stiampamt, wlule a small one is of gieat assistance la die housewife fardippng and 
stiaimi^ soupe, jellies, elc — CantiibutedbyW A Jaquylhe, Richmand, Cal 

CfeinuigGlDiH [302] 

A solution consisting af t di of sadium carbonate and I ql of milk makes an excellent 
cleanei fbi matonsts' glcTv'es 



Tuipentint in Culling Oil [302] 

When ciitQiig steel di wiai^liluoii ma lalhe, nulling machuie, dull poes^ ai planer, il 
IS sametines necessRiy Id leRve a smaotli surface Oil, or vaiiaiis cutlu^ compounds of 
ail, IS vaed for llus pmpose andio keep Ihe smfece cool If a litlle turpenline w adrtedtn 
tlie oil, it will gieallyassislui teavmg a sinoalh suiface A piaporbonof one-qnoitei 
liiipenluie is good 

C«nt« of Gmit^Ej^eiinwnt [302] 

This expenmentcansisls af suspendu^ n peil of WRtei from a slict placed upon a 
tpible ELS shown mtlie accomptinymg sketch Inoideito Rccamphsh this ei:perunenl, 
winch seems impossible, it is necessary Id place a stick. A, of siifficieni lengthy 




belweeotlie end of tlie shct on Ihe table and llie bottom of Ihe peil Tlus makes the 
ceiitei of grEivily somewhere neoi the middle of Ihe stick an Ihe table, thus holding Ihe 
pflil as shawn 

Lalhe Aiiuraif [302| 

A lieav-ylatlie cut willnolda accurate wort 

An Outdoor Gyinnuium FARTIll-Tht Hoise [JO J] 

The German hoise is that peculiar pece of oppiimtus wluch is pertly b lionzontid 
abstruclion la leap over, peitLy abpiniei for jumps, pailly b sniaoth surface af lang and 
nanawdimensians o\'eiand Pibaut which Ihe body niEiy slide and swing, and pertly an 
aitificiEdbact far the purpose of a peculiar style of leap Sag 



T r ittjHn nao — [ •r 




Tbr GrimjD He 



The GemidD Horse 



To make a liorse far liie ouldooi "gym" requires iio diiTicnll iflork ^ave Ihe preperatiaD 
af tlie lop or body of Ihe harse The making of llie regulai gymoesimii hor^e leqmies a 
veiy elaboiate WDad-im]ikiQg Riid leather uphalsteni^ plani, but tlie one used for aut- 
doai ivark cpinbe made of a lag of im]Dd Procure fioma spiLvmill, woadyairioi from 
llie woods, oiie-lialf of E[ tree Inmk from h tree 9 to 15 in ui diameler~lhe larger Ihe 
belter The ler^lh maybe anywhere from 4 Id 7 ft, but 5 ft is a good lenglh 

The rauiid partof Ihis log must be planed, scraped Pind isandpapeied until it is 
perfectly isinoDtli^ andfiee frani knots, piajeclions andsplmlei's Handliolds must be 
pravidednezi These aie placed IS ui apart ina cenlralpasition on Ihe lioi'se Make two 
pamUel saw cuts 2 in apmt, stiaight down ui the round surface of the horse until 
each cut is P in lar^ Chisel aut Ihe waodbelweenthe culs and in the moihses thus 
made inseittlie handholds Each hand hold is made of a 9-in piece of 2 by4-in stud 
culroundir^ on one edge Theise aie ivellnailed mplace 

Thebady of Ihe lioi'se is to be fastened an lap of posts so that il maybe adjusted for 
height It IS not as difiicull la make as the hanzonlal and parallel bars The material 
leqmied IS as follows Twaposts,4ui square byifl loi^, 2 ad]uslii^ peces, 2 by 4m 
by 3 fl 3 m loi^, 1 ciassbmce, 2by 4ui by 3 ft lar^, Abases, 4 m squaie by 5-iy2 ft. 
long, 4 knee braces, 2 by 4 m by 3 ft lai^, two IH-m bolls, 1 in loi^, la fasten the 
knee biaces at Ihe top, ten IH-m bolts, 7 m long, 4 la fasten the knee braces at Ihe 
bottom, 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 lobe usedm fasteim^ the ad]uslu^ pieces ta 
tlie pasts 

To conslruct, la^^ut the bases as sliownm Ihe drawing, making Ihe maitises to 
receive thebatlani ends of the posis exactly m the center, and cut a slantir^ inoitise 6 in 
from each end to recep^ llie ends af the knee braces Bevel tlie enrls of the tnee braces 
and fasten the uppsi ends of each pair la tlie past with one 9-m bolt Faslen Ihe lower 
ends la the base with Ihe 7-m bolls 

The uppei end of each past sliouldhave 5/S-m holes bored Ihroi^h il paiallel to Ihe 
base aluilervals af 3 m ,begumiiig I-IO in from Ihe top and extending down lis lenglh 
for 2 fl A-ll2in The adjusting pieces aie lo be boied ma sunilarmamierafterwluch 
tliey aie ta be mortised mio Ihe underside of Ihe horse top 15 in from each end, and 
secured wilhsciews puttlirough Ihe lop aiidmta the end of the adjusting pieces 

The bases with Iheir posts andtnee bracesare buned 2 fl 4m m the ground, parallel 
to eachalhei and Ihe same distance apaitas Ihe adjiislii^ pieces are martised m Ihe 



liDise lop Wlien I3ie giaiind has been filled in and lamped hard, Ihe ciosisbiace should 
be boiled inpasilionwitliils lowei edge lesDiig on liie ground andconnecluig llie hva 
post^ 
The he^hlof Ihe hoise fiomthe ground is ad] usled by changing Ihe bolls in Ihe 

diffe le III hales coiinec ling Ihe Iwa ad]iisling pieces wilhihe two pasis Much pleaisani 
andhealtlifulg^iiiaslic exercise CEinbe had mcampehlive horse ]iinipuig and leaping, 
llie handles providing a iffay lo make many diffeient leap:; IlinDugh, over and aiaiind^ 
including not only Ihase made 1o see wlio can go over the haise tiani a istRiiding or 
iTuinu^ staital Ihe gieRlesthe^hl, butivho can go over al the greatest lie ighl when 
slEulmg from the "toeu^ ofCmarh" faitliesi away fmni tlie haise This horse sliouldbe 
located on level ground having snioolh space aboul it for several feel 

^oonReicl for Ketllu [304] 

A rest for keepii^ spoons from shppii^ into kettles can be mode fiani 




a sdip of metal be nl as shown in Ihe lUnsliEition The s|hii^ of Ihe nielal will make it 
easy to apply to tlie tetlle The spoon placed ui Ihe rest will diain back into the kettle 
Tlie co^-ei can be placed on wilhout removing Ihe spoon — Conlribnledby W A 
Jaquyihe, Riclimond Cal 

Reason Sni Bursting of Gun Birreh [304] 

Gimbaiiels do notbursl willioul a cause and usually Ihat cause is one of which Ihe 
shooter is enliielyignomni, but neve itheless, no one is responsible but himself, seyi the 
lipoiluig Goods Dealei Gun barrels can onlybuisl by havu^ some obstruction mtlie 
band oibyo\'eiloadii^ withpawdei Anygunbarreicanbe buist by misuse oi by 
caielessly loadii^ smokeless powder, bul no barrel willbiiislbyusir^ factory loaded 
ammuiution, piovided there is no obslruclion or foreign substance inside the barrel 
V.^na gun banelbursis at the breech or chamber, it is caused by an overloaded shell, 
and whenilbursls m Ihe cenleroi near Ihe muzzle, it is caused by some obstmcbon, 
such as a dent, snow, water, etc. 

Hand Sltd Made of I>t and Fining? [30S] 

The accompanying sketch shows howanoidinaiy liand sled can be made of 3/4-m 
pipe and fittings Eachrumieris made of one piece of pipe bentio the proper shape This 
can be accomplished by filling Ihe pipe with melted rosin oi lead, IhenbenEluig lo the 
shaps desired, andaflenvaid leinovmg Ihe losmor leadbyhealu^ Each]oinlis luined 
up lighdy and well pimied or brazed One of Ihe topcrosspieces should have iight-hand 
and left- hand tlireads or be fitted with a union Also, one of Ihe lop peces comieclu^ 
tlie rear part lo the fionlpaitof each luiinei miislbe filled mthe same way The topis 
fastened to Ihe two ciasspieces 
^uch a luiud sled can be made ma 




Part? Made of Pipe Fittuig? 

fewlioui'^ Irnie ani wlien complete, is muchbetlei lliflna iffaod^led --Coiitiibiiledby 
Jaine:3 E Noble, Toionlo, Onlaiio 

EmFrgeiuy Magnifying Gimfis [30&J 

\Vlieniii iieed af a microscape m Ihe ?liidy of botany, one inaybe made ui Ihe 
following mamiei Bend a ^inall wot ai the stem of a leaf ^o as la form a small loop mit 

laiget than Hie oidmaiydiap of water 



t/O^f iBclaniDf a Drop al WoUr 

Laoplnclosuig a DicpofWalei 

When llus is done place a diapof cleai watei in the loop and the imcioscope is 
complete Tlu:3 tempoiary device will prove 'v'aluabte wheie a strong magnifying glass u 
notatliand -ContribnledbyAithui E Joe iiii. Pairs, France. 

Btnl-lnnP^e Rick [JOH 

^tiips of isaftiian, I M or 3/16 in in width and 1/32 in thrck, are used mmalii^ tlie 
pipe rack shown m Fig I This material can be ob tamed from any local hard itaie dealei 
who cainesbai iion m stack 

Draw a fiill-sise sketch af the design on pepei, thennma string o\'ereach pert, 
which, when sliaig lite lied ant, will gp-e the lei^th Tlie scrolls aie bent with a peii of 
round-nose pbers These, with a peii of flat-nose phei's, are all Ihe toals necessaiy The 
part fai halding the pipes IS sliawn mF^ 2 Tlie end elevalion, atEand F, slioivs liow 
tlie rack ls fastened ta Ihe mam frame of Ihe rack — Canbibutedby J W Veiier, Baston^ 
Mass 




iRJUTJlj; 



CeFFar-a 

3»d vrAr 



Dfilfri .>r u Each 



Design of a Rack 

To CkanSibez [30^ 

A good inetliod lo clean silver of any kind is Id place Ihe aiticles in an almmiLiim 
vessel and add a fewpece^ of suic Hot wafei is added and Ihe siK-ei bailed unlil clean 
IlisbesI lo use soft walei Tlie tanushis leniavedby the electrolylic achonof llie zinc 
an Ihe almmnuin and the stlvei, and the latler mil take on abnghl luster This ineliiod of 
cleaning willnaluijuie o:iidizedai black stiver, iioi Ihal iffhich is ppiliy oxidized 

Shaiptiung S!kal« wilh 3 Filr [306 

Two methods are shown ui Ihe skelches foi fJii^ skales-one forhallaif Sling and the 
a Ihe I for filing flal 




rial 
Fillip a Flat Ijiuiace 




n>.i 



andslraightaciass tlie blade The melliodshown inF^s 1 and 2 is fai filing Ihe blade 

flal The de\^ce for liolding Ihe skates cansists af abaaid on winch faiir blacks, AA and 
BB, aie nailed These blacks aie fastened ontlieboaid in Ihe lelalive positions of the 
heel and sole ana slioe The skates aie clamped on them in the SEinie maimer els ana 
shoe Aflalfile IS diawnaciossbolh blades of tlie skates Eis shown After Ihe romidness 
IS cnldaffii an Ihe ei^es af the blades the skales are removed and Ihe file is drawn alaiig 
tlie sides to leniave the bun Skates filed m this wayhn\'e flatsmfeces wilh sluup 
edges 

Same skaters like a holla i*-^roiind skate and Ihe inetliod shoivnin F^s 
3 and 4 can be used forfilii^ a shghlly curved surface ui Ihe blade A piece of hnor 
sheelmelal IS sliaped o\'ei a EDundfile as shownm F^ 3 The maiinei of fihi^ the 
cuives issliownm Fig 4 The piece afmetalisheldoveithe file andblade of Ihe skale 
as the file is walked 




FLIIds o CucvEd flDrfdce 

Fillip B Cmvcd Sniface 

Lines and L«lt«ir Mode with a C3ip«it«r'i Pencil J30&] 

The sketch sliaiys some iinusiial wort made with a caipenlei':; pencil [f the flat lead is 
iiDtcliedwitha Ihiee-conieied file (Fig I), Iwo paiallel lines inaybe dioffii Rlone 
:3tiake, Divanous niliiigs maybe uiEide, as sliowniii Fig 2 Broad hiies canbe inade, as 
ishDiviiinF^ 3, or unequal ividlhs as m Fig 4. 



Fia.i 

ri4 a 
a I III 



Fifl,* 
[plllll 

ri,iB 



fro 7 



rnii ftni 



Prninl I^LLnlB and Thflr WoA 

Pencil Points Rtid TlieirV/oik 

InF^s 2, 5 Eindd Rie shaifnluies es|Kcmlly Eidapled foi Ihe bookteepei or diaflsmaii 
If one Lacks Ihe ability to diaivold Ei^lishlelteii; with a peii, Ihe Lelteig mEiybe fusl 
diaivn with n CELipenlei':; pencil (F^ 7) Eiiidllie outlines maiked withuik Find finally 
filled in NaiiDiff lines aie niEide wilh points cutas inF^:3 S and P A htlle piaclice ivilh 
tlie carpenTei's pencil in. inakn^ these letters will enable Ihe student to finally pia due e 
tliein withttie pen usedfbc the pui^Bse 

livulaling Aluminurn Wire POd] 

Aluininiun wire plunged ha I into a cold solution afcaibonate of sada becomes coated 
with a stiDiig layei of oxide wluch fanns an excellent insulatDi to electncity 



How wBuiUuilce-Yqihl 

Ruddei. 



[3D7] Candensed&am an Eiiticle by H Percy Asliley in 



The plans and specific alians shown in the illustrations aie far making a 400-fl c 
ice-yacht, liavuig a doifcle cactpit to accammadate four peisans The we^hl of the 
persons ui the foriffaid cackpt keeps Ihe boot fioni lewii^ when ma sliffbreeze The 
forward cockpt can be removed if necessary 

The nialeiials usedaie backbone. 




Ice-Y"acht Complete 

while pine, center, cLepu spine e; sides, wlule a»k caps, mniicr plant, bessioaod, 
bntlemulor aak, cockpit, oeiI, iniinera, cliocks, etc , quEuteicd wlute aak All Ihe nan 
work should be fust-grade Swediisli uaii, with Ihe exception of Ihe iimneK, lohichaie 

soft CFlSlirDll 

Ills nal necessary to ga into detail with the iiieBsurenients as they are pkinly sliown 
m Ihe sketches Tlie backbone ls 37-1^ ft Qveiall,l2in inihe cenlei, 5 m stern, 3-1 '3 
m Ell Ihe nose, width 4-in m All woodshauld be selecled from the best grades, iffell 
sepisoned Pind free from checks InF^ 1 is showai tlie complete ice-yacht with genemi 
dimensions foi the sailaiid main parts Othei dimensions Eue shown inF^-, 3 The 
backbone is capped on the uppei and lower ei^es full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 m 
wide Eind5/3 in Ihick The leiiglhwise side stnps of spruce aie 1-3/4 in thick The 
filhi^-m peces pkced between Ihe side peces are of seasoned while pine, leaving the 
open pkces as shown inF^ 1 The parts are put together with hot glue and biass 
screws. 

The runner plEiiik should be placed 



*lrt- 




F\9.a 



\-i-i- 



-lEf- 



-B!3^ 



FlQr4 




rnJ4 



nD.M 



FH.a 



r4.r» 




Diuil* vl tbg Jn^vacm Pw 



Delailsof the rce-YachtPEirla 



wilhthe lieELitof Ihe iwood up, so as to giv'e the natuial ciuve fiaiu Ihe ice sd thai it 

will act as a ispni^ The plank is Id m wide in the centei, 14 in at the eiids^ 4-1/8 in 
tliick af the ceiileiand 2-3Mm at the ends 

Delails of the iiiiuiets aie shown in Figs 3^ 4, 5, d, 7, 3 and 9 The costuonshoes 
are filed Riid finished with einery paper, niEikii^ the angle on the cutlmg ei^e 45 deg 
onhothaides The runiieia Rie 7-l/4m wide overall and 2-IJS m tluck Theaofluon 



ca^fii^ IS 3-U4m deep Tlie shoes aie fE[Sleiiedby5fE-m maclmie balls The^e Eiie 
shawQinF^s 3 and 9 The luddei is 2-3^4 m Ihick, 5 m deep, uicludir^ iwoad Riid 
uon, and 3 fl lor^ The cast udd shoe is 1-7/8 m deep and fiislened on wilh foui 1/3- 
m laachine bolts Abiass plafe, 1/4 m Ihick, J m wide Riid 7 in long, is inserted an 
each side of the runners as sliDwnmF^ 9 Thiee holes aie dnlled tluai^hfoia ^/4- 
m iidu^ boll thai canbe slafled Eis desiiedfai lai^hor smooth ice The iiuinei 
chocks ELiidgoides are 1-7/S in thick and 4-1/2 in deep Tliey are set m the nninei 
plank 114 m and faslened wiihglue and l/2-m lag screws These ace shown inF^s 6 
and 7 

The afl cockpil is slationaiy, Miiile Ihe fore oi passei^er cockpit can be removed elI 
will Both cockpits ate the same si3e, 4J in wide and 7 fl lor^ o\'eiaII Each one has 
a bent lail, 1-1/2 in by 4 m , giooved 1/2 in by 7fS in befoie bendir^ Tlie flooiing is 
ofoak,l-IOin lhickE[iid4m wide, tongue-Emdgniov'ed The forward cockpl is 
made m halves and hung on the backbone with wiought- iron straps and bolls These 
are shown inF^s 41, 43 Riid 44 Two pieces of oak, 1/2 m, by 4 m are fastened with 
screws to the floonr^, parallel with Ihe backbone m the foiwRid cockpit Tlie runner 
plank wluch pusses under tlus cockpit gives il stabihty 

The spars should be liollowand have the followir^ dimensions Masl, 23 ft 3 in ^ 
heel, 3-3/4 m , cenlei, 5-H4in , tip, 4 m ,booni 23-1/2 ft ,heel, 3-3/4 in ^centei, 4 
m ,[ip, 2-7/S m elI ends, gaff, 12-1/2 ft , cenler, 3-1/2 m.ends, 2-1/2 m.jib- 
boom, 10-1/2 ft , 1-3/4 in at tlie ends, 2-1 /S in allhe cenler Tlie gaff is fiunished 
wilh bent jaws of oak. Fig 17, and the mam boom wilh gooseneck, F^ 12 

Galvanised casl-ste el yachi iigguig, 5/16 in m diameter, is used for the slirouds; 
jibslay, 3/3 m m dianieler, nmiier plank guys, 5/16 m m diameter, bobstay, 3/3 m in 
dianieler, maitir^ale stay, 1/4 in in diameter The lluoal,aiid peak liaLyaids aie 3/3 m 
m diameter, jib halyaids, l/4m mdiametei 

TIte mainsheetnggii^ IS 9/16-m Russian bottrope, jibs, 7/16-m niamlaboltiope, 
4-sliBnd, jib-sheel, 3/S-m mamla boll rope Fonr l/2-m broiiEe tunibnckles. Fig 34, 
are used for Ihe sluaiids, one 5/3-m luinbuckle for Ihe jibslayand one for tlie bobslay, 
four 3/3-in lurnbuckles for the iimiier plank slays, and one for Ihe marlingale stay 

TwD lope blocks for 3/S-m wire rope. Fig ID, are nsed for the peak and throat, and 
one block foi the wue lope 1/4 m m diamelerfoi Ihe jib lialyard Four d-m and one 
7-in cleats. Fig 13, aie used The blocks shown m Fig II are used for the mam and 
jibsheets The steenr^ arrangemenl is sliownm Figs 4 and 5 The tiller is 3-1/2 ft 
lor^, rudder post, 1-1/4 in indiametei, slioulder Jo lowei end of jaws, 4 m , deplhof 
jaws, 2-7/3 m , lei^th of postincludii^ sciew lop, 12 m The rubber washer acis as a 
spring on rough ice 

InF^s 13, 14, 15 and Id aie sliown me lal bands for Ihe nose of Ihe backbone, and 
F^s 19, 20, 21,22 and 23 sliowthe saddles Hial fit over tlie backbone andlioldthe 
runnerplank mplace Tliere are two sets of these A chock sliouldbe sunk m Ihe 
runner plank at each side to conned with the backbone to keep ilfrom shpping 
sidewise as the boalnses m Ihe air The niaitmgale spieadeiis sliownm F^s 24aiid 
25 !i traps tluaiigh wluch Ihe ni^ bolls for the shiouds ptiss on Ihe ends to fasten Ihe 
tumbockles forihe runnel plank guys aie sliown m Figs 26 and 27 The bobstay 
spreaders are shown mF^s 23, 29 and 3D In Fig 31 is shown Ihe lop plate foi Ihe 
rudderpostand m Figs 32 and 33, Ihe lowerplate for same The maststepLS sliown in 
F^s 35, 36 and 37 Two positions of the jib traveler are shownmF^ 3S The anclior 
plate foi The bohslay undei the cockptis sliown in F^s 39 and 40 

At Ihe nose and heel Ihe runner plank gu]^ end m a loop Tlie bobslay has a loop at 
the nose and ends ma luinbuckle that fastens to the aiichoi pLate under Ihe cockpit, 
aft Tlie shrouds, jibslayand niailingale liave loops at the masthead and are spliced 
bare o\'er solid Humbles The loops are fuuslied m p^skm andsei'h'ed with soft cotton 
twine ovei Ihe sphce and vainislied The parcelu^ is done with insulating lape ^erve 
the liller with softcotlon Iwuie aiidnde a second serving over the first Foi the 
lialygrds lioistu^ use ajig shownmF^ 46 The Ihinible shown mFig 47 is made by 
splicing the lope to Ihe Ihuoble atruimu^ pari of hal^Bid and passuig back andfoith 
tliroi^hcleal and Humble This gives a quick and sliong piuchase and does away wilh 
ciuiibeisome blocks of Hie old-fashioned j^ The jib-sheet leads aft to the steeling 
cockpl The mam-sheel eiirls ina jig of a su^te block andasir^le block withhecket. 



Be suie tlial ^ui sriI covers aie iRige eoai^h— the mil loeter aliwa^ make^ them too 
t^ht The cocbpl covers must fitt^htlyaiaimdtlie cockpit iriI Ivfeiiy boats have sail 
and CDckpil covers inane pece 

The iwoodioort loaybe fmL'shedas desuedby Ihe hnildei The dimeiisioDS of Ihe 
sails are given mfhe general diawir^. Fig 1 

Turning Li^D On and Off from An; Number of PLu« |310] 

Tins can be done by the use of anynniobei of ie\'ei'sing switches such as 




Winr^ Diagram 

tliose shown at Band C These are iiisei"[ed between Ihe Iwo-ivay switches A EindD 
Tnrmi^ such h switch up or down connects the faui contact pieces eithei diagonally 
as at C, 01 ler^thwLse ns atB Tlie du^rani shows connection fiom A to D, when Ihe 
lamps will be on, bulbytninii^ eithei of tliese foui switches into its altenmtive 
posilion, shown by Ihe dotted lines, the cucuit will be broken and Hie l^hts 
e:itinguished \Vhentliis lias been done, the cucuil maybe restoied and Ihe lamps 
I^hted Bgainby altem^ eithei of the fonr switches inexactly the saine way, and so 
on 

It will be observed thai a leveisu^ switch osed in this way practically undoes 
wliatevei is done by Ihe other switches In Hie Rccompanyir^ diagram only two 
reversir^ switches are shown Find Ihe hghts can be independently controlled from four 
distinct positions Any number of reversir^ switclies can be placed between the two- 
way swilclies A EindD lo mciease Ihe nuiober of places fiom wluch Ihe hghts could be 
turned onand off —ContiibutedbyJ S Dow, t'layfield, London. 

Hmt t^Mahe^nEkctEir Ptnd^nt Switch piOl 

ItLS often desired to use a psndpnt switch forconliollir^ clusters of incandescent 
lamps When such a switch ls not at hand, a'v'ery good substitute canbe inadeby 
screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connectir^ Ihe socket ui series 
wilhthe lamps lobe controlled In Ihis way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch — 

ConliibutedbyC C Heylei, Hansfoid, W Va 

MFUure[3ia] 

Never guess the length of a piece of work— measure it 
Hame-Made Wattr Motor pil] 

The small water motor sliown m the illusliEitiDn is construcledm Ihe same mamieras a 
German loy steam turbine The wheeL whichis mode of alununum Hid m thick and 7 
in mdiamelei, lias 24blades atlaclied lo il 

The li^s 01 extensions caiiyu^ the run must be made Sam the melatof the wheel, 
tlierefbie a cucle 3 m m diameter must be fust described on the aluminum plale, then 
anotliei cucle 1 in mdiamelei withmthe fust and then a cucle foi Ihe base of the 
blades, 3-1 n UI indiameter Twenty-four mdial hues at equal distances apart are drawn 
between the Iwo smEillei circles Find a lJ4-in hole dulled al Ihe mtersectuig points of the 
radiallines and Ihe mnermost circle 



Ceiitially between each peu of ladial lines aiidbetiveentlie tiva Duleicucle:;, 1^ by 
3/3-m li^s aie niELikedoiil and Ihe inetiil cutaway au isliDwii inF^ 1 Al/E-m hale is 
tlien dnlledin llie ceiilei of eRchlug ERch division is isepaiRledbycutlii^ dowii each 
radial line lo Ihe H4-iii liole with a hacksRiff Each ann is then given a quartet tuin, ns 
ishDwiibythe da tied hiies inF^ li, aiidthe lug bent D\'ei at r^lit angles to lecer/e Hie 
i]in Tlie mil is made of the same niateiial rs tlie disk and contEiiiis tiveiily-lbni 1^ in 
holes canespDnding to tlio^e m Ihe li^s to leceive brass bolts H4-iii loi^ 

The disks E*P weie taken from Ihe ends of a discaided lyiKwiiterptaten^bul if these 
cannalbe readily obtained, they can be turned from metal oi a lieavy flat disk used 
instead 

The casing was made tram two aluminmn cake pans whose dianietei wa^ 3 m at the 
base, increasing ta 9 in altlie rnii The centers of these were located and a IM -m Ide 
diilledforflie 




Fi<t 



shaft The disks P are the same as used on the wheel litx holes l^-m m diameter were 
di]]led lluai^h the flat part of the runs wlule tlie Iwo halves were heldtogethei m a vise 
Bolts were placed llirai^h these lioles to )amtlie casuig wlien ready far assembling One 

sirle of the casing was then boiled to two 4-in ardinary metal she If brackets winch were 




Fin 1 

Details of rvlotoi 



screwed la a subslanhal waodbase Tluskeplone-lialf of the casir^ iiide|Kndentof Ihe 
mamstnictiire so that the wlieel is easily accessible 

The nozzle was made af 1/3-m brass ppe wluch was fust filled with molten babbilt 
metal When Ihe metal was cooL a lJ4-m hole ivas drilled half way through the lei^th of 
tlie tube, the lioLe bemg conlmued thioi^h to the otlier end by means of a !/S-m diiU 
The lower oniice was tlien sl^hlly enlarged with a small laper reamer, and Ihe upper 
portion of llie bore was reamed onl almost lo the brass to make a smoathenliance for 
tlie water 

A fi:iluie to lioldthisnozzle IS shawn mF^ 3 It was caslofbabbitlmelal ma wood 
mold Tlie hale for the no^e was dulled at an angle of ?0 deg to Ihe plate pait An 
allemative and perliape easier way would be to msertthe nazsle m Ihe mold at tlie 
piapsi angle and cast the metal aromid it A liole was then cut moiie of the sides of Ihe 
casing ata point 2-7/3 in along a lioiizontalhne ftoni the center Tlie nozzle fixture was 
tlien bolted an with the eKit oniice af the nozzle pointing dawnwaidandtluough Ihe 
hole in Ihe casing 

Sm l/S-in holes were drilled Ihrough Ihe flat portioiis of the runs wlule Ihe Iwo 



Imlveg of the ca^uig were held ?ecaiety [Dgetliei m el vise Bolls were iised m Iheae 
hole? lo jom liie cesir^ 

The iwheel ws^ iisedon Ihe dnpJjDJud of el kilclieii :3mk aiidno ptDvistan was loade 
to CELiiy nlTBie spent loatei except to cut two 1^2-ui hales in Ilie bottDoi of the casir^ 
and ELllowuig the wnste to flow off due clly into liie suit — CDnliibuledbyHany F 
Lowe, Washuigtnn, D C 

Dnirt for Baseball Tluo wing Frailire [312] 

Aii^iie tiauuQg to be a baseball pla^r will find Ihe device shown, ui the 
accDniptLiiyu^ iliastiation a gieathelp 

mm: 




Ball BGUtidir^ oiiCoiiciete ^Lab? 

whenpiRclicu^ alone It consists of two cemenl slabs, one flaland upngM, the olhei 

cui'^'ed and on the gionnd The vei5ical slab is fastened secmely against a fence, bam 
ai shed The bam or the shed is pefeiable, fai if the slab is fastened ta a fence, Ihe 
ball will bound over a gieal many tunes andmnch tune will be last in fuidnig it 

The playei stands as fai as he cates fioia Ihe slabs and thiows Ihe ball againsi the 
lower slab The ball unniediately rebounds lo Ihe iipnghl slab and le turns with almost 
as gieal a force as il was deln'eied If Ihe thrower does ool throw the ball ei:ac1ly m 
the saioe spot each luae, tlie ball will not rebound to Ihe same place, consequently the 
eye and muscles aie trained to act quickly, especially if the playei stands wilhui 15 or 
30 ft of the slabs and tluaws tlie ball with gieal force 

Tlus appniatus also leaches a person lo lluow accurately, as a diiTeience m aim of a 
few incites on the lower slab may cause the ball la flyaway over the player's head on 
tlie lebaund — Contiibuledby F L Oilai, La Fayelte, Indiana 

How taM4flFliat««raphs [312] 



Cut a piece of caidboaid I m loi^ei and 1 m widei than the iuooilI of Ihe 

pliotagmph aiidlay Uie pcture an ilinllie center Tlus allows a lO-in border on all 
sides of the phalograph Pnnch two holes I m apart al A, B, C aiidD, F^ 1, m the 
cauJboaiiibaidei close lo the ei^e of Ihe picture Fata slnr^ up tluai^h the hale B, 
F^ li, tlien acioss the comer of the photograph and dawn throi^h the liole C and up 
tluai^h hale D, then lo E, etc , uiilil the staitii^ psinl A is reached, and lie tlie ends 
The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with iLssue puper and placed 
wilhthe face to Ihe cardboard The extension baider af cardboard prevents Ihe ei^es 
of Ihe mount fiambeuig damaged and the comers 




r.s.i n* a 

Bach foi Ma]]uig Pholo 

fioni loearmg BothcardbaEud andphologiapli aie wrapped logelhermpflper, and Ihe 
pflckage IS leady foimailu^ — Cantiibuledby EailR Ha^lii^^, Cniuilh, Vt 



AMjsd^igWnichTrkkpiJ] 

Banowa i*alchfiam one of Ihe audience and allow liie ownei la place ilin Hie baz, 
ag shown uiF^ 1 Tlusbox should be abont3 in long, 4 in wide and 3-1^3 in deep, 
sa^ Hie Scienhfic Amencan II should be provided wiiha hii^ed cover, M, wiiha lock, 
N The Incky pari of Ihis bo:i is Ihe side ^, which is piv'oled alTbydnving hvo shoil 
nELils into it, one through die fianlside and the other llirough the back, so lliat Allien ^ is 
pushed in at the top, il swings aioiuid as shown inF^ 1 and allows the watch to slide 
oiitmlo Ihe peifonner's hand The side ^ should fil lightly when closed, so tliattheboK 
inaybe exaimned witlioulbelrayii^ the secrel As Ihe side S ei:lendsdownto Ihe 
botloinof Ihe box, itfacihlales the use of Ihe fuigers inpiillmg outwaidatihe lowei pan 
while llie thumb is pressing inward at the lop pari The side of the box opposite S should 
be budtupm llie same way, biitnolpivoled 

Use a flat-botloin tumbler. A, Fig 2, conlaming an inner cone, B, for the lepioduclion 
of the watch Tlie cone is made of cardboard pasted logetlier so it Sis sni^ly inside of 
die tuniblei Tlie cone isctosedexceplatlhebolloai, tlienbmn is pasted on the oulside 
surfaces lo inake Ihe tiinibler appear as if fdled wilhbranwiien iIls m place Place the 
tumbler with Ihe cone uiside on a lable soinewliatin Ihe background Fulsome loose 
bmn on top of the cone and allow Hie coik, attached as sliown m B, Fig 2, lo liang down 
on Ihe outside of the tumbler, away Sam Hie aurlience A large handkerchief should be 
laid beside Ihe tumbler 

Afleillie watch has been placed mtlie bo:i. Fig 1, Ihe perfonuer lakes Ihe box in Ins 
left lianrL and wlule in the act of lockup il with his iighl liand secures possession of Ihe 
walch as [aeviously explained Tossu^ the key lo Ihe owner of the walch, Ihe perfonner 
places the boi: on a chair or table near Ihe audience and, with the watch securely 
pahned, walks back lo gel the tumbler litandii^ duecllym front of tlie tumblei wilhlus 
back towaid the audience, Ihe perfoimer 




Pai-ls forlhe WatcliTnch 



qiucldy mises liie caiie wilh his nghl liand, la^ Ihe walchuifliebDltDm of liie lunibler 
aiidieplRces Ihe cone 

The loaded tumble I and Ihe liandteicluef are Ihenbioi^hlfaiiHaid, Riidthe foiiiiei is 
placed mfUllvieivof Ihe audience with Ihe caik lianguig da wn behind il Tlie peifonuer 
call:; atlenliaii la the tumbler beir^ fuUof biEuiand picks up some of it from the top la 
:3ijbslauliE[le his slaleineul He then spreads the haiidkeicluef oveitlie tumbler, 
cammaiid; the iwatclita pass from Ihe box info Ihe tumbler and Ihe biau lo disappear 

The box is liieu liandedta Ihe ownei of Ihe watch so IhRlhe may unlock itwilii Ihe 
key he liolds As :30Dna:3 Ihe box is found to be empty, Ihe peifoimei gmsps Ihe 
hEindkeichief implead D\'ei the tumbler, also Ihe CDik lied lo tlie cone Rmsu^ the 
hEindkerchief, he CELinei; up the cane willunil, leaving Ihe watch m Ihe botloiu Id be re- 
turned lo its awnei 



Lockiiig SevenlDiqwHs wIfIi Oiw Lo[X|314] 

A ^enes ai lowaf drawers can be secured with one lackby iisir^ the 




device sliowii m liie skelch This laelhod lekes el ivay several daiiglii^ locks Eind Ihe 
caiiyir^ of iiiany ke^ffl A lodii; used Ihioi^li Ihe vanous staple:; over llie liasps The 
rodL^ upRcEoiioiie end ELiidflELtteiied to loake suiTicieiil metal for diiUing a hole laige 
enoi^h to insert the bar of a padlock If the bans made of steel aiid hardened^ ills 
abitostimpossible to cul ilmlwD — Caiilributedby F W Bentley, Huidq, ^ Dak. 

Tciiling Sm^tlEleflTir Laiiqis [314] 

The accamjHiiying sketch shai»s the caiislrucliaii of a handy device for testing 
imiuahire eleclnc l^hts Tlie base is made to take in an electiic flash lamp battery 
Two strips ofbidss, C aiidD, aie CDimected to Ihe battery The lamp is lestedby 








Lanv TcBif c 



Lamp Tesler 



puhir^ Ihe metal end on Ihe loioerbmss strip and tlie side against the upper one A 

great Qiuubei of laiupe can be tested m a short time by means of Ihis device — 
Ca nlributed by Abnei B Sliaiff, North Dartniautli, l^lass 

H<pw 10 Make 3 FinB^n [314] 

Tlie pm bait shown m the lUuslration ls made af calfskm inadeling leather and 
saddler's felt Tivo pieces of leather are used^ and one piece of fell, all three being cat 
cuciilar lo a diaiueler af about 3 m The felt maybe aboul lO in Ihick, and lealher nf 
a deep blown color is lecommeoded 

h'loisten the leallier on Ihe back side wilhas much water as it will take without 
shawing tlnai^hthe fiice Layitona sheet of heavy glass ar copper, or other hard, 
smootli^ nanabsoibent material Place the des^ii, iffluch lias been previously pie pared, 
aver the face af the lealhei Indent lite auUiiie af Ihe design with a nutpick or any 
other pointed toal tlial will nolcuttlte leather Remove the pattern, and go 




^^de of Leatliei and Felt 



over the oulline again lo deepen the tool marks 
The space between Ihe border and the des^n is now stamped with a cuppsmled nail 

set, care beu^ taken oat lo cut the lealhei, especially if Hie tool be new Rubbir^ Ihe 
edges af the oad setovei a piece of eiuery paper will serve lo dull them, if Iheyaie too 
sharp. 



When Ihe deisigris have been iworked on [he leEilhet, pusle or glue Ihe leather lo Ihe 
tivo 5ide^ of the bell, aiid punch a hale m the centei IhiDi^h winch lo ploce a cord fai 
hanging up the ball. 

Ck^iiing WaodwoTh [315] 

An easy inelhod of lenioving Ihe dutand aid vanushal the sante lime aiouiid a 

kilchen sink is fold by a cone spa iideni af Nelianal Ivfegasuie as follows 

^^ke a soft soap fiani conuiian yellaiw laundiy soap, and iwhenitLS alinosi cold 
sill in one tablespoonfiil of concentrated 1^ and one -half cupful of keio^ene When 
the mixture becomes a lieavypasle, ilis ready ta be spread D\'er flie ivoodivoik with a 
paintbrush Allaw the saap lo leinamfara day and a lialf, tlien wash il off with plenty 
af hot water Tlie woodwork will be clean and ready far vamishu^ when it dries onl 

BiUFilrMadeaf CoTkccrnvj [31S] 

An ordinary corksc lew makes aconv'enientfile fai small bills orinemaianda It 
inaybe Ihrowii m any position witlioul darker of Ihe papers shppng dJT A mck lo 

hold a noruber of files can be made af a wood strip (Fig 1) fitted with hooks or screw 
eyes calm a hook sliape, as shown m Fig ?, 




BUI pH 



liir^le bills maybe separated from Ihe otiieis and will remam separated as mF^ 3 
Canlribuled by James M Kane, Doyieslown, Pa 

Omun«nt3lMtl3llnhjtind 1315] 

The me lal required for makii^ Ihis stand is 3/16 in in widlhand maybe 




biknani and D<laJl4 oE PjArUB 

Inkstand and Details of Frame 



:3leel, brass or copper The sliapii^ is done rs shown in Figs 2 and 3 Tlieie aie, mall^ 
eight peces to be beiil The two supports Rie eRch formed of one piece of metal milh 
the eKceptionlhal the eiid scroll peces an the iindei side aie made separalely E^hl 
nv-els are reqniied ta fasten the Two honzontal cmgs la tlie supporls. The glass 
receptacle caitbe purchased at a stabnneiy staie 

Holding EyeghiTiEFS Jiini [SIS} 

Petsaiis wlio iweai oaseglasses and who aie tiaiibled wilhezcessp'e peispuation, 
^hauldchalt the sides of Ihe bridge af the nase before putTu^ on Ihe glasses The 

latter will then iievei shp, e\'eii m the wannest weathei If Ihe cliali shoioa, use a pink 
stick, winch can be purchased from any aiT school oi supply stoie 

Siibstitut« for Gununtd Fipvr [Jl?] 

Gmniiiedpapei is a greal conveiuence in Ihe home espsciallyfai labels, bulitis not 
always found amor^ the hauseliold supplies The guiumed porboiLS of unsealed 
envelopes in winch circulars are received canbe utilized for tins purpose Quile a 
large label maybe made from these envelope flaps 

Rpp^iiring ;i BrokfnPhonagrapli ^ring |316| 

Ab I live a gieatdLstance from a railroad stahan, 1 did not care lo pay Ihe pnce, and 
await the tune necessaiy to deliver a new phonc^raph spni^ to replace one tliatbiake in 
inymaclune, and I repaired Ihe aldaiie m a credilable mamieras follows 

I foiced the tiffo ends of the break out wheie I could get al litem, then heated each end 
sepemtely wilh a pair af red hat lai^s and luineda liook or 
lap on thein Ihe same as the joints m knock-down stoveppes When Ihe ends were 
hooked toge the 1, the spru^ worked as gaodas new Tlie heated portion did na I affect 
tlie shei^lhaf tlie spm^ — Contribnledby t'laiionP Whe e lei, Gieenleaf, Oregon 

Calls While Voa Are Oul P U] 

If ^u wish to know wlietliei or not the door or telephone bellni^s during yoiu 
absence, place a hitle nder of paper or caidbaordonthe cla]:^rmsucha way that il 
will be dislodged if Ihe bell nngs 

A SmallBHuhLa^MqdeofF^FFIldngt [316] 

The most impoilanl machine muse m tlie modem macliine or wood- working sliop is 
tlie laihe The uses to which Ihis wonderful machine canbe put would be too numerous 
to describe, but Ihe re ishandlya mecliaiucal opeiation in winch Ihe turnup lathe does 
notDgiue For this leasaneveryainateur mecliaiuc and woad-workei who lias a 
workshop, na inattei liow small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some 




Ka I— Drlolli at Lolbe 



Fis 1-Delails ofLathfi 



:30it A good ELiid^ijbslaiiliRlliamemade laUie, ivhicli is i^iiitable for ivoodtuimi^ and 
l^lil metal work, mEiybe CDnstiucled frooi pipe ELiidppe fitlu^i; assliownm Ihe 
accompaiiyu^ iskelch 

The bedof Ihis lathe is niEide of a pece of l-iii pipe. aboat^O in long H can be 
made longer or ishDrler, butif itis made much long ei, a laigersize of ppe should be 
used The heEidstact l3 made of Iwo lees, jamedby a slandaid long mppLe as shown m 
Fig 1 All tlie joints sliDuldbe screwedupt^hland Ihenfaslened ivilii3/lfl-in puis to 
keep them from luining The ends of Ihe bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of 
elbows, lupples and flanges Einanged as shown The two bearings mtlie headsloct are of 
bmss Tlie spiidle hole should be drilled and re Euned after they Eue screwed in place m 
llie tee The spnuUe should be of steel Riidlor^ enough to reach lluDi^h Ihe bearing Eind 
pulley and liave enoi^h end left foi Ihe ceiitei paint The pomt should extend pbout 1- 
lOm out from llie cdUm The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spuulle as desired. 
The endof tlie spiidle should be tlireaded to receive a chuck 

Tlie lailslock is also made of two lees joinedbya mpple Tlie lower lee shoiddbe 
boiedoulfora slidii^ fit on the bed pipe The uppei one sliouldbe lapped wilha 
machine Ispfbi Ihe spindle wluchis threaded lo filit Tlie 




spindle has a handle filled alone end and has Hie other endboredoulforthe lailslock 
ceiitei Both Ihe lail slock and the headslock cenlerpomts should be haiilened A clamp 
for lioldir^ Ihe lailslock spindle is made of a piece of shap iron, bent and diilled as 
shown It IS held togelhei by means of a small maclune sciew and a knurled nut The lee 
should have a slot culm il about one-half lis length and ilsliould also have one bead 
filed away so Ihaltlie clamp will fil lighliyaver it 

The handreslis made Sam a laperu^ elbow, a tee and a forgii^ Tlie forging can 
be madebyablacksmilhata small expense Both Ihe lower 




Fis. 



lees of llie handiest and llie lailslocksliouldbe ptDvided wiliisciew clomps lo hold liiein 
in plRce 

Tlie pulley IS made of liardwDod pieces, 3/4oi 1 in lluck a^ desued Itis fastened to 
the spuidle by Lneaas af a scieiff, f\s sliownui Fig 2, era key can be used rs well 

CEue niustbe lakenta get the lailstack cenlerveilicallyoveitliebed^ else taper 
tnimi^ wiUiesuIl To da ttus, a straight line should be scratched 



ftjjjsrA&i: &.DCIIS 



SEmiirQ 




an Ihe top af the bed pipe, and iphenthe tail stock is set exactly vertical, a conespoiuhng 
line made on tins Tins inll SRve a grealdeolof tune and trouble and possibly some 
errors 

Tlie IwD designs of chucks shown in F^s 3 Eind 4 are 'v'eiy easy to make, and will 
answer for a great variety of work 

As the delailsaie cleady shown and the general dimensions given an Ihe 
accompanyu^ sketches, it sliouldnolbe a difficult niattei for Hie young nieclianic to 
cansfiiicl Ihis niRchuie — Conlribntedby W M Held, Lapoite, Indiana 

H<pld»forFlrxi>ltLui9-Card [317| 

The liolder IS made of a loiind stick— a pece of b bioom handle willda~as sliownm 
F^ ] IIls about 1 m long wilhtwo nolches cut ant for the strands of the caid These 
holders aie easily made anriivillanswei Ihe purpose almost as well as the ones made m 
porcelain Pointing or enamelir^ williinpiove not only llieir Eippeamnce, but Eilso tlieir 
insula lii^ piaperlies. 




CrillivCDld HdldEr 

Ceilii^-Cord Holder 

^ev-eml of Hieincanbe iisedalang El line, assliownm Fig 2 — ContribuledbyM 
Mu^rove, BoissevEjn, l^^n 

^portibrDoiiblr CblhtslinFic 1^19] 



Anyaiie iisir^ a double cloUiesline over pulley will find Ihe aiidngement shown in 

F^ 1 fai suppaitii^ the lower line qiule conveiuent The suppsrt is made of a pece 
af 3y4-m square oiiaiind wood which lias a sciew-eye turned inio each end The line 
IS nm Ihroogh these screw-e^s as sliowiimF^ 2 — Canlributedby W W Up- 
DeGrEiff Fruitvale. CelI 




.1 



nridti on ■ ClmlKrilDB 

Holder on a Clntlie^luie 



HatPanarPbltLiiter pi8] 



Unless a petsDn iises consideiable caulion, bad biims mEiybe :3ufTeied lohen taking 
liDlpie^ from anov'en If one leaches ui Riid lakes hold of Uie pie pan with a cloth, the 
am IS liable to touch the oven doDi and leceive a 




LUtcE DD I^< Pud 

Liftei on Pie Pan 

bum To obviate this, I made the device sliowii in Ihe sketehfoilifhi^ liotpe paiis 
and plates Tlie liandle is of piie aboat IS m Inr^, Find Ihe Iwd loops aie made nf 

heavy wue The ends of the fust loopaf wue are put lluough Ihe handle finm the 
baci, as sliown, andtlienbentso Eis ta stand out at an ar^le The second loop is hir^ed 
to swing fiee on llie opposite side of the liandle In use, tlie hii^ed side of Ihe loop is 
dioppsd under one edge af a plale oi pan Riid the ngidlaopis then hooked under Ihe 
apposite side The weight of the pan or dish drains the loops togetltei Find there is btlle 
01 no danger of a spill The sanie lifter willpck upanysise of plate orpanfiain h 
saocei to the laigeslpie plates — Contiibutedby E J Cline, Ft Siiuth, Ark 



Wt^hfinglnduin CliAs [319} 




Aitoiduiaiy IndiEin club can be fi^edsD Ihaldiffeienl we^hls maybe liEid 
wilhout changing cliibs Each club is bored lo receive lead iffasheis winch ue held in 
place by a spual sprmg Aboil is lun Ihiongh fioni the handle end and fastened wiiha 
loond nut The lead iwasliets andspiuig shpovei Ihe ball as shown m Ihe illusliation 

ChflT^ii^ the nombei of washers changes the we^ht of Ihe clnb — Contiibatedby 
Walter W White, Denv'er. Coin 

Venting a FiuuuQ [J18] 

When usir^ a hghl-fitling funnel in a smEill-nech bottle, tioi^le is usually 

e:ipenencedbythe an causir^ a spill This can be easilyiemediedby sphttir^ a match 
m liaif and tying the peils on the sides of the stem with thread —Contributed by 
Maunce Bandiei, New Orleans, La 

Lubrii^ting Waadscrcws [}1S| 

A screw maybe tamed into liaidwood easily, by bonr^ a small hale andlubiicating 
the screw threads with soft saap 

To Make "Centering" Unnecessarj- P19] 

Fnrrlnllinc a hole ui a chuc ked piec e , centering is jostone apecaliDntDO many, if tloa 

metliod IS fallawed 
Fiist, face off the end of the piece, mating a Jiue spot at least as big f\s Hie diameter of 

tlie drill Put a center punch niaik where the tool lines uidicale the center afrevolutian 
This serves eis a loughgiude fai placu^ the drill between the tail stock center and the 
wort as usual Clamp a taoLm Ihe toal-postand, on starting Ihe lallie,bnr^ itmcanlact 
with Ihe drill and keep it firmly sa until tlie drill is m fully up to the Lps This prevents 
tlie drill from wobblu^, and when once mtrue up la its size, it caimat chaise anymore 
tlian under any other startuig conditians After heii^ entered, the drill does not need the 
tool, which should be backed out of contact 

Fountain Pen Cap Used 4S a Rulez [319] 

When it IS necessary to di'aw a sliortline and theie is no luler at hand, take 




J^olLnB Linn 

afflhe CEipof ^fljuitbonlainpen Euiduse ilas h ruler If the cap 15 fined with a relsmmg 
clip, all Ihe beftei, as Ihis will prove a BafegiiardagRmstslippiiig 

Vqiurhing Handhtrchirf Trirk [319[ 

The iiece^satyatliclesused inpeifomiing Ihis Inct are Ihe handkerchief, \'aiiishmg 
wand, a lor^ piece of glass tubmg, aboul 1^ in ^lioiler Iha n llie i*and. Find a ptiper 
tiibe cloised alone eiidaod covered mlha cap al Ihe alhei, shys Ihe ^phiiu[ Tlie 
hEindkei chief lod, shaifii rIC, is conceEJed in the paper tiibe A before Ihe peiformance 
The glas:3 tiibe B, after beiiig shown empty, is put into Ihe paper lube A, so Ihal Ihe 
hEindkeichief rod iiow is wilhuiit, mitnowii lo the spectiiloig Tlie haiidkeicluef is Ihen 
placed Dvei 




tlie openii^ of the tube EuidpushedmbymeEiiisof Ihe wand fndoii^ this, Ihe 
hEindkerchief aiidthe ladaie pushed into the iffand, f\s ishowii inD After tlie wand is 
removed, Ihe cap is placed over Ihe paper tube, aiid llus given to someone lo hold The 
canimaiidfbr Ihe handkerchief to vamsh is given, and it is found lobe gone when Ihe 
gla:3s lube is laken oul of Ihe paper cover This is a novel way af making a liandkerchief 
vanish It can be used ma greal numbei of Incks, and can be varied la suiltlie per- 
former 



R«Tiuptin« GI31S LtlltriE from Windows [319] 

Glass letleis aie lemovedmtlie same way as metal le tie is, by applying caustic soda ai 



potash fliDuiid Ihe ei^es of Ihe letleis As the cement saflens, maiupulEile tlie ibuiI af a 
pockelkiufe under liie edges of the leltei uiilil Ihe caiislic woiki; camplelelyundeiaiid 
inake^ il easy to lifttlie le tiers Willi care and patience, e'v'eiy letter inaybe thus lateii 
a ff without bie Eikage 

A Giiil4z Thirls Eas; hi Miht [320] 

A guitar liaving istia^hl liiies, giving ilanald-fEisluDned EippeEuaiice, can be iiiadehy 
tlie home mecliamc, Riidif care is taken iii iselecting tJie mELleiiEil, ELiidhavii^ it 
tlioioi^lily 




LWillB at CuLlar 



Delailsaf Gmlar 



iseasaned, the finished uislruiiienl ffiUhpive a fine tone The isiEles, ends and bottom are 
inade of hEiid wood, preferably liaid maple, and Ihe lopishDijldbe made af a lliorouglily 
iseasaned piece of soft pine The dimensioned peces lequiied Rie as follows 

ITap 3116 byl4byl7m 

1 Bottom 3/l6byl4byl7iii 

2 Sides. 3^16 by 3-5/3 by I6-3M m 
I, End 3n6by3-5/3byl3-iySm 
lEnd 3l\6by 3-51^ hy 9-516 m 

I Keck lby:-5/iabyl3-l/:in 
I Fii^eiboBi(i5/16by3-5/Sbyl6m. 

Culthe fii^e lb oard tapering Euidfaslen pieces cutfiani lialpins with small wiie 
staples foi fiets All dmiensians for culling andsetluig are sliownm Ihe sketch The 
neck IS cul lapering from G to F Find from Jta F, with the back side roiuidii^ A 
diaiffknife is Ihe prapei tool for shRpir^ ftie neck Cut a piece of liard wood, IMm 
square Find 1-7^ m long, andglue il to tlie neck rIF Glue the fir^eiboard to Ihe neck 
and hold il secuie ffiUi clamp; wliile the glue sets 

The brace rID is 1 m liuct, cut Id any sliape desued The sides aie glued logelhei 
and Ihenthe fionlis glued an Iheni Place some heEivywe^hts on top EindgR'e Uie glue 
time to diy Fasten pieces af soft wood mtlie comers far biaces Glue the neck to tlie 
box, mEiku^ il secure by tlie addition of a cainage boll at A A small black C is glued to 
tlie end to reiiifaice it for Hie bait Glue stiips of soft wood, as shown by K, aciass the 
front ELiidbRck ta stiei^tlienHiein The back is then glued on and tlie outside smaothed 
with SEindpeper 

t'lake the bottom bni^e by using anoldhalpmor wiie of the same size forE secured 
withpui staples Glue Ihe biii^e an the lop al h place that will roEite the distance from 
tlie bridge F to tlie bottom biii^e EjusI 24 m Tlus dimension and liiase foi the frets 



ishDuldbe made accuialely Six liDle:3, Syid m indianielei, aie diiUed intlie batlaiii 
biu^e foi pins The tuinir^ plugs B Eoid^tiiiig^ can be pmcliEisedataiiymiisic stoie — 
ConliibuledbyJ H Sloddaid, CaibaiidEile.PEi. 

Gitasing lilt From Whttl? of ui AuroniobOe [i20| 

The froni wheel be Emr^i; of anauloiiiobile can be gieEised without leinoviog Ihe 
wheels intlie fallowir^ maiuier Reinave the hub cfip^ and fill them withheRvygiease 
aiid Ihen screw them mpkce Contuiue tlus opsiRliDn uiihl Ihe gieEise is forced between 
all Ihe beaniigsand out thiougii the small cleanmce on the apposite side of Ihe wheels 
Tlussliouldbe done elI least once every month la keepbeanngs well lubncatedand free 
from gnl DiitcRiinat enter h well filled bearuig as easily as muddy water can entei a dry 
bearing — ContribuledbyChas E Frary, Norwelk, O 

Remtnins Mold ^20] 

t'laldan waUptipei canbe leinoved at once by opplyu^ a solution, of 1 partsEilic^c 
acidui 4 pari? of 95*/* alcoliol 

HOWTO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] 
A L^hl BoatTlial Call Be EasilyCained 

Now^u m^hl think il absurd to Eidvise making a paper boat, but it is not, and you 
will find it m same lespects and far some purposes better Ihanthe wooden boat When 
it IS completed ^u will have a canoe, probably equal lo Ihe IndiRii'? baik CRiioe Not 
anlywiU it serve a? hn ideal fishing boat, bul when you want to cambine liuntir^ and 
fishu^ ^n can put ]fl)arboal on y]iir shoulders and cany itfiam place la plRce 
wherever ^u wnni to ga and at the saine time cany y]iir gun m^ui liand The 
lualenalusedinits constiuctionis inexpensrve and canbe puicha^edfai a fewdallais. 




Tbe PvLE Buit Tb Llkht and Hdiy ro Pnvd 
The Paper Boat Is L^ht and Eosy lo Picpel 



Mhkc h fidme (Fig 1) on which to stretch the puper Abaord 1 in Ihict and Eibout 1 
fl wide and 11-1 H ft long is used for a keel, or backbone, and is cut lapeimg for 
about a Ihiidof lis lei^tli^ toward each end, and beveled 



Pcluli al Fiviicnrh CauDuedDB 
Delail of Fiamewoik Coiistnichon 



an Ihe oalei ei^e? (A, Fig 2) The ciDss-baeiids {B, B, Fig 2) Eue nextisawed finrn a 
pine board 1 m lliick Sliepe Ihe^e Eis shown by A, Fig 4, 13 in wide by 26 in Idi^, 
and cnlaioay uitlie cenler la avoid useless we^hl Fasten Iheoi cniss-wise ta tlie 
bollani board as ishawn in Fig I and 2, wilhlong ^toutsciewR, ^a a:3 lo divide the keel 
into tluee nearly equal peit; Then add Ihe sleni andsJeni piece:; (C, C, Fig 2) These 
are better, piobEibly, whenoiEide of green ebn Screw Ihe peces ta tlie boTtani-board 
and bend tlieni, as sliowii in Ftg 2, by means of a sbing or wiie, fastened lo a nail 
diiven inta the bottom Anytai^h, liglil woad tlialis iiol easily bioken when bending 
will da Green ipoad is preferable, because it will letain Ihe sliapc in which il has been 
benlbetlei after diyii^ Fai Ihe gunwales (a, el, F^ 3), piacuie ata carnage facloiy, 
or otlier place, same t^hl strips of asli, 3/S in tluck Nail tliein lo Ihe cioasbaard; pnd 
fasten lo Ihe end peces (C, C,) in notches, by several wrappings afaime pled nan wue oi 
copper wire, PS shownin F^ 3 Copperwue is betler because itis less ppl lo lusl For 
faslEiui^ the gimwples la Ihe cros^oaids use nails msleadaf screws, because tlie nails aie 
nalapllo loosen and come out Tlie nbs, uiuchpie easily made af long, slendei switches of 
asiei willow, oi smnlpimalenal, aie next pului^bul be fore doing llus, two ship; af wood 
(b,b,F^ 3) sliDuldbebenland pipcedas inFig 3 Theyaie usedonly lEiiipomiilyas a 
guide mputhng m Ihe ribs, and aie iial fastened, the elaslicityaf the wood being sufficient 
lo cpnse Iheinto retpui llieii position Tlie osiers nipy aveiage a htlle mare thpn iy2m in 
thickness and shonld be cut, slnE^edaf leav-es pndbprk and put m pipce while green pnd 
fresh They are pHached lo Ihebotlambyiuepiis of shingle npils dir'entluaiigh lioles 
pre'v'iausly nipde m lliein wilh an awl, and aie the nbenl dawn uiilil they touch Ihe slnps of 
ash(b, b, F^ 3), pnd finally cul off even with the laps of Ihe gmiwples, pnd notched pllhe 
end lo lecei^'e lhem(B, Fig 4) Between llie ciass-boards llie nbs aie placed at inlei'h'pis of 
2 or 3 UL, while m other paits they pie as much ps 5 or 6 in apait The libs ha^'ing pllbeen 
fastened m pipe e ps described, Ihe loose ships af pshCb,b, Fig 3) aie wilhdiawn ard the 
frainewoik will appcpisoniewlial psuiF^ I Inoideilo mate p11 fiim pnd to prevent Ihe 
libs fionichanguig position, ps they are apllo do, buy same sphlcane orrallan, such as is 
usedfoi making chaiiba Horns, and, aflei sapking itm wpleifaip sharllime lo render it sofi 
and pliable, wmdil l^litly aiound tlie gunwales and ribs where theyjoin, and also 
interweave il among Ihe libs malliei places, winding it pboutthem prdfamiirg an 
uiegulai network ovei Ihe wliale frame Osieis probably make Ihe besi ribs, but tw^s of 
some olher trees, such as liazel ai birch, will answer nearly as well For the libs neai tlie 
middle of the bapt, tw^s 5 016 ft long aie leqimed It is aflenqoile diflicnlllo getlhese of 
siiflicienltluckness thioi^liaul, prdso, m suchcpses, Iwo Iwigs maybe usedio mate one 
lib, iastening llie bulls side by side on Ihebotlam-boaKL pnd tlie smaller ends to the 
gunwales, as before described Indiymg, the raltanbecomesveiytightandthe twigs haid 
andshif 




Litipailfliil Feflture^ of Conslmclioii 

Tlie fiBine-waik is nawcomplcle Emd ready lo be covered Foilhis pmpose buy Piboul IS 
^ ofveiystioiig wiatpu^-peper Ilshouldbe smoolhonlhe surface, aiidvciylangli, buf 
iicilhcrshifiioi^'cty Ihick Being made uilor^ idLIe, itcpiibe oblaineduiabnaslaiiy 
length desired If Ihe pppeibe I yd wide, il will require PiboullwobreEidllis la reach aiound 
Ihe fiaiue in Ihe wodeul parf Catenoi^hof Ihe roll to caver Ihe finme and Ihensoat ilfoi a 
fewimiiules in walei Then lumthe frame upside down and fasten tlie ei^ES of Ihe Iwo 
sinps of jHper la il, by lopping tlieiu cpirefnllyontlie underside of tlie ballDm-fcopidand 
lackii^ Ihemto il so Ihal Ihe pnper hangs down laosely on all sides The pepei l3 Ihen 
Inmnied, lapped and doubled over as smoolhly eis possible al Ihe eruls of tlie frame, and 
held in place by means of small clamps II sliouldbe diawn t^hl along die edges, 
tiimmed and doubled down over tlie gunwale, where ilis finulyheldby slippu^ Ihe 
stiipj of ash |bi,b) just inside of Ihe gunwales mto notches which sliould liffh'e beencul 
al Ihe ends of the ciass-boanls The slmnkp^e causedby the diying willslrelch the 
paper lightly avei Ihe fmmewaik Wlien thaiai^lily diy, VEiniLsh uiside Eindaiit with 
asphallmu'h'Einiishtlumied with tiupentme, and as soon as llialhas soaked ui, apply a 
second coat of the same vanuslv but wilh less tuipenline, and finally ccr^'ei Ihe laps ai 
jDuits of Ihe pepei with pieces af mualmsluct on with thick vanush Naw remove the 
loose sti]|K of ash and put on analhei layer af pf[|Ki, faslenu^ it along Ihe ei^e of Ihe 
boat by re placing Ihe sti]|s as before When Ihe pepei is dry, cover the laps with muslin 
as was done wilh Ihe first cavern^ Tlien vaimsh the whole oulside af theboalseveial 
times until ilpesenis a smooth sliming surface Then lake same af the sphlmltanani 
after welting il, wind it finiUyaraund both gunwales and inside ship, passing il lliraugh 
small holes punched mtlie paper] list below Ihe gunwale, until Ihe mside and oulside 
stiip; are bound tagethei mto one strong gunwale Thenpula piece of ail-clolhmllie 
boat between tlie cross-boaids, lacku^ it to Ihe botlom-baard Tlus is dane la prolecl Ihe 
bottom of Ihe boat 

Kow^u may already have a canoe llialis peifectlywalei-light, and steady m tlie 
watei, if il has been properly c onsliiic led of gaod material If not, howevei, ma few 
day^ ynu maybe disappointed to find Ihal itisbecoimi^ lealy Then Ihe besi remedy is 
to cover tlie wliole boat with unbleached niushii, sewed al the ends and lacked alar^ the 
gunwales Then lighten it by shiinlii^ and finally give il at least Ihiee coats of a imKture 
afvarmshand |Hiiit This will da ubiless slop Ihe leakir^ enlirelyand will add but htlle 
to eidiei Ihe weight ai cast 

Rig the boat with waodenoi iron row locks (B, B, Fig 5), piefeieblyiion, and hght 
aais Yaumaypului 




on law a Hina 



Off for H Hunt 



:3everal ezlia tliwRite Diciaisis-flicks, fore and Pifl, aiidmeke a mo^'Eible iseal (A, Fig 5 } 
Willi tins ]fflu will doubtless fuid^iirboal :30 isalisfectDiy thai ^u will make no iiiDie 
changes 

Fdi CEinyii^ tliebaolitis convenient to niEike a sort of sliort yoke (C, Fig. 5), which 
bnr^s all llie weight upon Ihe isliouldeK, aiid Ihiis lightens the labaiaiidinELke^ it very 
handy lo cany 

To Hang Htaty Thingi on a Nail [313] 

Boys will find many places oiaund 




llie house, wheie a haok to hai^ lliings oninllbe h great convenience Instead af 
buying lioat:3 use wue nmls, and if dnven as shown in Hie cut, tliey will support very 
heavy weights Dnve Ihe lower iiad fust 

A Honu-Made EU«rbtrry Hulkr [JZ4| 

As we had only one day to pickeldeibemes, we wanted to getRS inanyof theinas 
we could m Ihat June We could pet lliem fastei IhEintheycauld be hulled by hand so 
we made a huUer la take along wilhus ta hull Ihe benies f\s fast as lliey weie picked 
We procured a boK Find made a frRnie, F^ 1, to fit il easily, then niRde anolhei&ame 
tlie same sise and put h piece af wue mesh between Hieinas sliownm Fig 2, allowing a 
small p]i"tion af the mesh to stick out of the frames The top frame would keep the 
benies from loUii^ ai]unipin£ off, and the bottom fiaine kepi the wue mesh and frame 
from being shaken off Ihe box Tlie projecting ei^es af the mesh would keep the fidme 
an llie top ei^e of llie bo:i The top view of the fmme is shawiimF^ land the eiidm 



Fig 5, and Ihe box on wluchtlie fiaine lesls inFig 3 The actual siEe of Ihe wue mesh 
used K shoiffn m Fig 4 One peigaiicouldhiill iwith Ihishullei as maiiybeines a:3 Iwn 
peisans iffauld pick —Coiiliibiited by Albeit Nie maim, Piltisbu^, Pa 




c 




rp 


— 


— 


^ 
















c 














1^- 















Diiiili qI ihr Eldtrbcirr HuCUi 
Details af the Eldeibeny Hullei 



Haw »Makf a Bulb on 4 Gbss Tubt [324| 



As a gieat maiiypeisoiis duiaiig the wuiler manlhs are tabir^ ait/antage of the long 
evemr^s to expeiunent in one way ai anolhei, llie fallawii^ inetliod of foinimg bulbs 
aiiglRss tubes maybe of iiiteiest A CDnimonmetliodis to heat the paittobe formed and 
byblowing mone end af the tube graduaily expand the glass Tlus iway lias it? 
di'awbacts, as many Eue not sufficiently familiar with the woik to blow a muformbkst, 
and the lesultis, a hole is blown Ihroi^h the side of Ihe tube by uneven he atii^ ai 
blowing 

A goad way to hEindle Ihis woib, is la take the lube and I oi2 m mnie m length Ihiin 
tlie fmislied aiticle is to be and place one end over an alcahol flame, and by holding a 
spaie piece af tubu^ against the end allow Iheinbatli to coiiie la a ineltuig heat, then 
pull apdil and instead of breaking offtlie long lluead Ihiis fanned, sunplyhald ilin Hie 
flame atan ar^le of 45 deg andmelt itdown andclose Ihe endatthe same lime Clnse 
tlie other end with Ihe same operalion, this makes the tube aut^hl 

Gradually lieat tlie tube at tlie point wheie the bulb is to be formed^ slowly timuiig Ihe 
tube to get a unifonnheat The air inside of the tube becoming healed will expend^ and 
tlie glass, being safler where the flame lias been applied, will be pushed aiitm the shape 
af abulb A gieat deal af care should be lakennalta go ta ei:tienies, as the bulb will 
burst with a loud report if Ihe heal is apphedtao lai^ The best lesults aie obtamedby 
heating Hie glass slowly and Ihen Ihe bulb canbe formed with legulanly This is an easy 



WRy lo make a tlieiuiDiiielei tube Aflei Jlie buib is formed, tlie alhei end af Ihe Tube 
can be opened by he el Img, diRwuig out Eind breaking the thread kke glh^^ — 
CanTributedbyA Osivald 

Haw ta Mike 3 Sranie [)ZH 

A sconce is a candlesbck holder, so made tlial ilhas a reflector of bia^^ di copper 
and IS to luir^ upon the wall The tools nece^^ary are h nvetir^ haiamer, file, metal 
isheais, tivet punch, flat and roond-nosed pliers, sciewdnvei and sheet brass or copper 
Nd 23 gai^e 

To make the sconce proceed as follows Fust, cat off a piece of brass so tlmt ilsliall 
have 10 m extra metal all aioiind, second, with a [mece of caibonpapei, trace upon 
the brass hnes that shall repieseni the maigin of the sconce proper, also Irace the 
decoratrv'e des^n, thud, with a nail set make a series of liotes in Ihe exba niaigin 
about 3f4 ID apart and laige enoi^h to take in a 3'4-m thmscrew.foiirtli^ fasten the 
laelal to a lluck board by iiiserling screws in these lioles, fif^li, with a twenty^penny 
wire nail that has had the sharpness of its poinl filed off, stamp the background of the 
design promise uousLy By lioldir^ the nailaboul 1/4 m above tlie work and sbikir^ it 
wilhtlie hammer, at the same tune slmi^ to keep its pamlal IM in above the metal, 
veiy rapid pogiess can be made This stampir^ lowers the background and af Ihe 
same time raises Ihe design ^ixtli, cliase or stamp along the border of the design and 
backgroond usii^ a nail filed to a chisel ec^e Tins is to make a clean sliarp division 
between bacl^round and design lieventh, when Ihe slampmg is complete renio\'e the 
screws and metal from the board and cut off the extm maigm with the melal shears 
File tlie edges until they aie snioolh to the touch 

The dnpcupis a piece of brass catcucnlar and sliaped by placing the brass over a 
hollow mone end of a block Give the melal a circular mobon, at the same tune beat it 
wiiha round-nosed mallei Woik from llie center aloi^ concentric nr^s oatward, [lien 
reverse 

The candle holders may have Iwd, lluee, four, or six anus, and are bent to shape by 
means of the louiid- nosed 




Compleled Sconce 
Sliapir^ the Holders Riveting 

pliers The foini of the biackels iwhich support the diipcups maybe seen m the 
lUustiation 

HELVjng peiced tlie biacket, dnpcup, Eindhaldet, lhe?e Ihiee peits ate nv'eted 
togethei as iiidicEiled in the diRwuig It will be found ea?iei usually if the holder is not 
shaped until Eiftei the iiveliiig i^ done The bracket is then riveted to the back of the 
sconce Small cappsr nv'ets aie used 

It IS better to pob^hall the pieces before fastening any of them togethei Ivlelal 
pohsh of ELiiy land will do Aflei the ppits ha\'e been assembled h lacqoer maybe 
applied to keep Ihe metal from tamislur^ 

HohTo MakFaH«:togr^h[J2d] 




Uohdiit Ci^iitB ^rb Old UBi^UieMnb 



t'laku^ Copies wilh llie Hectogiaph 

A heclogpiphKveiy sun ply aiid easily made aiid by means of ilmEiny copies of 
wnbr^ CEinbe oblauied fiDm a :3ii^le Dt^inal iVtike a liay of eithei lui or peisleboaid, a 
litlle loiger tlianliie sheel of pepei ^uoidinaiilyuse and Pibout lllui deep ^qflI 1 oz 
of gelalme mcold water ovei nighl aiidm Ihe mDming poui off tlie wnlei Heat if -lO oz. 
of glyceiuie lo aboul lOU deg F on el wateibRlli, and addtlie gelaline This should give 
a cleat glycerine :3olution of gelatine 

Place the troy so tlialit is perfeclly le'h'eland pouiin the gelatinous composition until 
it IS neEuly level wilhthe edge of the tiay Co^'ei it so tlie cover does nol louch tlie 
siuface of Ihe composition and let itslandsi:! liouis, when it will be leEidy foi use 

tlake the copy to be repoduced onoidinaiy piipei with aniline int. using h steel pen, 
and making tlie lines mthei heEivy so tliey hove a gieeiush coloi in tlie hght A good ink 
maybe niEide of me th^ violet 1 pai+s, alcohol 2 parts, si^eii 1 pail, gl^eiuie 4paits, 
and wntei 24 pails Dissolve Ihe violet m Ihe elIcoIioI iiuKed with Ihe glycerine, dissoh'e 
tlie sugar m Ihe watei and niiz bo Ih solutions 

When tlie ongmiilcopyof the wnliiig is ready moisten the smface of Ihe liectogiapli 
sl^hlly wiiha sponge, lay the copy face down upon it ELiidsmoolhdown, being careful 
to exclude pJl aii bubbles and not sluflu^ tlie paper Leave ilneEulya mmule and raise 
one comer and strip it fioni Ihe pad, where wiUremoma revei'sed copy of the 
insciiplion 

Immediately loy a pece of wnting pepei of the r^ht size on the pad, smooth it down 
and Ihenremo^'e asbefoie It willbeai a peifectcopy of Ihe ordinal Repeat the 
opeiation until tlie number of copes desired ls obtained or uiilil Ihe ink on Ihe pedis 
eKhaiisled Fifly oi more copes can be obtained from a single onguial 

When tlirough usii^ the hectograph wash itofTwitha moist spoi^e, and it will be 
leadyfor future use If the surface is impaired at any time it can be lemeltedm a water 
balh andpouiedmto a tray as before, if it lias notabsoibed loo niuchmk 

HowioMaktuSaflomotit P2(i]ByFia]ikMulford,^h]loh,N J 

1 had lead of tlie beach automobiles used on the Flonda coast, they we le lite an ice 
boat with a sail, except tliey liad wheels uisteadof iiuiners ^o 1 set to wort lo make 
something to lake me ovei the counlryroads 

1 fbuiid and used seven fence pickels for the fidme work, andothei things as they 
were needed 1 spliced two lake liandles togethei for tlie mast, wiiidii^ the ends iiiieie 
tliey came togelher with wiie A single piece would be belter ify]u can gel one long 
eiioi^h The gaif, which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened, is a 
broomshct Tlie boom, the slick at tlie boltom of the sail, was made of a rate handle 
with a broomstick spliced to make illor^ eiioi^h tlothei let me have a slieet, which 1 
put down on tlie floor and cutmto the shape of a mamsail Tlie wind was Ihe clieapesi 
power to be found, thus il was utilised, Ihe Ihiee wlieels were casl-off bicycle wlieels 

1 steer with the front wheel, which was tlie fiant wheel of an old bicycle with the foik 
left on The axle between the lear wlieels is an iron bar wliich costine 15 cents, and tlie 
pulley which raises and lowers the sail cdsI 5 cenis Twenty cents was all 1 spent, all tlie 
lest 1 found 

A saw, hammer, andbmce aiidbil were the tools used Slats made the seat and a 
cushion &om the house made it comfortable, and ma wetk 




Salli^FHO^Ut I'll Ulf on CimiiiIc^ ScmIi 

SoilDDiDbile Ebi Use on Country Roads 



everythu^ was ready fai sailii^ 
Oiice il w^s slaited wilh aiily my litHe caDsin m it and I had to lunfEist to catchup 

A Homc-Madt Mogir Lamlmi [32S] 

The esseiilial parlg of a iiiagic lEnilem ore a condeiLsir^ !enp to make the beam of 
l^htc Olive ige upon tlie slide to illuminale it evenly, a pojecting leiis 



Im 




Lorlnn HOUI* 

Lantern House 

wilh which to Ihiowaiienlfliged picloie of Ihe lUnmiiialed ?Iide upon a scieen aiul 
^oiue Eipphances for peseivir^ tlie piopei lelaQoii of fliese pmts to each other The 
bestaf luatenEils should be used Riid the parts put togelher wilhcaie to produce el cleEU 
pichue DH the scieeit 

The fiisl to mRke is Ihe iRiiip house oi bos to holdlhe l^ht Oar Jluptration sliows 
the conslrucliDiifai ru elecbic L^ht, yet the same box maybe used for gas oi an oil 
lEtnip, provided Ihe niateiial is of luelal A Imbox liaving dimensions somewheie near 
tliose gp'en in Ihe diagiammatic sketch loaybe seemed Bam ]fl)nr local grocer, but if 
sochaboK IS no! found, one can be made fiom h piece of lincul rs shown in Fig 1 
When Qus metal is benlalnght angles on Ihe doited Jines if mil form abox as sliown 
in Fig 2 







T ■ I " "^ ; V-"- - Jc:>.''^ 



■J '' 



"^ 




Pi- ' 



^^gic Lantern Details 



Hflglc Lutin DiEalli 



winch IS placed on Eibaseboaid, 1^2 to 3^4 m thick, S in wide, and 14 in lor^ This 
box sliooldbe provided with a leflectoi located just back of the Ifimp 

Piocuie a plano-caiive:i or abi-convex d-m lens with a focal lei^th of from 15 to 
2D m and E[ piojechng lens 2 m indianielei with such a focaLlengJh Ihal willgive a 
picluie of Hie reqoiied sise, oi a lens of 12-m focus enlaigir^ a 3-m shde to about 5 
fl Eiladislance of24fl 

The iffoodwoik of the lanlem sliooldbe of l/2-m , well seasoned puie, wlule wood 
01 wabiutand Ihe peits fastened together with wood screws, wire biads, or glue, as 
desued The board in which to niouiil the condensing lens is Ifl ui wide and 15 m 
h^h,balteiied on bath ends to keep Ihe wood from wnipir^ The boaidis centeied 
bolh wa^. Find, elI el point I m above the center, describe a P-in ciicle with el compass 
and saw the wood out wiiha sciallorkeyliole saw If a small sawi'S used, and the 
WDik carefully done, the ciiculai piece lemoved will seiue to make Ihe smELllei portion 
of the nr^ for holding the condensir^ lens Tliis tir^ is made up from two rings, A 
and B, F^ 3 The inside and outside diELmeteis of Ihe nr^ B elic 3^3 in gieELleiUian 
the coirespondiiig diFiraeleis of ni^ A, so when fastened togethei c once nine ELlly an 
uiner labbel is fonnedfoi Ihe reception of Ihe lens and an oulei labbet la filagauisl 
the board C m and FLgainstwIuch it rotates being heldinplELce by buttons, DD 

A table, E, about 2 fl lor^ is fastened to Ihe board C wilh brackets F and supported 
at the outer end with a slaiulaid The slide suppoit, G, and the lens slide, H, are 



caiisbucled to slip easily on llie lable, E, tlie ^fnpa II iseivuig n^ guides Small ^fapa of 
tin, JJ.aie beiil rs shown Riid fasleiied at the top and bottom of the reclangiilar 
apenii^ culm Ihe support G fot hoidii^ Ihe iaiitem slides 

All the peits should be joined together snngly and Ihe movable pmls made lo sLde 
freely ELiid iffheii all is complete and ivellsandpflpeied, apply tioo coals of shellac 
VELinish Place the lamp house on the bottom board be liind the condeiisir^ lens Find the 
lELiilem IS ready for u^e 

The proper l^htand focup mnybe ab lamed by shppir^ Ihe movable pflits on lite 
board E, and iwhenthe r^ht position is found for eRch, all lantern slide:; will pioduce a 
cleM picture on the screen, if Ihe position of the lantern and screen is not clianged — 
CoiihibatedbyStuartMaaonKeir.St Paul, Mum 

A Qukhl)' Made Lamp [329] 

A very simple lamp CEinbe made fiam malenais which are available m practically 
every household m Ihe fallowir^ maimer A chenp glass timibleiis peiliy filled with 
WRter and thenabout 1/2 m of safe, l^htbunmig oil, placedontlie WRtei Culathin 
stiipfiom fln oidinary cork and make a liole in Ihe center lo carry a sliort piece of 
wick The wick sliould 




be of such fl ler^th as to dip mto the oil, but not loi^ enoi^h To reach Ihe water Tlie 
uppsi surface of the cork maybe protected from the flRiue with el small piece of hn 
bent over the ei^es and a liote punched in the center for tlie wick The weight of Ihe 
tm will force Ihe cork down into the oil The le'v'el of Ihe oil should be such as to make 
the flame below the top of the tumbler and the l^ht then will not be blown out with 
draughts The aiiangement is quite safe as, slionid the glass happen to upset, Ihe water 
at once ei:tii^uislies the flame -Contributed by G P. B 

How n Make 3 P^^tr Atropkuie J329I 

Avery mteieshng and inslmcliue toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the 

accompaiiyu^ illustialions Asheel 




ri9 




\ 



I::^. 



ri^.s — A 

Foldu^ Ihe Paper 



fVfl 



of papei IS Sist folded, F^ I, then Ihe conieis nnoiie end are donbledover, F^ 3, 
and the whale pece finished upand lield logelheiwilha paper clip Eis m F^ 3 Tlie 
paper chp lobe used should be lite Ihe one shown in Fig 4 If one of lliese chps is nal 
al hand, fomi a piece of wue mllie ^ame shape, as il will be needed fa ibalancir^ 
piuposes as iwellas for lioldir^ the paper logelher Grasp the aeiopiane between the 
Ihmrib andfaiefuigei al the place niaiked A in Fig 3, keepi^ the pupei as le^'el as 
possible andlluowir^ it as ]^u waiild a dart The aeiapLane will make an easy and 
gidcefulfl^ht m a rooiu where na an will sbike it — Conlnbutedby J H Ciawford, 
Schenectady, N Y 

Bronze L^uid [I29| 

Banana oil or am^ acetate is a goadbianse liquid 

AWresrbngMqipJO] 

The cost of a wieslbng mat is so gieal thai few small clubs canaffaiii to own one. As 

we did not see out way 




Had* m am u. 

Made of B e d Matliesse s 



deal to puichase such a mat, I made one af six used bed matlresses (Fig 1) puicliased 
from a second-liand dealer 1 oideied a canv-asbag, 12fl 3mbyl3fl 9m, from a lent 
campany to cover Ihe inattiesses ThebE^ consisted of two [aeces with Ihe seam along 



each edge The niatliesses ffere Laid side by side Find eiid la eiidand Ihe bag placed an 
aiidlacedup as shaffii uiF^ 3 —Caiibibuled by Waller W Wlute, Denv'ei, Colo 

A Fochet Vahammerer [330] 

Remove Ihe iwoiks and slein fioiii a discEiided dollar wale li^ dnll two 3/16 in hales in 
tlie edge, 3^4 in apurl, and iiised hvo binding -postR, F^ I, insulating dieiafiom the 
case with cardboard Foldtivo ships of lig hi cardboard, ill in wide, so ns to fonu two 
ablong bo:ies, lOm long aiid3/lflin thick, open on Hie edges Onoiie of these fomis 
wind evenly the wire taken from a bellniE^net lo tlie depth af 1/Sin and on the otiier 
wind some 30 gRi^e wire la the same deplh FRstentlie wue with gummed label, to 
keep it from unwuidir^ 

ijlue Ihe calls la IhebRct of Ihe case and coime clone wire frani eachbmdu^-pastas 
shown mF^ 2, while Ihe othei Iwo wiies aie coimecledto Eininductiancaillefld which 
IS inserled m Ihe liole from which Ihe stem wrs removed Fasten a brass- headed lack lo 
tlie case at tlie paint F wilh seahi^ wsx or saideiandbenda wiie m Ihe shRpe shown in 
Fig 3 to swii^ Seelyon Ihe lack Atlach el piece of steelrod, 3y4in long, in Ihe centei 
cail,C,F^ 2 

A mbbeiband, D, connects the sleel rod C with the lop of the watch case The ends of 
tlie rubber aie fastened witli sealuig vrnx Tlie mbbei keeps Ihe pomleratzeio oi m the 
middle of the scale Do not use lao stmi^ a lubber A dial maybe made by cutting a 
piece afsliff white paper so it will fit under Ihe crystal of Ihe walch An arc is culm Ihe 
paper, as shown mF^ 1, Ihiough which the indicaloi walks 

To calibmie Ihe instnunent, first mark the binding -posi A, winch is comiectedfo Ihe 
call af heavy wire, foi amperes and the other post, V, lo Ihe coil af small wue for volts 
Connect the lead and the poslmaiked A to one, two and lluee cells and each time niaik 
tlie place of Ihe pomleron Ihe dial Take caiiespanding leaduigson a slandard ammeter 
and mark Ihe figures on the dial The volt side of the dial maybe calibrated m Ihe same 
inamier, using a vollmelerinsleadaf the ammelei Tlie place wheie the 





Valriiri^m««r In a Watch Cfi» 

Vollanuueterui a Watch C< 



F.at 



indicator comes lo rest aflerdiscaime cling the curranlia marked zera. — Conlribuledby 

Edwaid M Teasdale, Waiien, Fa 



A Fflm Wading Tnagh P31| 





- J 


i 




V 


^^ 


1 






^^m 


11 




A 


^^m/n 


1 




^^m 


W^/t 






m 


Er' 







Washing a Negatr/e Filni 

The washii^ of films wilhoul scmlchu^ tliem Pifter liiey aie developed EuidSxedis 
veiy difficult m hoi i^ealher A coiiveiueiil washing liDughfor washir^ full leiigdi films 
IS sliDwiimllie accDmpdDyuig sketch The hoi^h must be mode far llie aae of the film 
lobe WRshed Cula iy4-m boEud as long bs tlie film and a Infle widei than the tilm's 
widlh Attach sinps ta the ei^es of the boaid la keep tlie ivalei fiomspilhi^ ovei Ihe 
sides 

Cut El liole moiie side af abakii^ poi^deican aboul half way between Ihe lop and 
bottom, large enough la adnata fan- size dstieam of water from a faucet Tlien saldei 
llie cover to Ihe can and punch a number of holes about IM in apait along Ihe oppasite 
side fiani wlieie Ihe laige hole was cul Place Ihis CEinon ane end of Ihe tioi^h, as 
shown, with the la^e hale up 

Some lieavy wiie bent in Ihe shope of a U and fastened lo the mider side of Ihe trough 
al Ihe can end will fiinush supparls to keep Ihalend af tlie lioi^htlie highest Find place 
llie opemi^ m Ihe cpinclase benealh tlie walei faucet A conmianpui stuck throi^h ane 
end of Ihe film Biid llienin the tiai^h close lo Ihe cpin will hold ilin posilionfor 
washing Fiv'e minuted waslung with Ihis device is suiTicienl lo remo\'e oil tiaces af Ihe 
hypo from Uie film —Contributed by M M. Hunhiig, Daylan, O. 



Wood Burning [331] 




Burnt, wocd \L'ork done with aii crdiDaiy readlne 
filaSsSand the sun 'a rays. 



BmnI wood work done ivitli an oidinaiy leadii^ gks diid tlie ^un'^ rays 

ThFDi¥ii^B«iib J331] 

This IS a veiy inleieslii^ and easily performed ei:peiimentilluslialir^ tlie Iransmis^ion 
af pe:3:3iiie by liquids Take a wide-maulliedbotlle and fill almost full of watei, then 
into this bottle place, inoullidDwiiitfapi a smaL^ial ai bailie having just eiioi^h air m 
llie bo Hie la keep it baiely afloat Put a sheelof lubbei ov-eitlie mouth of the laige 
bottle, draw liie edge dawn ov^i the neck and wrap securely wilh a piece of stni^ Ihns 
forming a lightly stietched diaphragm ov-eitlie lap Wheua filler 1:3 pieissed au Ihe 
rubber Ihe small boHle will slowly descend until Ihe pressure is leleaised when the 



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Piessoie ExpeiimeiitR 

^mEillbotlle will ascend The moving aflhe small boHle is caused by the piessuie 
tiansioitled dnai^h die walei, Ihus cau'Siiig the volume of an in Ihe small tube to 
decieaise Riid Ihe bottle to deiscend and Rsceiid whenieleased as Ihe ati incieEises to Ihe 
a iig inaK'Q lume . 

Tlus e:ipeniuenl can be perfaimed with a nanaiv-neckedboltle, piovided tlie bottle 
IS wide, but not 'v'ery thick Place Ihe small bottle m as before, tabu^ caie not to liave 
too much ELirinthe bolfani If the cork is adjusted piopeily, the bottle maybe lield in 
the liandaod the sides pressed with the fuigeis, thus causir^ the small bottle to 
descend Riid ascend Rt will If the small bottle uped is opflque, or an opaque tobe such 
as Ihe cap of a fDimtainpcn, many puszlu^ effects maybe obtained — CDotiibutedby 
Jolui ^halian, Aiibnin, Ala 



H<pw t« Mike 3nI]itNp«L«iii« Waodtn Fan TI32| 

Select E[ luce stiaighl-^minedpece of wlute pile about IJ4 m liiick,3Mm wide 
and 4 in lai^ Lay ant the des^n desued and cut as slioim in Fig 1, and thensoak 
the wood in hot watei to make it soft and easy to split Cut the dnsions veiy tlon with 
a sharp knife down to the point A, as sliowii m the skelcli, takuig caie not la spht the 
WDodtluoi^h the pari left for the liandle Tlie fanLS then finished by placu^ each 
piece over the other as inF^ 2 This will make a very piettyoniamenl — Contnbuted 
byFiedW Wlulehoase. Upper Ttoy. N Y 




C^ltEiDI Eb* We«L iDiJ CmDplri« Pu 
Cutlmg Ihe Wood and Complete Fan 

ConubinatiDii Tek^^hiiid Ttlephont Liiit [J32] 

The accoQipanyir^ diagrams sliow comiecEions foia slioit line system 




--I&l 



TRan&kUTTEH 



c:s« 



PUIH BLT TTLfU 

r 

TCLEFH1"E«J 
niC^IVECA 




Wuir^ Diagram 

(melaUic ciicnil) of lelegiRph wheie a telephone maybe iised in coDibumlion an the 
Line The lelephane leceiuei? can.be upedbolhas receiveis and transoutteis, oi 
aidinary teleplione liELiismilteis, induction coils andbRtlery loaybe used m the cucnil 
with a leceivei If a hansoiiTter is u^ed, ilsbaTtene:; maybe connecledmciicail wiiha 
common push button wluchis held down iffhen usu^ the leiephoite On a lOQD-fl 
line, foui dry cells will be sufTicienl foi Ihe telegiaph inslninienls and tiwo ceUs foi Hie 
telephone --ConliibatedbyD W Miller 



How KMalvaMnEinrFWmdniiIl[J3}| 

The folio wii^ descnption is liow h mimatuie windmill was made, which gave 
consulerable powei fonts size, evenm n l^hlbieeze lis smaller piits, such as blades 
and pullers, were cooslnicled of l-in si^ai piie on account of lis softness 

The e^hl blades weie made from pieces I by 1-lOby 12 m Tivo opposile edges 
were cntawayunhHhe blade was about l/3m thick Two inches 







DlIlUl ill UlniuCni« WuiJidlII CdiulTiKtlHI 

Details of Miiuatuie WindmLlI CoiLsliuclion 



were left uncut at Hie hub end Tlieyweie liien nailed lo Hie ciicularface pLale A, Fig. I, 
which was 6 m mdiamelerand I m Ihick The cenlerof the hub was lenglhenedby Ihe 
wooden disk, B, Fig I, M^iich was oailed lo the face plate Tlie shaflC, Fig I, was 1^4- 
in aon[od,3fl long, and tiunedin Ihe bearmgs detailed mF^ 2 J was a nut &om a 
wagonboltand was placed in the beaiii^ to msuie easyiiuuiu^ The be euit^ blocks 
were 3 m wide, I m tluck and 3 m li^h without Uie uppei lialf Bolli beanies were 
made in tlus maimer 

The shEifl C waskeyedto Ihe hub of the wheel, by the melhodshown mF^ 3 A 
staple, K, heldtlie sliaflfiam revoKing in llie hub This nielhod was also apphedin 
keyii^ tlie 5-m pulley F, lo the sliafi, G, Fig I, winch extended lo Hie gioiind The 2- 
l/2-m pulley, 1, F^ 1, was keyed to sliafiC, as shown mF^ 4 The wire L WEis pat 



tluough the liale m tlie axle and liie two ends cuived ^a rs to pa:3s Ihioi^h the two holes 
III the pulley, afler which Iheyweie given a final bend to keep the pulley in plRce The 
iiietliodbywluch the isheftC wa:3 teplfiam WDikiiig forwaidis shown inF^ 5 Tlie 
washer Mmletvened between the beaiuig block and Ihe wiie N, wluch waspai^ged 
tliioughthe Eixle Riidtlienbentto prevenlils falhng out Two ivaslieis were plEicedan 
?hEiftC,behveentlie forward beani^ and Ihe hub of the wheel to leissentlie fiiclian 

The bedplale D, Fig 1, was 2 fl loi^, 3 m wide and I m tluck and was lapeied from 
tlie leaibeaimg to the slot in wluch the S^qE was nailed This fan \em made of 1/4-in 
pine IS by 13 ui and wa:3 cut Ihe ishape shown 

The two small uon pulleys inth sciew bases, H, Fig I, were obtained for a small smn 
fiom a haidwaie dealei Tlieu diameler wa:3 l-]/4iii The belt which transferred Ihe 
power ftom ishafi C to shaft G was lop slnng, with a section ofnibbeim it to lake up 
^lack To prev'enli.l froinsLppir^ on Ihe two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed 
in Ihe grooves of each 

The paint foi Ihe swivel beaiing was deteniunedbybalancii^ the bed plate, with all 
parts mplace, across the tlun ei^e of aboard There a U4-in liole wasboied m wluch 
shaft G lumed To legmen the fnclionhere, wasliers were placed uiidei pulley F Tlie 
swp'elbeani^ was made from Iwo hds of bakir^ po^nlei cans A section was cut out of 
one lo permil lis being enlaced enoi^hto adnul the olhei Tlie smallei one, Q, F^ fl, 
was nailed top down with the shaipedge lo tlie underside of tlie bed plate, so that the 
H4-in liole foi Ihe sliafiG was m Ihe center The othei Ld^ G-, was lacked, lop down 
also, mtlie center of tlie board P, with brass lieadedfunutuie lacks, R, F^ 6, which 
acted as a smooth suiface far the otiier linlo revolve upon Holes fbi sliafi G were cul 
llirough both lids SliafiG wasbut H4m mdiameter, but lo keepil from nibbing 
agauisl Ihe boaid P, a Ifli-in hole wasboiedfbi it, Ihiai^h the laltei 

The lowei was made of foui 1 by I m slnps, 25 fl loi^ Tlie y converged &am pomts 
on Ihe ground forming an 3-fl square to Ihe boaidP al Ihe lop of tlie lowei This board 
was 12 m squaie and Ihe comers were notcliedto admit the ships as shown. Fig I 
Laths weie nailed dip^onally between Ihe strips lo stiei^lhen llie lowei laterally Each 
stiip was screwed lo a stake inllie giound so llialbydiscomiectmg two of lliem Ihe olher 
two could be used as lunges and Ihe to we i could be lipped ovei and lowered lo llie 
ground, as, for instance, when Ihe windmill needed oiling Beanngs foi the shaft G were 
placed 5 ft aperl mllie lower The powei was pul lo'v'anous uses 

How (• Makt aTel^i^^hliutriiifeFMlqnd Buzitr |334] 

The only ex|Kndituie necessaiy m constructing Ihis telegraph insliumenl is Ihe pnce 
of a diy cell, providir^ one has a few old maleiials on hand 

Procure a block of wood about fl in loi^ and 3 m wide and lake the coils oulof an 
oldelectiic bell If you have no bell^ one maybe had at Ihe dealers foi a small sum. 
Fasten Ihese coils on Ihe blocks atone end as inF^ I 

Cut a piece of Im 2 m long and iy2 in wide and bend ilso tlie end of the Im 





r«i 



HoPH-Kad* TsSrpnpli Inilmir.rlll 

Home-Made Telegraph Instnmient 



when fastened lo Ihe block will come just above Ihe core of tlie coil Cutanolhei piece 
oftm3m long andbend lias sliownat A, F^ 2 Tack Ihese two pieces of tmiu froni 
of tlie coils as sliownmllie illuslralion Tins completes Ihe receivei or sounder 
To make Ihe key, cul outanolher piece of tm(X, F^ 1) 4irL long and bend ilas 



uLiDwii Before lackir^ il la Ihe board, cutofflhe head of a iiail Riiddnve it in the boEud 
at h point wlieie Ihe loose eiidof Ihe Imwill cover il Then tact Ihe key to Ihe boaidaiid 
connect tlie wiies of Ihe battery Eis inF^ I Not*, inave Ihe coils back and forlh until 
the click :30iiiidsjiisttlie i*ay ^u wi^h and you are leEidy to begin on the Pvlorse code 
When lired of llu:3 inslrunienl, connect tlie wiie fnim the coib to Ihe key lo paint A 
and Ihe one connected bI Ihe point luidei Ihe key to B, leading Ihe olhei wiie a^ it is By 
adjushi^ Ihe coils, the receiver will begin to vibmle lEipdly^ causing el buzzing sound — 
Conlribuledby John R PvlcConnell 

Hov la Makf 4 Wiltr BirTck [33?] 

Watei bicycles pifoidfine spoil, Eind, lite many Einolliei device boy^ niEite, can be 

inade of iitalenaL often cast off by then people a:3 mbbiuh The principle material 
necegisaiyfor tlie consliiiclion of a watei bicycle is oilbaiiels Flour banels will not do- 
lliey aie notslroi^ enougli, noi CEin llieybe made perfectly Rirlighl The grocei CEin 
fmnisJiynu with oil bone Is at a very isntall cost, piabably lei yiu liave Ihein. for making 
a feivdeLveneg for Imit Tliree barrels aie required for the walei bicy;le, allhoi^h il can 
be niEide wilhbuttwo F^ure I ishows the melhodof anai^ir^ thebarrek, aftei the 
maiinei of bicycle wlieels 

ftocure an old bicycle frame and make font oboEirdplatfonnaboutS ft wide althe 
leai end andtapsnng lo about 3 ft at die front, usii^ cleat:; lo liold Ihe board frame, an 
ishowii Pit 




Fial. 

WflH BIrjrIr Cimpl*M 
Water, Bicycle Complete 

Ihe isliaded poitionK The conslructionof Ihe barrel |Hiti:3 shown mF^ 1 Boie lioles in 
llie cenlei of die heeids of the two rear barrels and also mtlie heeids of tlie first bairel Find 
put a shiifl of wood, llirough Ihe rcEiibanek and one llirough Ihe fioni bairel, Eid]iishi^ 
tlie side peces lo the sliafi:;, an uidicated 

NeKt place Ihe platform of Ihe bicycle frEime and coiinec lion; Ihereon Going back lo 
Fig 1 we see IhnI Ihe dnvii^ chmii passes from the spiocketdnvei L of tlie bicycle 
frEime lo Ihe plRce downward between Ihe ditn ui Ihe plalfoim lo tlie driven sprocket on 
tlie shaflbelween the two barrels Thu'S a cenlei drive is made The leai barrels Eoe, 
fitted mlh peddles as atM, consisling of four pieces of boord nailed 



1 



r«i 




■XT- —— IT 

Banel Flodl fai Bicycle 



aiidclealed aboul Hie cucmnference of Hie baiiels, a:3 shaifii uiF^ I 

The new ciaftis iiowieadyfoia fu^lva^ge To piapel it, sealyDiireelf an Hie 
bicycle seat, feet on the pedals, ]iisl as ^ii would weie ^u anabic^le out in the stieel 
The steeniig is effec ted by simply beiidu^ Hie body la Hie i^litoi left, i^liich causes the 
ciaftta dip to the inclined side Eindtlie affaii turns intlie dipped duectioii The speed is 
islowat fiRt, buluiciepises as tlie farce is gene rated and as ane becoiiiei; faniiLM with the 
woitLing af Hie affau Tlieie w na danger, as Ihe aut^htbEiiiels caiinalp]ssibly sink 
Aiiothei mode af pnlting together the selof baiiek, using one lEnge one in Hie leai 
and a smeJI ane ui the fiantis pesented inF^, 3 Tlieise Iwobaiiels aie empty oil 
banels like the others The head lioles aie bored Eind the pioper woaden isliafis oie 
insei+ed andtlie entrance ta the bores cloised t^lit by calking with hemp and putty or 
clay The ends of the shafts turn intlie waodenfiame wlieie the requuedbores aie made 
to receive the saine If the joiunnls thus made are well oiled, theie will not be much 
friction Such a fiEinie CEinbe fitted witli oplatfarm and a lafYto suit ane's individual 
fancybuilt up]nit, wluch CEin 




AninliBr Typs t' Plnm 
Anolhei Type of Float 



be piddled abaut with tesc Eind safety on any pond A sail cpinbe nggedupby using h 
ma:3t and some sheetuig^oieven a htlle housebool, which will give Riiy aniounl of 
pleasure, can be built 

How To Make 3 ^"iruill Searchliglit [336] 

The roEilenals lequired foi a small searchlight aie h 4-volllaiupaf tlie laopvonely, 
tliui slieet brass for the c^iidei, coppei pping andbiaiss tubu^ far base When 
corapleled tlie seaichl^ht maybe fitled to a sraEillboat and will afford a great amount 




af plea:3uie for a litHe work, aiil iiiEiybe pulla allieiuses if deisued 

Pvfeke a c^duidei of woadof Ihe leqiuiedisize Euidbend a sheelof IhinbieK Euauiid il 
lihii|K siiiEiU blocks af boxifload, D, Fig I, to fil llie side:; and pa:3s sloulpeceg of brass 
wiie Ihioi^li Ihe middle aftlie blocks foi Inmiuans E:iactly lliiough Ihe middle of liie 
:3ide:3 of Ihe c^iuidei diillliale:; jusl so large lliat wlieii tlie blocks canlEiiiimg the 
tiiiniuoiis aie cemeiiledlo Ihe c^^indeitliere is iio cliance of coiitaclbelweeii c^dindei 
aiid liiuiniDn, and ^a cieRlii^ a false ciicml 

The liuiiniDn should projeclsLghliy mla Ihe c^iidei, aiidaflei Ihe lamp has been 
placed mposilioii by means of the small WDodblacti; sliownm F^ I, tlie wires fiom 
tlie lamp uliouldbe :3oldeied to the Inmmaiis It is best lo :3oldei Ihe wue fa the tiiuiniDns 
before ceroenting the side blocks uiside tlie cyhiidei 

Turn El small circle of wood. A, Fig 2, iiiside tlie c^diiidei lo tit exactly and fasten to il 
a piece of rainoi, C, Fig 2, e:iactly Ihe spirae :3ise lo seive asa reflecloi Pamling the 
wood wilhiiiute enmiielor a piece of brightly polislied iiietiil wiL ^tive tlie puipose On 
tlie bock of the piece of wood faisten a small braids liaiidle, B, Fig 2, ^a tlial ilmoy 
readily be ienio\'ed foi cleRmi^ 

Infiontof c^iuidei ploce a pece of magmfyir^ glasi; for a lens If a piece In fit 
CEiiinolbe obtained, fit a gla:3s like a hiien tester lo a small disc of wood oi brass to fil 
Ihe cylindei If magmfying gla:;:; cannot be liad^ use plam glass and fil them els follows. 




Front View 



^ide View 



Pvfeke ti*o m^:3 of brass wue lo tit t^hlly into the c^inder, trace a circle (inside 
diameleiaf cyhndei) on a pece of caidboEini, place cardboard on glass Eind cnloul glass 
with a glass ciiltei.bieal otfadd corners with notches on cutters and grind Ihe edge of 
tlie glass an an ordinary led bnct usii^ plentyof ifaler Place anebiass ni^ m c^inder, 
tlien the glass disc and then Ihe oilier ring 

Foi Ihe stand fill a pece of copper ppmg with melted rosui ar lead Wlien hard bend 
the pipe aiDiuida piece of iwjod which has been sawed lo the sliape af bend desired 
Then melt out die rosin arlead Make anmcisian wiiha half-ioiind file in tlie under side 
af tlie tube far tlie wires to come lluDugh Pvfete the base of wood as shown inF^ I 
One half inch from Ihe lopbore a liole large enoi^h la admit the copper pipe and a 
larger hole up the center to meelitfoi Ihe iviies la come down 

If [| IS desired to mate tlie light very complete, make the base of Iwo peces of brass 
tube-one beu^ a slirling film Ihe olhei and with projecting pieces to prevenlllie 
c^iidei fioni gou^ lao fai Tlie hghl may then be elevated or lowered as wished On 
tiHQ Qidinery brass tenmnals tivisl or saldei some flexible wiie, bulbetbre doir^ so fi;: a 
little bone waslier on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate ilfioni the lube Wlien 
the wires ha\'e been seemed to tlie lemiinals cov-ei Ihe jomtwitha piece ofvery Ihm 



mdia nibbei liibir^, such as is used far cycle ^iiK'es The two wacs may now be 
tliieaded down the coppei tube mio the base. Find pulled t^hl, the tennuials fimily fixed 
into the tubes, if loo ^mall, same glue willsecuie Ihem To gel Ihe c^^uidei mla lis 
carnage, put one tiuimiDn m^D liie teiimiudds foi as it will go and this will allow loom 

for Ihe alheiliiiiiniDnlD go m its tenniiial 

ElHiric ALirm tli^rRingi m Bell and Turiv on a Light P37| 

Tlie illuslialion sliows elii alarm clock coiuiec led up to ring elu electric bell, and at Ihe 
saine tuiie turn on Eiiielecliic l^hl to show the liiiie The psils indicated are rs follows 
A, keyof Edarm clock, B, coiilactpost, 4 m long, C, slielf, 5-iy4by 10 iii ,D, brackel, 
E, eleclricbulb (3-1/3 volt?) ,S, brass slnp, 4-112 in loi^, 3fE m wide aiid 1/16 m 
lluck, T, switch, F, wiie fiambflltenes to swilch,G, wue from bell to swilch.H, wue 
from light Id switch, I, diybatlenes, J, bell, X, pomi where h splice is made from Ihe 
l^hlta wire leEidii^ ta batteries from brass slnp under clack Push Ihe switch lever Id 
tlie t^hl before reliiii^ 

Ta operate llus, sel alEnin key fls ^howii in diagiain, Eifler two turns have been 
made on the key When alann goes off, it turns hllil fannsa comiection by sinking Ihe 
cantactposland stalls Ihe electric bell ni^u^ Throw le\'ei off from Ihe light Id cenlei, 
which slaps bell ni^uig To tlirow an Lght Ihiow le\'eis ta Ihe left The bell is then cut 
ant but the hghtiemains on till level is agamtlirown mtlie center, 

Inplacu^ clock an shelf, after setlir^ alarm, be sure Ihal Ihe legs of clack are on tlie 
bmss slnp Riid tliat the alaim key is mposilionso il will came mconlaci wilhtlie 
cantnctposlmback af clack The canlaclpaslniELybe of HA-m copper tubing, ar 114- 
m bmss rod 

The advnnlage of Ihis is lliatane can conlral Ihe bell Find l^hl, while lyuig m bed, by 
hEivii^ tlie swilchan Ihe baseboard, near Ihe bed, sa ilcanbe leached widiontgetlir^ 
antofbed — ConlribnledbyGeo C Bnnkeihoff, Swiss^Tile, Pa 




Details of Alaini Coiistmction 

How n HoU 4 &i«H on 4 ^TCHdrner P37] 

A sciew Ihal is taken fioni a place ahnost inaccessible wilhdie fingers requires 
can3iElerable patience to relum il with an oirluiEirysciewdiiver unless ?onie holding-on 
device is used 1 hEive found tliat by puling a pece of cardboard or Ihick paper with Ihe 
blade of tlie screwdriver in the screw head slot, flie screw maybe held and luiiiedmta 
places thatil would be impassible with the screwdriver alone — Contribute d by C 
Cliatland. C^den, Utah 



How ta Make a Lead Cauwn [339] 



Aiiyboywlio lias a litlle mectmnicEilabiLlycaii make a very reliable CRiinaiifDr his 
FouiHi-of-Jijlycelebialia II by following llie mstiucliDns given here 



£ 



rt^t 



\- 





n>,3 



Lead CaEuion C dds line tin a 



Take h :3tick~a piece of curiam lallei will do— 7 in tang Fvlake h sliouldei, Eis al A, 
Fig 1, 4m from one enrl, making ita:3 tiiie and sniDolh as |B:3:3ible, as llus is lobe liie 
muzzle of llie CRiinDn Make liie spindle as mF^ 1, 1/4 m m diamelei Piacure a goad 
quality of gtiff paper, aboul 5 m wide, and wrap it Riound the shoulder of the slick, 
leltmg ite:ileQd 3M in beyond the endof the ispmdle, Eis at B, Fig 2 Push Ein ordinary 
ishii^le QRiltlirough Ihe pepei and mto Ihe eilreme end of the spindle, as at A, Fig 2. 
TluE IS lo foim the fuse hole 

Heivu^ finished this, place slick and pJlina pail of sand, beu^ careful not to get Ihe 
sand III il. Find lelting Ihe openir^ at Ihe tope:ilenda httle above Ihe siufece of Ihe sand 
Then fill Ihe pflpei cylinder with melted lead Find let cool PuJlaultlie nail and stick, 
scrape ofTihe pepei and Ihe cannanLS reEidyfoi mounluig, Eis inF^ 3 -Contiibutedby 
Clias !i Chapman, LEtnesboio, P-lmii 

Hanunudt Eb^ [rii Btd Wumer [339] 

Tlie lieat developed by a caibon-filELnienllanip is siiiTicienlty highta Eillawils use rs a 
heating element of, for instance, Eibed WRrmei Tliere Eire a niimbei of alhei small 
heateis iphich CEinbe easily made and for which lamps foim very suitable healuig ele- 
ments, but tlie bed ivainieiis piabablythe best example Alltliatis required is a tm 
caveruig, ivluchcEinbe made of an old can, about 3-1/2 m indiametei The tapis cut 
ant and the ei^e filed smooth The lamp-sackel end of the flexible caid is inseiTedin the 
can Find the shade lioldei gnp|Kdaver Ihe a|Kning A smalliampaf aboul 5 cp ivillda 
tlie heEiluig 

A flRimelbag, iRige enoi^h lo shpov'ei the lui can and provided with a neck that can 
be diRwiilogelher by means of a caruJ, giv'es tlie healei a inoie fmisliedappeEnance, eis 



well as ineking itoiDie pleEisaiitiD llie louch 

Making a FirFwilli iht Aid of let P33] 

Take a piece ofveiy clear ice aiid melt il dawn iiita Ihe hollow of youi hands so eis lo 
form E[ large le IIS The iLiisliationisliDWR lioiff this is dnne Wilhliie lens-sliapedice used 
m Ilie same loamieias a ceadij^ glass lo 




m y:^ 



Hipa'c A' -re* 

Fomiu^ the ke Leiis 

duecttlie sun's m^ on paper aishavii^s y]ii canstaita fiie — Coiilribuledby Ailhiu E 
Joeim 

How » Mike 3 Ciasibow and Axiow Sling P3!l| 

In making of tliK crosdiawil is best lo use mRple foi the slock, but if llus wood 
caiinalbe piocuied, goDdsliaighl-giained piie will do The material iiiustbe ]-]f3 m 
lluck, d m wide and E[ lnfle over 3 fl long The bawis made Sam sba^hl-^rauiedoak, 
asli, oi hickoiy, 5!2 m tluck, I m wide and 3 ft lai^ A jiece of oak, 312 in Ihick, I- 
ifi m wide ELiidd ft lai^. willbe sufiicientlo make the bigger, spnrg and arrows A 
piece af tin, some nails Riida gaodcDid will complete Ihe matenpils necessEiiy lo make 
tlie crosdjQW 

The piece of niRple Dipine selecled fai the slock must be planed Euid sandpapered on 
both sides, and then marked and cnlas sliownm Fig I A groove is cutfoi !he aiiows m 
llie tapsJraightei^e 3JS in wide and 3fE m deep The hn isbentEindfaslenedon Ihe 
wood al the back end of Ihe groove where tlie cordslip^ out of the nDlch,thisis la keep 
tlie edges from spbtling 




Details nf Ihe Bow-Guii and Aiiow ^ling 



A morlise is ciilfbr Ihe bowal h poml9-in ul tiam the end of Ihe slack, and one for 
die tiigger 12 ui &Dm llie opposile end, which should be slaiilu^ a tiltle assliownby liie 
dotledline^ A spiiiig. Fig 2, is made from el goadpiece of oak andfRslened lo die slock 
widi IwD screws Tlie lugger. Fig 3, winch is H4 in Ihicb, l^ mseiledm Ihe moiiise m 
die position when pulled back, and E[d]iisled so rs to raise Ihe gpiii^ Id Ihe prapei lieight, 
and Ihena pinispul Uuoi^hbodi slock Eindlr^gei, havn^ Ihe loiter swing quite fieely 
V.^n Ihe Ir^gei is pulled, itlifis Ihe spiii^ up, winch ui lumlifls liie coidaiTlhe lin 
notch 

The shck for the bow, F^ 4, is dressed dawn fiam a poinl3M in on eRchside of liie 
center line Id I O in wide aleach end Natehes Rie culm die eiuls foi llie cord Tliebaw 
IS not fastened m Ihe islDck, it is wrapped with a pece of canvas 1-1^3 in wide on llie 
ceiitei hne Id make h light fit in Ihe moilise Aslonlcaidis now lied mtlie iiolclie:; cul 
m Ihe eiid^ of Ihe bow making Ihe cord laul when Ihe wood is sliaight 

The des^n of the arraws w shawnmFig 5 Find lliey aie made with Ihe blades much 
tliinner Ihan the round purl 

To sliootthe ciossbaw, pull Ihe coed back Find dawn m Ihe natch f\s shawn mFig d, 
place the arrow m the gioa\'e, sighl EindpuJl Ihe li^gei f\s inshaDling anaidinary gun 

The arrow sling is made from abraixhof a^habaul ID m mdianielei, Ihe bark 
removed and a notch cul mone end, as shawn in F^ 7 A sloul coid about 3-1/2 fl. 
lor^ L^ lied m Ihe notch and h laige knol made in. the alher arloase end The Eirrows 
aie piacDcaUy Ihe same as Ihase used on the ciosdiow, with the eKception of a small 
notch wluchis cul m Ihem ELS shown mFig 3 

To Ihrowtlie anaw, iiLseit Ihe cord near the knot in. the notch af Ihe arrow, Ihen 
giaspii^ Ihe stick with Ihe right hand Eiiid liolding the wir^ of the Eirrow with the left, 
as sliDwii m Fig 9, throw Ihe arrow wiiha quick sinking motion The arraw maybe 
tliiawnseveml hundiedfeetaftera little praclice — ConlributedbyO E Trownes, 
Wilmette, 111 

A Hamf^Midt Vnt 134ll| 

CuttwD pieces of waod m Ihe shape shown m the skelchandboie a 3^-m hole 
tliiai^hbalhof diem for a common camEige ball Fasten one af Ihe peces lo tlie edge 
af Ihe bench wiiha laige wood screw and attach tlie alher piece to Ihe fiislone with a 
piece of Leatliernadedacrass the bottom af both pieces The nut on Ihe CEiinage boll 
maybe lightened wiiha wrench. 




Details of a Hame-lvfede Bench Vise 

ai, belter still, h key filed oulof a piece of soft steel la filihe nul The edges of Ihe 
jaws are faced wilhsheel melal wliichcanbe copper or ^teel mailable for Ihe waik itia 

mtended lo hold 

Ttirqiarar)' Dark Roam L^nttrn [340] 



Occasionally tlirai^h some accidentia Ihe regular ruby lamp, or Ihroi^h the 
necessity of, de^-elopuig while out of reach af a prapeily equipped dark loam, some 
make shift of lUuinina turn must be miprovised Such a lenipoiaiy safe l^hl maybe 



laade from an empty cigaibo:i in h shait luiie. 



* 

. c--ri — ■-" 

' — " '' ''-'_■ 

! k 

•-'■■. 
1^ 


1 





Remove tlie bDltani of flie box, Riid nail il in posiliones shawnal A Reoiov'e one end, 
and leplace rs sliownatB Dnvc a ghait wuc nailtluoi^h Ihe centei of the appsstte 
end to seR'e as a sealfai Ihe candle, C The lamp is finished by Eackir^ two ainiore 
Ifiyets of yellow post-affice pepei ovei Ihe apeitnie D, bnr^ir^ tlie paper iffell aiomid 
to the sides and bottom of thebo:i to ^Hevent l^ht leakage fiam the ciack^ aiaiind the 
edges, sa^ Phato Eia The hu^ed covei E, is iised as a door, making l^htii^ and 
tiimmir^ convenient The doai maybe fastened with a nail Dipece af wire It is well 
to leinfaice Ihe hinge by gluii^ on a stnp of clolh if tlie lamp is to be inu'se niaie than 
aiice Di twice This lamp is safe, for Ihe projectir^ edges of A and B form hghl- 
shields for the ventilation otifice and the ciack at llie tap of the linked cavei, 
respectively MDieavei, since the flame of Uie candle is above A, only reflected and 
tidnsmilted l^ht reaches Ihe plate, while the danger of igmtr^ Ihe paper is reduced hi 
a minunum 

Runny Paint [340] 

The painl will sag andrunif tno much nil is pulin wMie lead 

Coiaps 3nd How lo BidU Tliem P41] 



There are several wa^ of building a temporary camp from material tlia I is always to 
be found mtlie woods, and whethei Ihese improvTsed shelters are mtended lo laslunlil a 
pennanent camp is built, oi oiily as a camp on a sliorlezciirsion^ a great deal of fimcan 
be liad in their CDiistiuction The Indian camp is the easiesi la make An evergreen tree 
withbienclies growing well down toward the giaimd furnishes all Ihe material By 
clioppii^ Ihe trunk almost through, so Ihal when the liee falls the upper part will still 
lemain altached to Ihe stump, a servicepible shelter can be quickly provided Tlie cut 
shouldbe about 5 fl from the ground Then Ihe boi^lis andbranches on tlie uiidei side 
of tlie fallen top are cliopped away and piled on top There is room for several personi 
under tins soil of shelter, niiich offers fairly good prolectuin against any bul Ihe most 
drenching idiiis 

Tlie Indian w^wam sheds ram better, and where there aie no smtable trees that can 
be cut, it IS the easiesi camp to make Tliree long pales wilhtlie lops lied together and 
tlie lowei ends spaced 3 or ID fl apart, make the fmnie of Ihe wigwam Brancliesand 
brush can easily be piled up, and woven mand out on these poles so as to shed a very 
heavy lain 

Tlie brush camp is sliapedlike anoidmaiy "A" tent The lu^e pole sliouldbe aboulS 
ft loi^ and snppoitedby ciotched uprights about 5 fl from tlie ground Often Ihe iii^e 
pole can be laid from one small tiee to anolher Avoid tall liees onaccounlof hghtmi^ 
E^ht or ten long poles aie llien laid slantir^ against Ihe iii^e pole on each side Cedai 
or hemlock boi^hs make tlie best thatch for the brush camp Tliey should be piled up to 
a tluckness of a footoi moie ovei Ihe slantuig poles and woven ui and out lo keep tliem 
from shppu^ Tlien a number of poles should be laid over them to preveni Ihem from 
blowii^ away 
In woods wheie there is plenly of baik availpible mlaige slabs, the bark lean-to is a 



quietly coiislmc led Eind :3el'h^ceable camp The iidge pole i:3 setup like Ihal of Ihe bnish 
CELiiip Tluee aifoui olhei poles Eue lEiid sliintuig Id Ihe |romidoii one side only The 
eiids of Ihe^e poles isliDijldbe piL'jhed uiId Ihe epulhand fastened wilhcrotched islicfis 
Lar^ poles aie then laid ciosswtl^ of Ihe se sLaiiting poles, and Ihe iiiiale can be 
CDveied withbiiwh as ui Ihe case of the brush camp ai wilh sIiijk of back laidovei- 
lopprng each olhei hke shii^les Wheie baik is used, iiails Rie necessary to hold it in 
place Baik inay alsobe used for a w^waoi and it can be heldinplRce by a cani 
wrapped lightly aioiind the ivliole sliuctiiie, ruiuui^ spiml-wise fiara llie gioiind to Ihe 
peak In Ihe eaily siimraei, Ihe bait can easily be leinovedfiara inasl trees by making 
tiw] cuciiIelicuIs fliaund Ihe trunk andjaming Ihein wilh Einolher veilicalcul Thebaik is 
eRsily pne doff with an a:i, and if laid on the giound under he pvy stones, will dry flat. 
liheels of bart, 5 fl long and ? oi 3 fl wide, aie a conveiuenl sise for cpirap 
construe lion 

Tlie sraEill boughs and tw^s of liemlact, spruce, and cedai, piled ? oi 3 fl deep and 
coveied wilhblEinkels, make Ihe beslkindof a camp bed For a perraRiienl camp, Eibuiil 
CEinbe made by laying small pales close logelher across two loiger poles on a mde 
frpiraework episily conslructed Evergreen twigs or dned leaves are piled on llus, and a 
blanket or a pece of canvas stretched across Find fastened down lo tlie pales altlie sides 
A bed lite llus ls soft and springy and wiL IeisI Ihioi^h an ordinary camping season 
williQiitreneival A portable col thai does nal lake up much laom mtlie campoulfitis 
made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 m wide and 5 ft long Four- inch hems Eire sewed m 
epichside of tlie canvas, and wlien tlie camp is pitched, a 2-m pale ls nmtlirougheach 
liera and the ends of the pole snppoiled ancrotched sticks 

Fresh WEiler close al liandand shEide for the midElle of tlie day aie two points IhnI 
should always be looked for m selecting a site for a camp If Ihe camp is lobe occupied 
for Einylenglhof tmie, useful nnpLements for many purposes can be made oulof such 
inatenalas Ihe woods affaiii The smipiest way lo build h cmne foi hai^ii^ keltlesover 
tlie campfue is to dnv'e two posis uilo flie ground, each of tliema footoi more from one 
end of Ihe fiie space, andsplilthe lops wiUiana:!, so tliala pale laidfiam one la Ihe 
Glhei across the fiie will be securely lie Id mtlie splil Tongs Eire very useful m camp A 
piece af ehu oi hictoiy, 3 fl loi^ and l-l^ m Ihict, niEikesa goadpaii of lor^s Fora 
foal in Ihe middle of the slick, cnlhalf of the Ihickness away and hold Ihis peitovei Ihe 
fire until it can be beni easily la bnr^ tlie Iwo eiuls logelhei, thenfEislena crosspiece to 
hold Ihe ends close logelher, shape Ihe enrlsso Ihpil anything Hiat drops mlo tlie fue can 
be seized by them, and ei seiviceable ptiir of tongs is the lesull Any soil of a sbct thai is 
easily liandled will serve as ei poker Hemlock tw^s bed around one end of a slick make 
an excellenl broom Movable seats for a pennanentcEinip Eire eEisily made by sphtlmg a 
log, boiir^ holes m Ihe rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as 
legs A short slab or plant can eFisily be made mlo a tliree-legged stool m Ihe SFime way 



The 
Wigwam 




Bunk with r-laltresa of Spriney Boughs 



Campers usually lieve boxes m which tlieu piovisians have been CEuned ^ocha 
pacbir^box is easily made into a cupboaid, and it is iiDldiiTicull lo mipiavL'se j^heh-es, 
hinges, aievena rough lock far the campLaidei 

Agaod WEiyta make a CE[mp lable L'S to set fam post:; mla liie ground aiid nail 
cios:3piece:3 to support slabs culfiam chopped wood logs lo fotiu a tap Pieces can be 
UELiledonla Hie legs af the lable ta lioldotlier slabs la sei\'e rs seals, ami afibiding 
accomniDdalLarLfbi sevendpei'sous 



Bro<pdtr£cpF SnuU Cliuln [J431 

Averyamiple broader can be CDnatiucledbycatlir^ a sugEnbEurelinlialf aiiduEii^ 

aiie parim Ihe iiiarmei 




^#1^ 



BrDDrfcr lur Valine CillH }f*pt W^rlB wKli I 
Ins oE BolLlq^ WbI'i 

Bioodei fni Yoiu^ Cluck? Kepi Warm wilh a Ji^ of Boihiig Water 

described Luie die mside of Ihe lialf banel widi paper aiiddiencavei Ihis wrdiold 
flannel clolh Make a caver fai die lop and luie ilm tlie same maiinei Atdiebattam cul 
a hole m Ihe ei^e, abaut4 in deep Find 4 m wide, aiidpovide h cavei or doai Tlie 
made li kepi ifarmbyfiUuig a jug ividi bailing ivalei andseHu^ itwitlun, chaining Ihe 
walerbalhmomir^ aiidn^hl When Ihe lemperatiire Dulside is LO deg the mlerior can, 
be keptE[l9Q ar IDO deg ,bnl Ihe jug niuslbe refilled ffilhboihiig iffaleral least twice a 
day 

Faucet Uied qj anEmvrgeniy Plug [343] 

Abrass faucet spht as shown al A dimng a cold spell, and eis no suitable pli^ ta 
acrewmlD Ihe elbaivafler leniavu^ llie faucet was alhaiid, I drove a small cork, B, mlo 
die end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. The coik conveiled Ihe faucelmlo an 




Co"vI[(ld It iJ]|i> iJi Emncttncf Pluj 

A T^hl-Fittu^ Caik Diruen into a Cracked Faucet Conueiledit mlo an. 
Kme ig e ncy Plug 

eineigency plug ivhichpievenled leakage until the proper Stimg la lake lis place could 
be secured —Cantiibuted by James M Kane, Doylestown, Pa 

Aiitonutir ElNtrir H«i Rf^uhtor P44] 



Ills caniposed af a closed glass tube. A, F^ 1, connecledby mepins of b very small lead 
pipe, B, lo another 




HfbI RceiiIbIiij 

« ]| la LZuiirtfi'ied 

1l> A RimBlBE 

bJUIrle CiirE«Dl 



gla:3s lube, C, o|Knatllie bDHoQiarui liavii^ Gve pieces af platuiuiii wue (1.2, 3, 4 and 
5), iffhicli piajectmside and Du&ide af the Tube, fused mio one side This tube is pimped 
into Em ebanile vessel of some what laigei diEmieler, wIucIik fRslened lo tliebase by el 
cappei screw, E Tlie tube C is filled Ta a ceitainhe^lit with meicuiy and then 
peholeuin Tlie outer eiid; of Ihe five plaluiuin wues are soMeied la aidumiy copper 
wires Eind coniiectioiis made to vaiiauspainls on a iheo^talag shown The diagram. Fig. 
2, shaiffshawthe coniieclioiis lo the supply cunenl are inade 

Tlie ELppflmtU'3 operEilesas fallaiff^ The tube is immersed m Ihe iiiatler lobe heated, h 
liquid^ for instEince As 




hAA^V-J 



fi*.2 

WirlBJ DlisiaiTi ShaTiliiB Hoi^ «»« CmnrrtiDiiH V a 
S(iij[r« 1l Currf nl auiipLy Bcr MiiLr 

Wini^ Diflgiam ^liowir^ How Ihe CGimeclioiis to a ^ouice of Ciuieiit Supply 
aie Made 

tlie teiiipemtuie of this iises, Ihe EJr ei:paiids and exerls pressure on Ihe peltDleum mthe 
tube C sa that Ihe Level af tlie meicuiy is lowered Tlie current is Ihus campelled, as Ihe 
platinum wires with the fEillof Ihe lueicuiyELiebrai^hl out of circuit, to pass tlimugh Fin 
incieasu^ resistance, until, tf necessEiiy the flow is entuelystapped iffhenthe mercuiy 
falls belaw the wiie 5 

With Ihis very simple Eippemtus llie lemperatuie CEinbe kept canstanl within a ID-deg 
limit, and it can be mEide much mare sensiliveby incieasir^ tlie number af platmuni 
wires Eind placir^ them closer together, and by filling the tube A with some very^Mlalile 
substance, such as ether, for instance Tlie petroleum Eibove Hie inercuiy prevents 
speikuig beti*eenlhe platmum wire and. Ihe meicuiy when the latter falls below aiiyDne 
a f them 

Rf^uriiig a Wisher an a Flush VahiF [344] 



When the rubber luashei on the cappei flush valve of a soil-basm laiil becomes loose 
ilcanbe setbypouruig a small quEintity of parEiffui between the rubber and the coj^Kr 
while tiie value isinveiled, care being taken lo hnve Ihe lubbei iing centered This 
makes 



nw*ff*.j 




a repflii tliat will nol pJlowa diop of watei la leak autaf Ihe lank. — CoiUnbuledhy 
Fimit Jeinuii^ Alpeiia, Pvlicli^Ein 

Clniuiig Dnialoitd Siher P44] 

A veiyqoict wayta clean isih-ei when il is nol lanuslieiibulmeielydiscolDied, is lo 
wash Ihe articles ma weoksoliiliDnaf ainiiiDnia iffalet This lemoves Ihe black slaiiis 
caused by siilphoi in liie aii Aflei cleaning Iheni wilii Ihe salalian, Ihey sliouldbe 
washed Find polished inniE^nesia pawdeioi ifilhR cloth Tins me Ihod works well on 
:3iK'ei spoons tarnished by e^s ELTui can be U'sed everyday while olhei melhod; reqoiie 
much liine and, theiefore, cannot be used so often 

How wMake* SiMlEfcclrii Motor [345] By W A ROBERTSON 

The field frame of Ihe nialoi. Fig I, is compoised afwiai^ht sheet iron, wliich may 
be of any lliickiie:3s so IhnI, when seveiel pieces aie plocedtogethei, they will mate a 
frE[me3/4m thick Itis necessary la loyiuta template of the fianie as shawn, makii^ it 
Htd m laigei llian Ihe dimensions given, to allow fai filing to shape Pifter the ptiils aie 
fastened togethei Aflei Ihe templRle is marked out, drill the fouinvelhales, clamp the 
templnle, or peltem^ to Ihe sheet uon Eind maik caiefullywith a scnber The boie can be 
maiked with a pauof divulers, set at 1^ m Tins will niaik a line for the cenlei of the 
lioles to be diilled with a 1/4-m diill far le moving the mmecessEuy metal The poinis 
foimed by drilling the lioles can be filed to the patlemsize Be sine to niaik and cut out 
a sufticient nmnbeiof ploles to make El frame 3M m thick, or even Uldin tluckei, to 
allow for fiiushing 

Aftei the plates are cutouland the nvel hales drilled, assemble andnvel lliem saLdly, 
tlienboie it ant to a diameter af2-3Mui on a lathe If the tluckness is sufficient, a slight 
fiiusliing cut can be taken on the fece Before reinovii^ Ihe field ftam the lathe, mark 
off a spice, 3-3^5 m ui diameter, for tlie field coie with a sharp-poinled tool, aiidfoi the 
outside of Ihe frame, 4-l/2m mdiameler, by luniing the laihe with Ihe liand Then Ihe 
field can be finished to these marks, which will make itimifaim msize When the frame 
IS finished so fai, Iwo lioles, 3-3^ m between centers, aie dniledand tapped with a 312- 
m tap These holes aie for tliebeaiing studs Two holes aie also dniledand tapped foi 
il4-m sciews, iiiuchfasten the liolding-down lugs Qifeetto Ihe frame These lugsaie 
made of a piece of 1/S-m brass or nan, beni ali^hl angles as sliown 

The bearing studs aie now made, es sliown in Fig li, and turned into the thieaded 
lioles m Ihe frame The beaiii^ suppoils are made of two peces of 1/E-m biass, as 
sho^vii mtlie left-handsketcli, F^ 3, whichaie fittedon the studs intlie fianie A 5jS- 
m liole IS 




f 14 I 



lion PLv<Ui] r^flLlh±r 



Tlie Field-CoiL Coie i? Built Upof Laitiiiialed Wroi^ht rioii Riveled Together 

dnlledui the ceiilei of each of these suppoils, into which a piece of ^yS-in brass lod is 
iiiseiTed^ uoldeied into ploce, Eiiiddiilled to receive the annatuie isliafi These beaiu^i; 
should be fitted aiidsoldeiedm ploce after tlie armalme i:3 caiisliiicted Tlie manner af 
doii^ tlu:3 IS lo wrap a pece of pnpei on tlie oulside of the Snished fliiuatiire ni^ and 
place il Ihioi^h the apeiuog in the fields thenshp Ihe beaiiogs on tlie erds af tlie shaft 



■*i 



ij i.B^'iHf^ 



Xbe Braw\ng STudfl ai? Tinned bam Unt^fiitir SIkI 
T^ci oi fiaeh [.eriilli bdiu SequUvi] 

Tlie Befliii^ Sluds aie Turned frotiL Machine ^teel 
Ttvo of Each Ler^di being Requiied 

If Ihe hales in Ihe bearing :3upport sliouldbe out af line, file tlieni out to make tlie proper 
adjustment When the bearings aie lacated, isalder them to Ihe snppoils, Riid build up tlie 
Isolde I well Remove 

tlie pflper from the aimature niig and see that the armoture revalves freely m llie 
hearings withauttDuclui^ Ihe mside of the field at any p] ml The suppoils Eire tlien 
lemovedand the isaldei luniedup ma lathe, or otherwise finished The sliaflof the 
armature. Fig 4, is lumedupfrom machine steeL leavii^ tlie fmish of Ihe bepjir^s mitil 
the armpilnre is completed and fastened to the shaft. 
The ainralure care is made upa^ 




rti* Aaumblrf BrarllH r'tmi an Ihr Flrld Con Al>if 
lti« Ajmalur* SUbA UaiL< <d K>[Mil± SIhI 

The Assembled Beaiii'^ Frame on the Field Core and Ihe Armalure Shaft 

Made of Maclune Steel 



foUoiFS Two peces of wrought ^heetuoii, 1^ in Ihick, Eue culoule liUle la^er Ihaii 
CRlledfaibylhe dimensions gR'eii uiF^ 5, lo allowfaifmishir^ to sise These aie 
used for tlie oulside plEile:; and eiioi^li peces af Na 24 gai^e sheeluonto fill i^ Ihe 
perl between imliltlie wliole is a\'er 3/4 in thick are cut like Ihe pflltem Aflei the peces 
aie cut Dul, clamp Ihem logelheiand dnll siz l/S-m hole:; lluDugh Iheni foi iivets Riuel 
tliein logetlier, and anneal tlie whole piece byplacuig it ma fire andheEilii^ Ihe metal to 
a cherry led, Ihen allowing it Id coal in tlie ashes Wlien annealed, boie out Ihe inside ta 
1-llflfl m mdiametei and fit inabidiss spder, wliich is made eis fallawi; PrDcure a 
pece afbia^s, 314 m thick, Eind turn it up lo tlie size sIidwii Eindfile out the metal 
belween llie arms Shp Ihe spdei ontlie Eirmaluie sliaftand secuie itsohdly wilh Ihe 
selsciewso lliatthe sliafl will nDttiinimtlie spder when Iruii^ up Ihe aimalme core 
File groove:; or ^IdIs m Ihe aimatuie iii^ so Ihol it will fil on Ihe aims of the spider Be 
gme Id have the uiside af the aimalme coie run true When this is accontphshed, ^aldei 
llie arms af Ihe spder Id Ihe melEilof Ihe anitatuie core The sliafl with the core is Ihen 
putm El latlie and the outside luniedoff lo Ihe popei sise The sides aie alsa faced off 
andfinished ^^ke Ihe core 3M m thick Remove Ihe care from Ihe hilhe andfile aut 
slots [Mm deepand 7yiflui wide 

The commulalor is turned fioina pece ofbiass ppe, 3M m inside diameter, as shown 
inF^ 6, The piece is placed on a mEindiel Eind turned Id 3S4 m inlei^lhandbolhenrls 
cliamfeied lo anai^le af 60 deg Divide the surface mlo 12 equal parls, ai segments 
Find Ihe centers af each segment at one end, Ihen drill h 1^-m liole andtapitfoi h pm. 
The pus aie made af brass, Ihreaded, turned mio place and Ihe ends tmiiedui a lEiIhe lo 
an outside diameter afi-U4 in Fvlake h shI with a small saw blade m Ihe end of each pn 
foi Ihe ends of Ihe wiiescomu^ from tlie commulatorcoib ^aw Ihe iii^ uilo tlie 12 
parts ontlie Lues between the pins 

The IwD msiilalu^ ends foi holding lliese segments are made of fiber turned lo filtlie 
bore of Ihe brass lubii^, eis shown inF^ 7 Piocure 12 ships af mica, the SEime 
thickness as the widlh af tlie saw culmEide between Ihe segmenis, and use Ihem as a 
filler Eind insulation belween the coimitulatar bais Place Ihem on the Sberhiib and shp 
llie hub on Ihe shEift, IhenclEimp Ihe ^liiole ui place with Ihe nut, as sliownm F^ 3 
True up Ihe commulEilor ina laihe to Ihe size givenm Fig 6 




nt.B 



riflrj 



AiDiatsri-Rliij Cmc, III Hot oCid riit CaoBrTLnMLm 
cJ Hir &iTimi]l"i"i|i lad Urn IiuiiLbLhd 

Armfltiire-FLi]^ Core, Its Hub and Ihe Constmctroii of the Coininulator aiid Its 

Itisulation 



The brush lioldei isshapedfrom apece of fibei, Eis shown inFig S The studs far 
lioldii^ Ihe brushes ate cutfiom 5/16-in biass lad, Eis shown inFig 9 The brushes 
consist of brass or copper wire gEiuae, lalledup and flatlened oul lo L/Sm Ihick and 1/4 

in wide, ane end beir^ soldeied to keep Ihe wiresmplace The halderis shppedon Ihe 
prajeclu^ outside end af the beaiii^, f\s shown m F^ 3, and held with a selsciew 

The field care is uisulated before wiiidir^ with If£l4-in sheelfibei, washers, l-iySm 
by 1-1/2 in, beii^ fbimedfor tlie ends, with ei liole culm Ihem lo filover tlie insulahon 
placed ontlie coies AsLi is cut tlirough flora tlie hale la Ihe oulside, andtlientliey aie 
soEiked m WEinn walei, until llieybecome flezible enough to be pul m place AfVei Uiey 



Iieve diied, Ihey Rie glued lo llie coie uisiilatan 

The field is wound with No !3 gauge doiible-CDtloo-CDvered iiiagiiet wire, oboul IQG 
ft being leqmied Dull a smdl hole tliiDugheach of tlie laifei end msulating washeii; 
Instaiting lo vniA, uiserl Ihe eiidof Ihe wue tluaugh Ihe liole from Ihe iiiside bI A F^ 
I, aiid ffiiidoii faui kyeK, which will lake 50 fl of the wue, andbmig 
tlie end of the wue out al B After one cail, oi side, is wound starl at C m Ihe saine 
inaiinei Eis elI A, iisuig Ihe same iiiinibei of turn; and the same length of wire Tlie two 
ends are joined at B 

The ainiELhiie ring is msulaledby co\'eiing the inside and brass s[mdei with iH6-ia 
sheetfQjei Two iii^s of Hld-insheelfibei we cul and glued to the sidesof Ihe zing 
When Ihe glue is set, culoul Ihe perl within Ihe slot ends and niEike 12 cliamiel pieces 
from il64-m sheet fibei, which are glued in the slots and to the fibei washers Be suie 
to have the iii^ and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron oi brass 

Each slotof Ihe Rmiatiire IS wound withabout I? fl ofNo 21 gai^e double-cotlon- 
c ove red magnet wiie Tlie winding is started at A, Fig S.bybendii^ Ihe endaroundone 
of tlie pro]eclioiis, Ihen wind tlie coil in one of the slots as sliown, mEikii^ 40 turns or 
foiulRyeis of 10 lums eachsliellacking each Ib^i rs ilis wound After the coil is 
compleled in one slot allow about 2 in of tlie end to piatnide, lo 





Ttif InsjlBlfd Dru&h Holder t'\-\ JiB SEuiI n far Ibrdliia 

Tire Insiflated Biush Holder and Its ^luds for Haldir^ Ihe Brushes on the 

Coniniutalor 

fasten lo tlie commutator segment Wind tlie ne^tslol wilhtlie seaic number of luiiis in 
tlie same mannei and so on, until the 12 slols are filled The piatruding ends of the coils 
are coiinecled to Ihe puis in Ihe commntatoi segments after tlie slarting end of one coib 
IS joined to the fuushing end of Ihe next adiscent. All connections should be secuiely 
soldered 

Tlie wliole moloris fpislened wilhscrews to a waodbose, S m long, fi m wide and I 
in thick Two terminals are fpislenedatone side on Ihe base and a switchatthe otiier 
side 

To connect the wires, aftei the moloris on Ihe stand, Ihe two ends of Ihe wire, sliown 
at B, Fig I, are soldered together Run one end of the field wire, sliown at A, llirough a 
small liole in tlie base and make a gioove on the underside so that Ihe wire end can be 
connected to one of the tenmnals The oilier end of the field wire C is connected to tlie 
brass screw m Ihe brass biush stud Conned a wire from the olhei brush stud, run it 
llirough a small hole m Ihe base and cut a gioove for ilon Ihe uiidei side so Ihatilcanbe 
connected Ihioi^h the swilch Pindllie olher leniumil This winding is foi a series motor 
The souice of cuiieni is comiected to the lermmals The motor can be run on a llO-volt 
direct current, but a resistpince must be placed in. aenes with it 

Protecting Tinwue P47] 

New tinware rubbed over with fresh tpird and healed will never lust 

Another C^ticallUurnn [J48| 

After taking a look al the accompanyii^ illustration you will be positive that Ihe 
coids sliown run ma spual towaid Ihe centei, yet ilsliows a serres of 




Tltr Cord li HgC a SJaIbI 

Tlie Cord Is Not a Spiral 

peifrcl circles af CDids placed one inside Ihe olhei You can lest this for youiself ma 
looQienl with h peiiof camjH^ses, or, :3fiU more simply, by layuig a pDintof a pencil 
an ELiiyparl of Ihe cord and folia wuig il round Instead of appiDaching aiieceding 
fiam Jhe cenleima CDntmoaiis hue, as in Ihe case of aspml, you i*ill find the pencil 
rehiinu^ to Ihe paint fiaiu winch it started 

Substitute for Insulting Ckqiic [348] 

In kvmng up doorbells, alarms and telephones as well as e:ipennienlal 




work the iise of cooimon fell gon wads luake el ^'eiygaod cleat foi the wuea They are 
used in the maimer iIIusItel led in Ihe accamptinymg sketch The insulated wiie ls 
placed between Vwa wads and fastened with two nails oi sciews If one wad an the 
back IS not thick eiioi^h to keep Ihe wiie away from the supjnit, put on two wads 

belmid and one mfioni af Ihe wiie and fasten in the same maiuieias desciibed 

ElettricaHy C^trattd Indiratar fiiT a Wind Vant P48] 

Tlie acconipanyu^ pliotagiaph sliows a wind vane connected with electric wues ta 
anuislmnienl at caiisidetable chstance ivluch indicate? by means of a magnetic needle 
the duecTian of the wind The beaiings of the vane consist of liie lieadof a wainaut 
bic^le A iy2-m mm pipe e:ilends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp 
aiiginally used to secure tiie haiulle bat af Ihe bicycle In place of liie forks is attached 
an eight-c^indei gas engine bmei which is slightly alleied m such a loannei that the 
biiishw a1 all limes m contact, and when pointing between two contacts connects 
them bath Nine wiies runfioin Ihe tuner, one from each af Ihe e^hl contacts, and 
aiie, wluch serves as the graiind wiie, is fastened to tlie metallic body The timer is set 
at such a position Elial when tlie vane points directly north, the brush af the timer 
makes a caimection m the middle af a contact \Vhen the timer is held m this posihon 
the brush will make connections with each af the conlacls as Ihe v^i\e revolves 

The indicating device which is placed m a convement place in the liouse cousisls of 




I'- W]!! Vin HqcrU lit .iJI^LT 

The Wind Vbiic, P.1agiiEls and Inclicalor 

eight 4-Dhia niagnels fiislened upon a l-in boord These mRgoets aie placed in h ID-in. 
cucle, 45 deg apart Riid with Iheu faces pombr^ tawerd the center Coveiing these is 
a Iliui, iwood board apon which is fastened a neatly diawii dialieBeoibhi^ a QiRimei's 
campfl^:3 CELid Tlus is placed over the magnets m isucha QiEinner tlial Ihere will be a 
inpgnel under each af the e^hl pnncipal pouils niRiked on the dial CK-er tlus diali^ a 
iQPgnelic needle oi poinlei, 5 in long, perfectly balanced on the end of a slaadEiid and 
above a£is placed a covei liavu^ h glass lap The e^hl wires fioia the linieiconlacls 
cannect with Ihe outside wires of the e^hl laagnels separately and the inside wiies 
fiaiit Ihe QiEignets conned with the laetelbiace which hold; the magnets in place A 
wue IS Ihen connected fiam Ihe metal biace to a piishbultan, two or ttuee cells of diy 
balteiy Eindlo Ihe giaimd wiie in connection with the lunei The wires Rie cannected in 
socha niannei thRl ivlien tlie vane is p]intii^ ma certamdiieclian Ihe battery will be 
camiected msenes with the cailmidei llialpaitof the dial lepiesenhi^ Ihe dueclianm 
which the vane is pomlir^, Ihusmagnelizir^ Ihe caie af Ihe magnet which attracts tlie 
apposite pole of tlie needle loimid the face of the magnet and iiidic el lii^ the way Ihe 
wuidisbloiving The pomtei end of Ihe needle is peintedblack 

If Ihe vane pomls ui such a diieclion IhEil the lunei brush cannecis two conlacis, two 
magnets will be mE^nehzedand Ihe needle will pomi midway between the two lines 
lepiesentedan Ihe diaL thus givii^ 15 different direc lions Around Ihe pointer endaf 
llie needle is wound a fine copper wire, aiie end of which extenrls downta Eiboul 1/32 
in oflhedial Tins wire liolds Ihe needle in place wiien the pomter endis directlyover 
tlie magnet atlmclii^ it, the magnel causii^ Ihe needle to "dip" willbni^ the wire m 
cantact with Ihe paper dial V.'itlia lit tins atlacluuenl, Ihe needle would swing a few 
seconds before coming to a standstill 

The vane ilself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illushation llshauldbe 



aboulfifl long lo gi^'e lliebestie:3ijH:3 Tlie mE^iieli; used CEinbe puichaised fiom Riiy 
electncaLslaie in puiii; ivlucli Eiie called "uislnuneiilmp^nels " Aiiy auloiiiobile gaiege 
CELii supply Ihe timer and an old value less bic^le frame is iiothRid lo find The CD^'eiis 
eosily made from a pictiue fiame with faui small boEinls aiianged la take tlie place of 
tlie pctuK as shaffii 

The outfit IS valuable to a person who is situated where a'v'ane could not be placed so 
as to be seenfiam a winrloi* Riid especially al mght when it is luiid to deterrauie tlie 
direction af tlie wind By simply pre ssii^ tlie push button on tlie side of tlie covei, the 
needle wiL uistanlly point to Ihe pail of the dial fioni which the wind l^ blowing ~ 
Contiibuledby James L Blockmei, Buifalo, N Y 

A Home-Madt Fboi Pilnhtr [350] 

An ine:ipeiisi%'e flaoi polishei can be made as fallows liecuie a wooden box wilh a 
base S by I? in and oboutfl m lugli, also a pece of newcEirpel, 1 4 by IS in Cut 3-jn 
squaies out af tlie foui coiners of the caipeland place the baz squEiiely on il Turn lliiee 
af tlie flaps of the CEiipetup and tact lliem securely to the sides of the box Befoie 
tacking Ihe fouith side, fold a couple of newspapeis to tlie i^hl sise and sliove them m 
belween tlie caipet and tlie bottom of tlieboK for a cusluon Fill Ihe bo:i with any liandy 
ballasi, making it heavy or l^hl, acconimg to wlio is going to use il, and securely nail 
on Ihe top of the box The liandle can be made fiam an old broom handle the wliole of 
which will be none too loi^ Drive a heavy sciew e^ mio tlieb^ end of tlie handle and 
fasten lo tlie pahsherby a staple driven Ihioi^h the eye into Ihe center of Ihe cover, Ihus 
making a imivei'sal joint The sise of Ihe bo:i gp'en lieie is Ihe best although any size 
near that, if nol loo lugh, will aiiswei the puipase jiislas well Tlie box is pushed or 
pulled ovei Ihe floor and Ihe padded side will piaduce a fine pohsh 

Hov la M^kf q Lady's Cii^-C^st [3501 

A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady To 
make il, secuie a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1 by 10-1 J!! ui. The one shown in 
tlie acconspanyii^ pclure was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined 
with a grey-gieen goat skin The des^n was slenciled and the open parts backed wiiha 
green silk plush having a latliei lieavynap The lining of goat skm need nol cover more 
than Ihe cenhel part- not tlie flies A pece 4-1/? by 5 in will be sufTicienl A [lece of 
plush ]-H4by 6 ui will be enough foi the two sides 

Begin workbyshapu^ Ihe largei pece of leatliei ns shown in Ihe drawing Allow a 
little maiginat the lop and bottom, however, to permit tnmmii^ the edges slightly 
afler the parts have been sewed together A knife oi a pan of scissois will do to cul the 
leather wilh, Ihoi^ha special knife, called a clup carving knife, is most sabsfac lory 

The next thing is to pulmihe marks for Ihe outline of the designs and the boiden. 
A tool having a point sliapsd as in the illustration is commonly used It is called a 
modeling toolfoi leatliei and maybe puicliased, or, one can be made fioni anordinaiy 
nut pick by taking oJTthe shaipness with fine eineiy paper so thai it will not cut the 
leather To work Ihese outlines, fust moisten the leather on the back with as much 
water as il will late and still nolsliow tluough on the face side Place the leathei on 
some level, noiiabsorbe lit surface and with the tool— and a stiaightec^e on the stiaighl 
lines— indent Ihe leather as shown Tlie easiest way is to place tlie paper petlem on the 
leather and maik on Ihe paper The indentations will be tiansfeiied witlioat Ihe 
necessity of putting any lines on Ihe leather 






-?i- 



al- 



Design for the Cover of Ladys Caid-Case 

V/'tlii Ihe knife culoul the sleiicils as shown Paste the silt plusli to the inner side, 
being caieful not to getany of The paste so fat out that it wall show. A gaodleathei 
pflsle will be lequiied. 





I<l(hci ToqIi 



Leatliei TddIs 




Complete Cerd Case 

Next place the linir^, fold the flies alor^ tlie hues indicEited in the diawing Hold 
the pails togetliei Find stitchtlieinona sewing-machine Anoidinaiysemng-inachuie 



will da ifh good sloul needle ls used A :3ilk lluead liial will match the lepilhei uhould 
be uped Keepthe aoze ^ide of llie bnuig 

QuIsD thai it wJl sliow, latheifhaii liie smooth side Wilh Ihe knife and istipighlec^e 
tnm DfTlhe sniplus niateiiaEal Ihe lap and bottom and the book is lesdyfot use 

Il«int-M4d« Fir« ExtinguirkFr [351] 

Dissolve 2D lb af conuiian salt and 10 lb of sal EniinioDiac in 7 gfll af wplei, and 
pill Ihe solulian m thin. glRss bottles, caik lighlly and seal to prevent evapaiation The 
bottles should hold aboat 1 qt If el fiie bieaks out, lluowone af Ihe batlles inor neM 
the flaioes, or break off the neck andscRtlei the canTenIs an the fiie It iiiaybe 
necessary to use se^'eiat battles to quench the flRiiies 

CrutihMade af an Old Bnom |3&Z] 

An enieigency cmlchBiRde af a ivom-Dut broom is an excellent substitute fai a 
WDodcniTch, especially when one or more cmtches are needed fai a short tmie, rs m 
cases of a spiamed Emtle, lemporaiy lameness, or a hip that has been wieixhed 

Slioiten ELiid hollow out Ihe brush af Ihe broom Riid then pad the hotloiff part wilh 
cation batting, covem^ it with h piece af clalh sewed m place Such a crutch does not 
heRl the arm ]itand tlieie is hn elasticity about it no I lobe had uitlie wooden cmtch 
The crulchcanbe mnde to fit either child or adult and awing to lis clieapness, can be 
tlirawnaioay when no longerneeded — Contnbutedby Kalhanne D Ivloise, Syracuse, 
NY. 




ToyDirlsandPiraihutes [JS2] 

A dart (Fig 1) is made of el cork having a tmcap, a needle and some feathers The 

needle is iiuitliroi^h Ihe center of the coik A and a pn arpece of steel is pul through 

the eye of Ihe needle Take a quantity af small 




Fte.? 
Htn FaiEl mai Pjprr Facuclmlf 

DartPflit^ aiid Paper Parachute 

fealheis, B, and tie Ihem together securely flI the bottom Bore el hole m Ihe center of 

the CELp C, and fELSten the fealheis inside of i1 Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is 
ready for use When Ihrowir^ Ihe dail elI el taiget stand from 6 ta 10 fl away from it 
Tlie ptLiachule is mELde by cuttir^ a piece of peper 15 m squaie and tying el piece of 



istnag to eflcli CDniei The slnngs sliouldbe about 15 m lor^ Tie all foui sliu^s 
tDgetlieima koal al the eiid and fasten Ihem uitlie lop of a cort with h i^dielII lack II is 
best to be as high fls pDssible when flying the paiachute as the aiicimenls wiUsriIiI 
h^hand fast Take hold of the pfliachule by Uie cork Riid iiui il IhiDugh the rij with 
the wmd^ letlmg il go elI Rim's ler^lh — Canliibuledby J Gordon Dempsey, Pateison^ 
NJ 

A Toalfbr Lifting Can Covers 13521 

A handy loal for piyir^ ap\'amish paiiil, ?yi"apand suojIeli can covers caibe niEide 
fiom an old fbik filed dnim 




Madn 1^ art Old Fai'k. 

fv^de ofELnOMFork 

to Uie sliape sliownui the illusliation The end is filed lo an edge, but not shaip — 

CanlribuledbyBen Giebin, Asliland, Wis 

Kerping Rat« from m Clucken Coop [352] 

Aftei liying fnimnntlis to keep Hie lalsfrom lunnebng Iheu way into my chicken 
caopbyfJlii^ in the hales, layir^ paisnnedmeEil and ineal, setling liaps, elc , 1 
devised a simple and efCecliv'e meliiod la pieveni Ihem Bam doing liann 

My roastir^ coop is 5 by 15 fl There is a 1-in board all Eiiaiind the batlom on the 
iiiside I iised wire mesh liavii^ l^-in openir^s Riid fanned it into Hie simps of a 
lELige tray wiUi ei^es if m h^h, the comets being wired, and tacked it la the boards 
This nal only keeps the rats out, bntpevenls tlie chickens fioin d^gu^ lioles, thus 
helping Hie lats la enlei — CDntiibuledby John A Hellwig, AtbRiiy, N Y 

Homeinad* Tebp hone Recener [353] 

The leceivei iLushated lieiewith is lobe used in cannection with the lianaiuitler 
described elsewhere ui tins volmne The body of Hie receivei. A, is made af a large 
wooden iibban spool One end is remov'ed entirely, the othei sawed in two on the line C 
and a flange, F, is cnton the woad, I^S in wide and 1/16 in deep AflEinge Hie same 
size IS mode on Hie endD lliat wets sawed off, and the aulside peil lapered lowaid Ihe 
liole Eis shown The magnet is made of b 30-peiiny nEul, B, cnl lo Ihe length af the spool, 
and a coil of wiie, E, wound on Hie head end Tlie coH is I ui lang, made up of four 
loyeis of No 12 gauge coppei magnet wiie, Eillowing Hie ends lo extend out abautfi m. 
The iiaH wilhthe coHls Ihenpuluila tlie liale of Ihe spoal eis shown The diaphiagm C, 
which IS the essential pEul of the uislrumenl, should be made as carefully as possible 
from feiiotype tin, commoiHy called Imlype hii The diEiphiagm is placed between llie 
flai^es an Ihe spool Eiiid tlie end D IIibI was sawed off The end piece and diaphiagm are 
both fastened lo the spool with two ar tliree slender wood screws, eis shown 

A small wooden or fiber erul, G, is fitted with two binding posts wluch are camiected 
lo Ihe ends of Ihe wire left poajeclu^ fioni Ihe magnet wiiidii^ The biruhi^ posts Eire 
attached lo Ihe hue Eiiid a tiial given The prapei dislEince must be found between Hie 
diaphiagm and Hie head of Ihe nail This can be accomphshed by moving Ihe ueuI and 
magnet m Ihe liole of Hie spool When Hie distance to produce the i^lit sound is found, 
llie mill and mpgnet can be made fast by filling Hie open spEice wilhmelled seahi^ wax 
The end G is now fastened lo Ihe end af the spool, Eind llie receiver is leady foiuse. 




H(wloCfcanJewflryP53] 

Td clcEiiise Eulicles of uilvei, gold, broiise Eiiidbras:; use a setuialed solution af c^nide 
af potassium Ta clean isniall article :3, dip each one into Ihe uolutian and iuim 
immediEilely inliDt itfalei, llicn diy and poLisli with a linen cloth Laiger aibcles are 
c leaned by mbbir^ tlie surfiice with a ^niEill tufl of cotton uatuiated intlie folulion Au 
c]flnide of palauuiiim is a deadly poison, caie must be taken not to have it touch any isaie 
spot on the flesh 

Ornunf ii»l Iran Flowtr Snnd [J53] 

The lUustnilion sIiqi*^ Einoiniiniental iron slandconatiuc ted to liald a glass qi chum 
vase Tins slandcanbe made byfiisldiawing anoulline of Ihe vase on a heavy piece of 
paper The vase is to liave thiee supports The shape of the scioUs fomiir^ each suppoil 
should be drawn on the paper 





rJW aiinij wJHl VB4r 

Tlie ^ tand witli Vflse 



arauiid the shnpe of the v»sc A single hue will be suiTicient, but cpire must be taken la 

get the sliapes of the scrolls true Take a pece of stnr^ or, better still, a piece of snipJl 
wiie, and ppiss it around Ihe scroll shnpe on tlie paper This will give the exact lenglh of 
tlie lion lequiiedto mate tlie scroE As sheelmelal is used for making Ihe scrolls, it can 
be cutm the right lengths wilh a pair of tmner's sheais Take a pair of round-nose plieia, 
begin wilhtlie smallest scrolls, and bend each strip m shape, using Ihe flat-nose pheis 
wheiinecessaiytD keep the iion stra^hl, placing it on Ihe skelch from time to tune to 
see tliattlie scrolls aie kept to the shape required Tlie scrolls aie tiv'e ted and bolted 
togethei Tlie suppoits aie fastened logetherwithnr^s of sinp ironS/S m wide, to 



which llie siippDilseie fastened with nvets The inetalcanbe cov'eied wilhany desued 
calai of enainel peml 

How n Make > Coin Futsf [J54J 

The dimensiaDS foe a leELlheicainpuise Piie a^ follows from A to B, a^ shawnin Ihe 
akelch, a-3JS ui .fioiaC la D, 4-l/4iii .tiaiLi E to F. 3-1^2 in and 




I'TJtbm r>«iJfD Idt b Pom 

Leather Design for a Piuse 

fiom G lo H, 3-1 J4m Russian calf iiiodebr^ leather is Ihe material used A ahade of 
hiaffnisbeslasitdoesnotsoil easily, and does notieqmie colonng 

Cat out the leolheito Ihe ?ize of Ihe patlein, Ihen moisten the surface on the mi^h 
aule wiiha sponge soaked in walei Be CEnefulnot lo moisten Ihe leathei too much or 
tlie water will go thioughto the smooth side Have the des^ndiawn oitiacedon Ihe 
palteni Then ky the palteni on the smooth side of Ihe leather Find tiace over Ihe design 
with Ihe small end of the leather looloi a liaiii sliarp pencil Trace also the line around 
tlie puise Dampen the leather as often as is necessaiy to keepitpiapeilymoislened 

Aflei taking off the patlem, retrace Ihe des^nduectlyon llie leatlier to make it more 
distinct, using a duller pomi of Ihe tool Press or model down the lealhei all Enound Ihe 
des^ii^ making it as smooth as possibie with Ihe round side of the tool Work down the 
outside line of Ihe design, thus raising il 

Fold the lealhei on the line EF Culanotlier piece of lealhertlie size of Ihe side ECBD 
of the pui'se, andaflei putting the inoi^ sides of the leathei together, stitch around Ihe 
ei^e as designated by Ihe letters abov-e menlioned Do nolniake this pece come quile 
up lo the line EF, so tliatllie coins maybe more easilyputinand lakenoul About 1 in 
from the lines EF on tlie piece, stilch ma sinp of lealher about ]y4m wide whenstitch- 
11^ up the purse, tlirough wluch to shptlie flyAGH 

Window Antl-FnsI SohitiDn [3S4| 



A window glass maybe kept from fiosting by nibbing over Ihe inner surface a 
solution of 55 paits of gl^eruie Find 1,D0Q peits of dO pei cent olcoliol Tlie odoi maybe 
improved by adding a Lltle oil of amber This solution will also prevenia glpiss from 
sweahr^ m waiin wealhei 



How to MqIlF a Turbine Engint []S5] 

111 the followu^ arlicle i:3 de^cnbed a aidchme which an^iie CEinmEile, and which 
willbe veiy inleiegling, as well as useful It can be roEide wiIIiduI the use af a lothe, or 
alhei tools usiiallyoulof leachof the amateiu mechanic It is neat and efficieni, Eiiida 
model foi spsed andpaifei Babbitt melal is tlie mateiialused in its canstiuclian, beii^ 
cast inivDoden molds The casuig faitlie fflieel is cast mhalves-a fact Luhichmustbe 
kept in mind 

Fiist, piacuie a planed pine board 1 by IIT m by 12 fl loi^ CutofTsix 




r.E3 

peces 12 in square, and, wiiha compass saw, cutout one piece as shown inF^ I, 
foUowii^ the dotled lines, leffh'ii^ tlie li^ a, and llie pro]ecliDn3 B andb lobe cutout 
witha pocket liiufe Make the li^ !/4in deep, and the piajectians B,b, IH m deep 
The entire cut should be shghtlybe\'eled 

Naitftake anolheipiece of wood, and cutauta wheel, as sliQwnm F^ 2 Tlusalsa 
should be sl^hllybe\'eled Wlien ilis fmislied, place it an one of Ihe square pieces of 
wood, wilh Ihe largest side dawii^ then place the squaie piece oulof i*hich Fig 1 was 
cul, Eiiamid Ihe ivheel, with the open side down (We sliall ceJI tliatside of a maid out of 
which a casting is drawn, Ihe "open" side ) Place itsa that it is even at Ihe e(^e wilhthe 
under square piece and place Ihe wheel so tlial Ihe space belweenthe wheel and 





e 




pa • 






^ 


— . 


^ 


1 




Y 






\ 






o\ 


I 


H ■ 






V — 


J 




pbV 


'^ i 


(^ 


* 


^ 


^^ 


X 1 


K 


^^ 


y 




a 






e 




■• — ' ■ 


— ' 


I" — 







F|6> 



tlie othei piece of wood w ane'v'en 1/Sin all the way around Then nail the wlieel down 
fumly, and tack the other pece sLghdy 

Piociue a thinbapird IMm Ihick, and cutiloulas shownmFig 3, then nail it, with 
pins oi small nails, on the cenlei of ane of Ihe squaie peces of wood Fit this to tlie Iwo 



pece5]iislfmislieii with the tluii i*heeldaitfii~bulfiistboni^ a 3/4- in hale !/4m 
deep, ui Ihe ceiilei ofil, aiid baling a 3/3-iii 




fuS 



liole eiituely tloDi^hattlie same pkce Now put mold Na 1 (foi thai is ivIieiI we ghpJl 
celU tlu:3 mold) ma vise, andboie sa U4-iii lioles tluoughil Be caieful to keep lhe?e 
lioles well Dutm Ihe solid ptiit, as sliownby Ihe black dots iii Fig I Take Ihe mold 
aparl, aiid clean all Ihe sliavir^s oulof it, then boll it logelhei, and layil Bway to diy 




ria4 



Now lake another of liie 12-m square pieces of i^ood, and cut it out eis ghown in Fig 
4, st^hlLy beveled After it is fiiushed, ploce itbelweentwo of Ihe 13-ui square pieces 
af wood, one of iffhichshouldhave E[ 3y3-iu lioleboied tliroughils center Theubolt 
togelher with sik i/4-m baits, as sliownby liie 




black dols uiF^ 4, aiidloyil away to diy This is moldNa 2. 

Kow lake iitaldND 1, :3ee tlial tlie baits are all l^lit, lay il on a level place, and poui 
babbitl iiielal mla il, iinlil ilis full. Let it ^ land foi half an haur, then loosen the bolls and 
lemove the CEislu^ 

Kow cutautoiie of the 13-111 -squme pieces of waodas shown uiF^ 5 Tlus is llie 
isaiiie a^ F^ I, only the one is lefl-lianded, the othei i^hl-haiided ENit tlus togethei m 
iiioldNo 1, instead of Ihe light- liandedpece, and nmm babbitl metal again The casing 
thus made will face together with the CRstu^ previously made 

Pour inetalinto moldNa 2 Tlu'S will CRst h pedElle-ivheel, wluch is mtendedta turn 
inside of the casting EJieady made 

If Hieie should liappenlo be any 

Entrants of 







lioles aispols, inhere the casing did not fill out. Oil theniby plRcuig a small pece of 
wood Lviiha hole m it, over the defectp'e pert, andpauiii^ melal m la fill it up 

If ^u cannot oblam Ihe use of a diiL piess, take an ordinaiy brace, fasten a 3/S-m 
dnll init, andboie a hale lluai^h the eiidof E[ stripabout 2 m wide and I6in long, put 
tlie tap of the biRce thioi^h tlus hole, and fasten Ihe alheiendof the stiip to a bench, as 
shown in illuslrRlion Find the ceiitei of the paddle-wheel, ploce itiuidei Ihe dnlL tine it 
up wilh a square, and drill il entiiely thioi^h Fuid the centers of the uisides of tlie odier 
two cpisbi^s, Eind diiU tliem mtlie spime niannei 

A pece of iiuld steel 5 ui long, and 3/E-m in diainetei must now be obtained Tlus is 
for El sliafi Commencu^ 1-1/3 m. fiamHie one end, file Ihe sliaflolTflBtfor b dtjlance af 1 
in Thencula slalmihe paddle-wiieeL and place the sbefl inside of Ihe jwddlewheel, with 
Ihe flalpail of the shefltoniedlD face the slotni Ihe wheel Pour melal mla Ihe slot Id key Ihe 
fflieel on Id the shefl 

The paddle -wiiee lis now leedytobe filled mside af llie casu^ It maybe necessary lo file 
some af Ihe ends afTihe paddles, m order lo lei Ihe peddle -wlie el go mla Ihe cesmg Aflei it 
IE filled 111, so dial il will tmii easily, place the enlue maclmie ma vise, andboie lliiee iy4-m 
liales, one m llie li^, one mihe pojedions, B,b, end Ihe olhei m Ihe base, as shown by the 
bleckdalamP^ 6 Also baie llie p^rt-hole mprajecbanB, end Ihe exhausthole m 
projection b, end two 1/4-m holes aid, d. Fig 6 Cat out e piece of geskelandfititbelween 
the two caslu^s Then bolt Ihe casings together, sciew dawn, and canned la Ihe bailer 




Usuig Ihe Bijice 



The leBdcrmiislcilliei cbsI b pulley Dutofbebbitlmelal, oieL^e go Id a iiiBchimplaiid get a 
coUpir tinned, with a boss and a ueluciew, and with lluce ^mall Kie wholes aioundllie c(^e 
Culoula umall wood wheel and a; lew Hie cdUbi fast la it, faslen it la tlie uliaflaf the tmbine 
and tmii on llie steam Then lake a knife or a chisel, end, wlnle il is iimning al full speed, him 
the wheel to the shape deaied 

Youi Imbuie engine is nowieedy for work, and if injIiucliQnshave been caiefuUy 
foUawed, will da goadsel^^ce. 

PuHingAC4r|3F7| 

Whenpambi^ llie anlamobilebodyandcliassLjbe sine to stuff Hie Dillioles with fell ai 
waste befaie applying the painl If Has caution m iiolabMr\'ed Hie liales will became clogged 
wilh paml which will pievenlanyoilieachii^ the beam^ 

How To BuiU An Ue Bo3i [357] 

The iceboalis each yeaibecDiim^ more popular Anyone wilheven small e:ipenence m 
using tools con 




A Fom-Riuinei Ice Yacht 

conjtroclsucha crafi, piidihe plepsiire nipny limes repe^the eflbrl. 

Take Iwo pieces of waod2 by 6 m, one 6 fl and Hie other S ft lang At each end of Hie 6- 
fl piece and Btr^hlai^les to il.bolla piece of liaidwoad2by4by 12 m Roundofflhe 
lower ec^e af each piece to filanald skete Have ablacksnulhbore holes thioi^hlhe lop of 
the skales andsciewane of them lo each of Hie pieces of haidwood. 




Plui dI Ice B«nE 

PkuDflce Boat 



These ukalesmuslbe eseclly parallel or fliere will be Irouble Ihe fual lune llic cipflisnsed 
Overlhe middle af llic d-fl piece andati^lil angles la it, bolt the S-fl plant, leaving I f\ 
prajeclu^ as inF^ 1 

The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood !!by 3 by 12 in as the runiieis 

were fastened This pece sliouldbe mortised 3 by 3by 4 in inthe lapbefore Ihe skale 
IS put an Figure 2 sliows the ruddei post 
A piece of liardwDod I by flby 6 ui 




DeUili dE Ice Biul ConUnmbD 

Details of Ice Boat CDiistnic lion 

should be screwed la Ihe under side of Ihe S-ft plank bI Ihe end with the gminnmim^ 

ciosswise Through tins bare a hole l-L/^-in indiPimelei in order tliat the iiidderposl 
inay fit lucely The tiller, F^ 3, sliouldbe af hEirdwood^ and abautS m long 

Ta Ihe underside of the 3-fl plant bolta piece of lunber 2by4by 22 m mfionlof 
tlie rudrlerblact, audio this ciass piece and Ihe d-fl plank nail 3-in boards to niPile the 
platfanit 

The spai sliouldbe 9 ft lang and 2-1/2 in. ui diaineler at Ihe base, tapeni^ la l-l^ in 
at Ihe lop This fils in Ihe squaie hole, F^ I The liom should be 5-1/2 fl long, 2 by 3 
m al Ihe butt and I in al the end 

Figme 4 gives Ihe sliape and dimensians of the mauisail which can be made of 
iituslin Run Ihe seam on a machuie, put a stout cord intlie hem and make loops at the 
comers 

Figure 6 shows Ihe way of raging Ihe gafTlo the spm F^ure 7 shows Ihe melhadof 
crolching Ihe mam boom aiidF^ E a leef point knol, which may come in handy m 
lieav-y winds 

iVfeke youi lunners as long as passible, and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel 
runnel for you, so mnchtliebetlei will be ^urboal 

EbciTU Eal EAtfrmimtor [359] 



Some time ago we were tiaiibledby numeiaiis large mis around Ihe sliop, paiticularly 
in a sloieliouse aboul lOQ ft dislant, wheie they often did considerable damage One of 
llie boys Ihoughl he would try a plan of electiicalexterminatian, and in order to carry 
out his plan he picked iipanaldzmc floor plate that liad been used under a slave and 
moimleda waodendisk d m ui diameter m Ihe center On this disk he placed a small Im 
pen about d m m diameter, beir^ careful that none of tlie fastening nails made an 
electiical cannec lion between Ihe sine plate and the Impiin 

Tins apparatus was placed on the floor of Ihe waiehouse iiiiere it was plainly visible 
from a window in the shop where we worked and a wiie was tun from Ihe pan and 



aiioliier fioiii Ihe zinc [iaie Ihioi^li liie mleivemi^ yard and inio llic sliap A goadsiaed 
induction coil iffau Ihiai^li CDiuiecled wilhtlieise wues andaboul six diybatlenes were 
used la run Ihe induction coil whenever a push button ioa:3 meiupuleted 

It IS quite evideni tlml lolieiia lalput it:3 Iwo foie feel Diitlie edge of the pun in order 
to eat the moph which it canteined, that anelecliical comieclion loouldbe made Ihrangh 
tlie body af the rat, and when we pushed the butlannpin Ihe uhop tlie mt would be 
tluown ? or 3 ft m Ihe Piir aiidlet out a terrific uqueok The Eurai^emenl provedquite 
too effective, far after a week the lats all deperled and Ihe bo^ all regretted tliat llieir 
fun iffau atan end -Cantiibutedby John D Adaniu, Phoenix, Ana 




IL" Pan JUr* 

^^&^¥*~ 

Elctbic Bat TiBp 

Electiic Rat Tiap 

HoH wMakti Simpk Fire Alarm. [359] 

Afiie alaim wluch is bolh inexpensive and simple inconslmction is sliownm the 
lUuatiation Itspaitu are eis follows 

A, umallpece of wood, B, block of wood nailed to A, li S Iwo peceu of ulieet brass 
aboul 1/4 in wide, beni into a hook at eEicheiid, F, F.bindu^- posts fastenii^ Ihe 
spinas S ^, to block B, so that they come in contact at C W is a pece of waK cia^n 
jU'Stlong enoi^h tobieak tlie coiitoclatC when uiserled as shown in Ihe illustiation 

Wlien Ihese paits liave been put tDgelheiin the mamiei described, CDonectthe device 
in circuit with Pin electric bell, and place ilbelund a stove 




3liT>pl« F!rfl Alarn 
liiinple Fire Alaiin. 

When Ihe utur^'e becomes too hoi the wax will melt at tlie end;, allowii^ the springs to 
contact at C, and Ihe alarm bell will ring --Contiibuledby J R ConiiJtock, 
P.^cliamcsbuig, Pa 

To BuiU a Mtn?- Go-Round [359] 

This IE avery suuple device, bul one that will afford any amount of amusement The 



cenleiposliesls inanai^er liole bored in an old shimp or ma pDsl selmllie giaiind. 
The stmup makes llie besi suppoil The cenlei pole slioiildbe 10 fl h^h An old wheel 
IS maimledal the lapof Ihe pole, and Ihe pole woiks ui Ihe wheel as an a^le, says the 
AmencanBoy The wheel is oncliDiedoulby seveiolguy 




HQDif-MuiIf Mrrry-G[-fio<ii]J 

Hoine-rvlade Meny^Go-Raimd 

wiies Tlie seat aims maybe any ler^lh desired Apassei^ei ndes in each seat and Ihe 
moloiiuan tatei? his stabon at tlie middle 

AAdt Wh«k [359] 

Erne ly wheel aibois shanldbe fitted wilh flai^es orwnslieis hiiv'ir^ a sl^hl concave 

to llieir face 

Noielij Clock for Iht Kite hen P60J 

An inexpensive and easy way lo mEike on unique ommnenl of a clack 




Tbi CLikIi wiiEi KdLbr 

The Clock wilh Holder 



forkilclien use m lo lake an old Eilanu clock or a new one if preferred, and make il mio 
a clock lo hang an the wall TEike Ihe glass, diEil Riid works aulof the shell and cut 
some pieces ontof Ihe metal so that when llie peces leflare tinned back il will have 
the appearance as iiiF^ I Then, gel a IQ-cenl frying pan, 6 in mdiametei, and diill a 
hole intlie center so the sliafi for the hands will easily puss tluough and extend out far 
enough to leplace the two hands Put Ihe works back m Ihe metal shell and solder it lo 
the frying pan by Ihe pieces lumedoul as iiiF^ 2 Gild Ihe panall over, including the 



Imiidle, and prmt black figuies uiElLe smEill ciicles CaleiLElaif^aies can be pusled oil 
sitleJI ciicles Riid Ihese pasted on Ihe fiyuig pan The paits can be divided into mmiites 
wilhsniaU hne^ Ihe seme as ^hawnmfhe diawii^ ^^ke iieio hands Ihataie lor^ 
eiiDi^h to leachthe ^uies fiaiiisheel brass oitin Biidpaml Ihem black. — Conliibuled 

byCELiiP Herd, DELvenpoit, loiva 

How » Mukt a Sm^ill Silin PUtie^ Oulfil [Ht] 

Take an Dniiiuiiy glass fnutjar oi any other leceplacle in gla^s, iiolmelal, wliich 

will hold 1 ql nf liquid aiid fill i1 with rain or dishlled watei and then add 3/4 nz of 
situei chlonde and l-IOoz ofcp polassiuin cyRiude Let thn; dissolve and 
mcorporale well with the iffatei befaie using Tate Ein Didmaiy wetbatteiy and fasten 
two coppei wiies to the tenmneils and fasten Ihe other ends of the wue^ la two pieces 
af heavy copper wire or l/4-in brass ppe The wires must be well soldered to Ihe 
brass ppe lo mEike h good connec lion When the solutionis made up and entirely 
dissolved the outfit is leady for plRtuig 

Procure a small piece of silvei, a silvei button, niig, chiunoranytlur^ made entuely 
of siK-ei ELiid fasten a small copper wire lo it and liar^ on the brass pipe with 
connections to Ihe caibonof the balteiy Clean the article lobe plated well with 
pumice and EibiiishsalDraled in water Whencleanir^ any article tlieie sliouldbe a 
coppei wire attached lo it Do not touch the ailicle after you once slart to clean it, oi 
the places touched by ]fflui fingers will CRiise the silvei plnte to peel off when finished. 
When well scoured, nui cleM, cold watei ovei the Riticle and if it appears gieEisy, 
place ui hot water When well cleaned place m the platir^bath and caie fully watch 
the lesults If small bubbles come Eo the surface yiu will know that ^uhave loo 
inuchof the anode oi the piece of silver hanging in the solution and yDU 




PJUlng J« anil Bulleiy 

Plaling Jai and Batleiy 

must draw out enough of the piece until ^u can see no moie bubbles Leave Ihe piece 
to be plated m the solution foi about one-lialf hour, then take the article out and wiiha 
tooth biush and some pumice, clean tlie yellowish scum off, iinse uicleai waler and 
diy III sawdust When Ihoioughly dry, take a coHon flamielrag and some pohshir^ 
powdei and polish the article The article must liave a fine palish before plating if ills 
desired to have a finely pokshed surface afler the plale is pulon 

In order to see if yiiir battery is woikii^, take a small coppei wire and touch one 
end to Ihe anode ppe and the other end to the pipe holdup the article lobe plated 
When these two paits touch there will be a small spark Always take Ihe zincs out of 
the solution when not muse and Ihe batteries will last longer This description applies 
oidyto silver platJT^ Articles of lead, pewter, hnoi any soft melal cannolbe silver 
plated unless the article is fusi copper plated 

Remotiii* 3 T'^ht-Filtiii* Ring from > Finger |361| 

\Vhen a nr^ cannolbe removed easily from the fir^ei, take a stni^ or tliread and 
diawone end thioi^h between Ihe nr^ and the flesh Coiltlie other end of Ihe slnr^ 
around the filler coveni^ the part from the m^ to and over the fuigerjomt Uncoil 
the stiing by lakii^ the end placed throi^h the iiiig and at the same time keep the ni^ 
close up to the slnr^ Intlus way the iing can he easily 




Vtrtttiat Oie Binder 

V.'iflppu^ Ihe FiQgei 

islippedovei Ihe knuckle andofffioin Ihe fuigei — Conlnhuledby J. K Miller, 

MalieltR, Peiui 

A FliDngraplur Jig&iw Puzzle P61| 

Take anypliDlc^iapluc pmil and niDiml il nnlieavy catdbcroid^ di, if you 




Plrluc HHrtnl l« Cmiirc 
Picluie rvlarked foiCutlir^ 

have h]i^ shw. a Ihin siqdoIIi WDodboaid and maik oulvanous sliaped pieces as 

ishawnuithe accampLiiyiiig cul If Jhe pctuie is maiinled an CRidbDaid, Hie Lines can 
be cul thiDi^li with a ^haip pDinled knife If ^fljuha^'e a jig :3aw, ^u can make Eibio- 
mide enlEugeiiienl fiani die negative ^fljuhave ?etecled Riid maiuit Ihe print an h 
smDotli board tliatis not Toa tluck Tins WDod-moanted picluie CEinbe ^atved aut 
luaku^ Eillsliape? af blocks, which foiros a pe ifectjig -saw pozzle — Contnbutedby 
EnchLeliniELiin, Nei* York City 

Rolling Uphiiniurian [361] 

This infeiesling rs loell a^ enlertainii^ illusion, can be made by an^fline havir^ a 

wood-lmnii^ laihe Asohd, similar to bwo cooeg placed ba^e lobaise, i^ accuiately 
tinned ma laihe, tlie side:; sloping to an Ri^le of 45 deg Tlie ?piidle can be turned out 
of the soLd at the same time a? the cone, ai, hftsi turning the cone, dnue an iron or 
WDodsliafl through the cenlei making a tight fit 

The baaidp fai the liack Rie made with a slopi^ ei^e on wluch Ihe cone is to mil 
This slope will depend on Ihe diEimetei of Ihe cane, which can be Einysize from 3 la 
13 m The slope should not be too flal, ai Ihe cone will not roll, and it should be such 
dial Ihe 




The iLlueion 
The IUdsidii 

one eiid will be li^her Ihanlhe alherby a Lrtle le?s than half the diaiaeler af Ihe cone 

Thup [twill be seen I3ia[[lie dianieleiof [lie cane delemiiiies the length af the slope of 
the tracks A notch ishauldbe catm the tracks, as uidicated, for the shafi lo dioprntn 
attlie end of the cauise 

The loivei end of tlie tiackp; are closed nnlil the h^hedge of the cone rests npon Ihe 
inside ei^es of the tracks andtlie li^heod spread sufficiently lo take the full width af 
the cone and la allow Ihe shafl lo fall uita Ihe nolches Wlienihe cone and tracks ate 
viewed fioia the broadside Ihe deceplian will be more perfect, and will not be 
disco\'ered until the consEruction of the model is seen from all sides ^liDuIdilbE 
diificull lo make the cone froni waod, a good substitute can be made fioin two 
funnels --Contributed by I G Ba^dey, Cape tlayPDml, K J 

AiuLtqliiig Chi»l Snwl P62t 

Persans wlio liave occasian to use tDolorcaiban steel DDwand Ihenand do not 
have Rccess ta an assorted stack of tlus material find that the kind most leadily 
abtained elI the hardware staie is the iinaDiiealed steel known as chisel steel 
P.'lacliiQii^ or filing such steel is exceedingly slow Find difficult, besides Ihe 
destruction of tools, a^n maltei of fficl thw steel is mlendedfai clusels, drills, and like 
tools which lequire only faiging and filing If this sleelis Einnealed, it can be worked 
as easily as the maie ei:psnsive aiuiealed steel 

Annealing maybe done by lieRlmg the steel to h cherry led, not any more, and 
burying it in a box of slaked lime, where it is allowed to remEim imtil elU Ihe heatLS 
gone If well done, Ihe metal will be campfliatively softand ui h condition ta machine 
easily ELiid rapidly In lieuofbnie, bury mashes, sand, loam, or Riiy siibslance notm- 
flamniable,bul fine enoi^hta closely sunouiid the steel Riid exclude Ihe eluso Ihat 
the steel cools \'ery slowly 

If passible, keep the steel ledhol m Ihe fiie several lioors, Ihe longer the be tier In 
ceitain piocesses, like that of file mEinofac taring, Ihe steel blanks aie kept hat for 43 
hours or more Wliere it is impossible la wnil sa lor^ as the foiegaing method lakes, 
then a cold watei anneal mnybe used with less lime This me tliod consists of heoling 
the work rs slowly Find Ihaioughly as Ihe time will peinut, then removing Ihe sleel 
from Ihe fire and allowii^ il lo coal m Ihe air uiihl black and tlien qiiencliir^ in watei 

In addition lo soflening the steel, annealu^ benefits the metal by lelieving stiEims m 
the piece Should a peiticulRily accuiate ]ab be called for, the sleel should be annealed 
again after Ihe roi^liir^ cats have been taken and be foie machinir^ to tlie final size 
This wiUinsoie a tine ]ob and dimnushes Ihe danger of spring m the fuial liaidening 
— CantiibuledbyDonald A Hampsan, K'liddletown, N Y 




The abiyc fjli 1 0;;rFinli WGd llia.3c hy lilEt 
r Littin K n 






negiisivc, and finialicj ii^ithc fcu]! -v-ay. 



Haw ta Mikt 3 Post Cird Holder [36J] 

Tins lioldeiis des^nedtD lEiy flatoii liie CDonleiDi to stack one on lop of the other, 
keeping each vemety af canis sepaiale, ai h mmibeiof them can. be fastened on any 
upnght surface ta dispkyeilhei liDiu:oiLtal Di\'ei1icEil cards 

The lioMeis CRiibe loade from sheet tin, zmc.biass 01 alnminijni The diiiiensinns 
for the light siEe Rie gp'eii in Ftg 1, tlie dotted line slioivu^ where the bends are 
made The 




PitMm lor Cmtina Ibe HeUl 
PaHemfaiCutbng tlie t'letal 

campletedliolder IS sliownm F^ 2 els fastened lo a wall — Contnbatedby Jolm F. 
WiUianison, Daytona, Fla 



UniuFd FunI P63] 

Do nal allow peinl Ihal is lefl m'er fiDiii a job la ^tand uncoveied The can should 

be lightly 136 ale d aiid Ihe pauil will be foiuid mailable foiase fai several days 

Peifiinu- Miking OutfiF [36J] 

The real peifUme fioia Ihe floioeis is iiolalwii]^ contained in Ihe liquid poichased 

foi peifUme The loost expensive peifaiae CRube made elI liome for less Ihan 10 cenls 
anaiince The oulfil necessary is h laige bailie ot glass jar with a sinallei bottle to fit 
snugly inio Ihe open looulh of the iRige one Secure a sioaltpece of veiy fine sponge 
aiul iwash il clean la tluDiai^hly lemove all gnt and sand 




Palmate Ihe sponge with pure olive oil, do nol use slxong oil, and place il inside of Ihe 

sniEJler bottle 

Fill Ihe laige bottle oi]ar with flowers, such as loses, carnations, pansies, 
honeysuckles ai any flower having a sliong and sweet adoi PlRce tlie small bottle 
canlaiiur^ the sponge upside downintlie iRige one, es shown in the lUostiabon 

The bottle is now placed m the sun Riidkepttlieie fai a day and then the flowers aie 
removed and fiesh ones putui Change Ihe flowers each day as lor^ as Iheybloom 
Remove tlie spoi^e Find squeeze out the oil Fgi eRch diap of oil add 2 oz of grain 
alcohol If strainer peifunie is desired add only I oz alcoliol lo each drop of oil 

Home-Midt Diqiliralor for Box Cimens P63| 

The projeclir^ lobe of Ihe lens on a hand camera can be easily fitted wiiha 
duphcalor wlule the box camera wilhils lens sel on Ihe inside Find iiotlung bul h liole 
m lliebo:i does not liave suchadv-anlages A small piece of heavy cardboard can be 
made lo produce the same results on a box camera as a first-class duphcalor ap]diedto 

a hand camera 




Fin I F.a Z Fid 3 

DupLicBiDc AtEuhBd to I Camm 
Duplicaloi Atlachedlo a CaiiLeid 

The caidbaELidia cul Inar^alai and attached la Ihe fiaiil eiidof the CELiiieia as sliDionin 
F^ 1 with E[ pii Eiboat I in above the lens opeiur^ A iTibbet band placed aiDund tlie 
loioer end of the cardbaEmi and camera holds tlie former at any posilion ilis placed A 
shght pressnie of fhe fuigeionthe point A, Fig 2, will pu^ Ihe caribaRid D\'er and 
e:ipose one-half of the plRte and the SEime presisure at B, Fig 3, will ie\'erse the 
apeiationand e:ipose Ihe other one-half Pms can be istuck m Ihe end of the camera on 
each :3ide of the lens opening at the i^ht ]:iace to stop the cardboEud for Ihe exposuie 
Wrihtlus device one can duplicate the prclure af a person on the SEirne negahve. — 
ConlributedbyMauirce BRndier, NewOrLeRns, Lel 

C^iifallllusiDiis \UA\ 

The accorapunyir^ sketch shows Iwo optrcfll rllusrons, tlie first hflvir^ a psrfect 
cucle on the outside edge 




ThD Tm llLulB» 
The Two Illusions 



appears lobe flattened at the pouits A, and tlie arcs of Ihe circle, B, appear to be more 
rounding In Ihe second figuie the cucle appears to have anovpil form with the 
distance from C to C gieELleitlmn from D lo D A compass applied lo the circles in 
either f^iues will show that Ihey are perfectly lonnd. — Conliibatedby NonnanS 

Brown, ChippswR FelUs, Wis 

U:«t af KtroiEtiLe inPoIislLing McIiLt [}(i4| 

Aii]fl)iie who lias pokshed a flEil uon oisleel suiface with eineiy do Ih knows liow 
soon the cloth gums and fiUs up Tlie cloth m tins condition mil do htlle or no cuttir^ 
A sunple remedy fbi tins tiouble is to use kerosene on the siufEice The oil floats away 
a laige pari of the giunnung substance Eiiid leaves the eiiiery cloth sharp Find clean to 
do thebesl work, also, it seems to act as el lubricant lo keep ptiiticies of iiietal from 
coUectir^ on the clolhand scratching oi digging m the siufEice of Ihe metal A veiy 
l^htlELidoil IS eqiiaEy goodfoi Ihis piupase, but not Eilways easily obtained A 
surface polished where oil oi kerosene is used does not rust so eEisily Eis one polisliEd 
diy foi the leEison tliala httle oil remains on the melaE 

Kerosene is tlie best to use on oilstones, being better tlianheaviei oil This oil 
readily flo Ells away all particles of Ihe fealliei edge that are liable to become loosened 
and forced mto Ihe stone Tliese paiticles of metal wlien stuck lo tlie stone are the 
cause of spoiling it, els well els mcking the tools Ihatare being sharpened Keep the 



isuiface of the slooe loell ailed aCall tinie? to make the ciiTtir^ free — Coiitnbiitedby 
Donald A Haiapson, Middletowii, N Y 

Hnw n Make Lui^s Born Biighil; [364| 

For a goad, ?leady l^hl there i? iiotlung better tlian h Ifliiip, but lite mo^leveiything 
it mustha^'P attention Afhi cleanup loell andfiltir^ it, place a siiiall lump of 
caiaplioimtlie oil vessel Thi:3 will greatly improve the l^ht Riidniake the flame 
cleEirer aiidbnghtei If Ihere i? no camplioi Pit hand add h few diojs ofvinegar 
accasionally 

APia*tM:*lC*meiaf«Fiflj Chik [Jd5]ByC H Claudy 



I say for fifly cents, but re ELllylhis is Ein outside estimate If ^u possess a few tools Eind 
tlie rudiments af a sliap, by wliich is meant a few odds Eind ends of screws, bmss and 
nails, ynucan really make Hus canieia for notlui^ 

The camembox is tlie first consideiation^ and fartlui; a cigar box answers every 
purpose rtisbetlei to use one of Ihe long boKes whichcantEima hundred c^Eirs and 
which have squBre eiuls TlusboK slioiildbe cut down, by means of b sow and h plate, 
until the ends are 4 m square Leave the bd hinged as it is when ilcanies Clean all the 
paper from llie outside and inside 




Construction of CELniem Bdk 



Ciui|in;<|La:i ol Compn Boi 



af tlie boK- - which moy be readily done wiiha pece of glass for a scraper and h damp 

clolh— and paint the inteiior af the boi: a dead black, eilher with CEiniage makeis' black 
ar black ink 

Now bore in the center of one end a small liole, H4in arless mdiEimetei Finally 
inserlon Ihe uiside af tliebaz, an the sides, Iwo small ships of ^voad, l^by iy4in Eind 
fasten Ihem with glue, 1^ in from Ihe othei end af tliebaz Examine Fig I, and see the 
location of these stiips, which are lettered EE Then pmpose ls to hold the plate, which 
maybe Einy size desired up la 4 m squnie Commeicially, plates came 3-iHhy3-lf2 
m , or, mtlie lanlein slide plate, 3-U4by 4in If it is desired to use the 3-1/3 by 3-1 m. 
plates winch IS Eidvised, the boi: sliouldmeasuie lliatsize mils inteiiiRldimensians 

We now come la Ihe conshTictianof the most essential pml af the camera-the pui 
liole Eind the shutler, which lake Ihe place of tlie lens and shulter used mmore expensive 
autfils Tills conslruction IS illiishatedui Fig 4 TEile a pece of brass, about HI6-m 
thick and i-il2 m squaie Boie a liole meachcomei, to tEike a siuelU screw, wluch will 
fasten it to the front of tlie cameie Wilh (/4-m drill bare iieady tluough the plate in tlie 
ceiitei, but be careful tliattlie pomtof tlie drill does not come Ihioi^h This willpoduce 
tlie recess sliownui the firsi section inF^ 4 Now late a No ID needle, inseil Ihe e^ 
end ui E[ piece of wood and'h'ery c Eiie fully Eind gently twiiL it mtlie center af the brass 
where it is the tlunnest, milil it goes thioi^h This pn liole, as it is called, is whEil 
produces the image on tlie sensitive plate, ma mamier Clinch 1 shall presently describe. 
The shutter consists of ei httle swinguig piece of brEiss completely covenr^ the recess 



aiidpinhale, Eind provided with El Utile kilob E[l lis loweieiid ^ee F^ S.inwluchFis 
llie fiantaf llie caoieiEi, B lliebras pkle and C tlie shuttei Tluu i:3 also illu'stialed iii the 
isecond cross seclioii in Fig 4 In the latlei I have depcleditas swung fiome pvotiii 
tlie bra:3:3, aiidiii Fig 3 as hiing fiome sciei* in the wood of the fioiitbaaid, either 
CDnstnictiDii will be effechve 

Lpislly, iIl3 necessary to povide a finder far Iliis camera in order ta know wlial 
pctuie ^u are tiilir^ t'lake a little frame af wire, tlie size of Ihe pkle ^u Eire using, 
and mount it iipiighl (see F^ 5) on lop of Ihe CEimera a:3 close lo Ihe end where the pin 
liole IS as you can At Ihe other end, in Ihe center, eiecl a lillle pale of wire luilf the 
liBighl af the plEile If iiaw ^u loat Eilar^ Ihe lapof liiis litlle pole, llirougli Ihe wiie 
frEime Eind see tliatthe lop of Ihe hllle pale appears in Ihe cenler of the frame, eveiythii^ 
llial ^u see beyond will be 







■ • 
T 



!]■ 



□ 



Fin ElcJ* lad Sbulm Cdd^<iii«lgd 
PmHale Riid ^huTter CDnsJnictiDn 



lEiken Dii the plEile, eis will be made plain by lookir^ af Ihe doffed hnes inF^ 5, loMch 
represents Ihe outer bmifs of yanr vision when confuied within llie hftle frame 




E»[il9iiititn el ArUon ol no Hi»Tc 
Explanation of Action ol Pin Hole 

When yin went Id use Ihiscamem^ fake it info Einabsolulely daib room 




FilLi 



C<iiiflin]tiiiif J FIniIrr lit CiDun 

Canslrucling a Finder for CRmerEi 



anduiserl ei plate (which yau can buy at any supply sfoie far phalogra pliers) in Ihe end 
where the slides of woad Eire, and between them and Ihe back of Ihe boK Close the lid 
and secure if with a couple of iiibbei bands I^ee tliatthe htlle shuflei covers Ihe hole 



Note lake llie caiiieia lo where y]u wish lo tpile a pliologiapli, aiid resi it :3e cutely an 
same solid siuface The eKpasuie will be, mbi^lil sunlight aiid supposir^ llml youi 
cpimeni is ID ui long, aboul aix lo e^hl seconds Tins exposure is made by lifting the 
little brass shullei unhl the liole is uncavered, keepir^ it up Ihe lequired time, and then 
letting itdiapback into ploce It is mipaitnnt Iholthe camera be held r^id duiir^ Ihe 
ei:posuie, and lliatil does rvDtnurh'e and is nal jarred— otlierwise tlie pcluie will be 
biuiiEd Remove Ihe plate in the daik room and pack ilcaiefully in a pasleboaid bos and 
seveiel wiappii^s of paper Id protecl it absolutely from the l^hl 11 is now ready lobe 
cpinied lo some one who knows how to do developing andpinlii^ 

To explain Ihe ELCtion of Ihe pui liole 1 WDulddiiecl RHention lo F^ 1 Here F 
lepiesents Ihe front of the caineia, D Ihe puihole, AA tlie plole and Ihe leHers RR, rays 
from h l^lited caiulle Tliese ray^ of coui'se, mdiale malldiieclians, aninfuu.te 
inultiluEle of them Sinulai m^ mdiale fioine^'eiy pomtof Ihe object, fioni hghl 
leflecledftam these poinls Cerlam of tliese my^ strike the pinhole in the &anl of the 
CEiniem, represented here by RRRR These la^ pass tlirough Ihe pui liole, and as light 
tmvels only in slraight lines, reach tlie plole AA, fonnii^ an ui^'eiled image of tlie 
object, in tins case a caiuUe ma candlestick rvliUions of mys Eire gR'enoffby e^'eiy 
point in eveiy object which is l^hledbyeithei direct or leflecledl^hl To pJl pmcbcal 
pmpases only one of Ihese ra^ from each poinlui an object can pass Ihioi^h a minute 
apeiung like a pn liole Thisbeu^ so, Piny screen which mieiiupis these selected m^ of 
l^lit will sliow upon it a picture of tlie object, only inverted If Ihal screen happens lobe 
a pliolographically sensitive plRle, which is pialecledfiom allotliei l^htbybeii^ ma 
darkboK, upon il will be impruiled a phologmphic image which can be made visible by 
tlie application of ceitain chemicals, wlien it becomes a negalp'e, fiam which moybe 
pnnted positives Tins cameia is not el theorelicEJpassibiLty,bul Einactual feet 1 hpve 
made Find used one successfully, eis ei demonsira lion of pm- liole phalogmphy. 

Unfbr4nOUClack[]d7] 

Remove Ihe liau spring of llie clack, and fasten a spnng lo one end of the pawl and ei 
small wiie lo Ihe alherend Pvfete a shI mtlie case of Ihe clock opposite Ihe pawl Fasten 
the spiii^ on Ihe oulside inanycoiivemenl way Find pEiss llie wire Ihroi^htlie sLi lo an 
ecceninc or alheroscillELlmg body 

To make tlie dial, paste a piece of paper over Ihe old dial, puL the wire back and forth 
one hundred limes, Eind make a maik wliere the minute liand slops Using tins for a unit 
drvide up Ihe whole dial The houi liand lias Einmnei circle of lis own PutlhealEirm 
liand at ei htlle before twelve and wind the alEinn When Ihe alaim is 




Revalulian Re c orule i 



unwomid llie lioiu hiind glEute ana new Inp The clock I used wpis put an en amateui 

wiiidmill and when Ihe liom hand wentaiound aiice S£I,40Q levohiliDns oi jeiks on Ihe 
wiie were made, wlule Ihe ininule liand leconled one- twelfth, af tins number, or 7^D0 — 
Conliibuled by Richard H Raider, InEhanapahs, tnd 

R«uwingDiyB3ilFii« [367] 

Drybatlenes, if not too far gone, can be renewed by simpLyboni^ a smEiU hole 
tlirough tlie composition on lap of each caibon and pouring isame stiar^ sail water or sal 
ammoiuflc solution into the holes Tliistink la sent us by a reader wlio say^ IhRtthe pro- 
cess wall moke Ihe battery lie ailyos goad eis new if it is not loo fei gone beEbiehand 

Saving a Briuli [361] 

If a round biiLsh sprepid^ loo much, shp a robber band over Ihe upper part of Ihe 
bnslles 

Hov la Make a Sin^kBmglar Abrm [3631 

Tpite a piece of Piny woad Pibontflby S in for Ihe base This maybe finished m Piny 
way desired Par the contact points use brass or any sheet metal 




MfT »On"3 



ftufer iiuni 



gim|]lr Borrlir Alflm 

Simple Burglar Alarm 

which will be solisfacloiy Tpile a pece about l-lfl oi 3 in inlenglh and bend the ends 
upaboul HH in ma veilical posilian eis sliown Fasten this to the lop of the baardusii^ 
screws arnmls Uiidei Ihis strip of nielal fasten a copper wiie wliich CEinbe cannected to 
abuulii^-posl on the boEird if desired TEile another piece of racial Eibout4-in ui m 
lenglhand mEike a level af it intlie shape sliownmlhe diagidin Fasten Ihis sa that one 
end of it will swii^ fie ely.bulna I loosely between the ends of tlie athei pecE niPiiked 
C-C Near the end fasten a spual spiing, S, which canbe abtmned Eilmasl anywheie 
Fasten Ihe end of this to the screw marked Z Also fEislen to llus screw a copper wiie 
leading to Ihe bindir^-pasl Intlie la wer end af the lever make a small hole to faslen a 
stiing lliroi^h 

Tins slmig niEiybe fEislened across a doar or ■window and any niave me nt of il 



will pull il lo tlie coiilaci ininl an Ihe nghl If the siring is cul arbiokcn llic spring will 
poll Ihe lever lo tlie conlaci poinl an llic left and Ihus complele Ihe cuciul If Ihe stiii^ lu 
baiTied il will a\so acl as a fue Edarm. 

How to Fit Corks |368] 

Occasianally odd- sized bellies aie received ui sloies lohich leqmie coiks cal Id fit 
llieiii Na mallei how sliarp a knife maybe, il will leave some slimp ei^es aflei cultr^ 
llie caik, winch will cause leakage The illusbEiliDnshaws lluee veiy efieclr/e melhads 
of rediicuig Uie :3ise of CDiti; The one uhown mFig 1 1:3 made from Iwd peces of 1/3- 
m wood fpisleiied lagelhei Eilone end with El CDinmon hinge Two 01 Ihiee graoves are 
cul cious- wise msiaes desired The coik is puluila llie gioove and balk peces aie 
pressed logellier, wluch will make llie cork smaller 

Rollir^ the coikbelweea Iwo flat 




^^mv Mottiedi iut RviliLclnr Sli« cl Cotke 
Three Pvlelhods fax Rediicn^ ^ize af Corks 

uuifaces (F^ 2) is smiple and EiliuasI as goad Pis pressii^ in Ihe grooves A cork rolled 
on the flooi (Fig 3) lu a quick and effective way A slower and equally as good WEiyis 
Id soak Ihe cork mhal walei for El sliorl lime — Conliibuledby L ^zerhp, Brooklyn, N 
Y. 

R^ht Handed Engmt [369] 

li landing al llie c^iidei end and looking toward Ihe flywheel of an engine, the wheel 
will be al the r^hlif Ihe ei^ine t3 i^ht-hand 

Honu-M4d« Crutch [369] 



Wlule a fiactiuedbone was lieEiling mtlie limb of my boy he needed a pan of 
crutches and nolbeuig able lo secure the r^htler^th, I setaboul lo make the cmlches 
fiam iwa bioom liandles 1 sphi Ihe liandles Id wilhin 1 ft of the end (F^ 1) with h np 
saw, and Ihen stiict them m EibELiiel of watei for three da^ Id make Ihe wandphEible 
forbendii^ A gup foi each sbck was made as long as tlie hand is wide and a liole 
boied tluoi^hthe center Ihe sise of a No 10 gauge ivue These gups were ]:iaced 
between the two liatves of each stici al Ihe light dLstance for the ler^th of Ihe bay's 
arm and a wiie iim tliroi^h bath split 



, 



Li 





F4 3 

A Bream UjDdla CruicH 
A Bioom Handle Cnilcli 



,F*.» 



pieces and Ihe liandle Ihennvefed as ^howninF^ 2 Aiiothei pece was culas ishawn 
atA.F^ 3, and nailed la tlie upper ends of each lialfaflhe biooin handle — 
Ca nliibuled by Geo P GieliDie, Nashville, Te on 

H«nu-M4d« N«[ktir HoUer [3A9] 

The £3:3 biRckel IS considered h goodplRce to har^ neckQes, e\'enif itdoeg ciaiwd 
tlieni lagetliei The lUuslialian shows abeEtei nietliod, h cuitainiad atlached la one 
end of a buieaii Two lor^-shanked, square-hooked iscteiws should be used, ga tliey 
maybe sciewedbeiiealhaud close upto Ihe pinjeclir^ lop When removed Ihey will 

leave no 




Har^eifai Ties 

disfiguiir^ holes -ContnbutedbyC W Nemian, WewVoikCily 

How n Mikt 3 Troopers Hanger \^69] 

Secure fiam ^ui Jinsnutha piece of sheel inefal 7 ui wide and 12 in long Cul the 
nielal as sluDwninF^ I Riidiiiake a cloise bend at die point A, but nollao close to 
cause it to break The piece will Ihen appeal rs shown in Fig 2 Cul a piece from the 
WRste loalenal 1^2 m wide and 2-U4m lor^ andbenditaroond the two peces B, 
F^ 2. :3a it will slide tieely on then ler^lh Bend the edge:; C in for 1^ ui ta holdihe 
tioupeis fmnly Drill a hole tluai^hthe top end of B and attach h wue formed into h 
liook for use in hanging on a nail The bottom end of Ihe tiousers in inserledbetiveen 
the jaws C and the small feinile puplied 




Cm from £lir« Hrbd 

CulfrniaSlieeirvfelal 

downlo clfLinp IheinoD Ihe clalh — ConhibuledbyA Levmson, Saginaw, Michigan 

Eaiy D«igiL« in Oritimenlal Ir»n Woik [370| 

Many an uidustiiDus lEid lia:3 mEide money mEmufaclmii^ Ihe CDmiuon fDim? af wood 
biactels, shelves, boKes, jSlEinds, etc , bul Ihe diiyof Ihe scioU sat* and Ihe c^ar-boi: 
wood brae ke I and picluie frame has given way Id Ihe inaie advanced and niDie 
piofilable ^VDik of nielal cansliiicliDn Metal brackels, stands foi lamps, gates, paits of 
aitishc fences faigaiden;, suppoilii^ anns foi s^iis, etc , are aniar^ tlie articles of 
modem limes lliatcome under the headof Ihii^s passible lo constiuclof iranm Ihe 
back roam or attic shop The accampanyuig sketches peseni some of Ihe arhcles 
possible la manufactuie. 



ooa 




FusI, it IS essential lliala hghl room be available, oi a poibouof Ihf cehai wlieie there 



IS l^lil. Di h woikisliop maybe built m Ihe ^rd Buy a moderale sised amil, b vise and a 
fewallieitDols, uicludii^beEhiimiiiei, aiidtlus l3 all lequiied fai coldbeiidir^ If ^u 
go uilo a forge for liol bending, athei devices will be needed F^uie 1 jsIid^vs how Id 
inake Ihe square benrl, gelling Ihe isliDuldei eveu The slnpmelal is isecuiedal tlie 
lianlwme stare aithe uon woiki; Ofleu the ships CRube secured bI law cosi froinjiuil 
dealeii3 Metal slnpi; about 1^ lu wideandl^ui tluck Eiie prefeiable TlieletlerA 
indicates a squaie secbonof uoii^ tlioi^hau anvil would do, oi the bpise of a isection of 
laikoaduan The bend is walked on the earner as atB, cold If a raundedbend is 
desired, Ihe same piacess is applied an Ihe circular piece af uon aitlie ham af an anvil 
Tlus IS sliown m F^ 3,atC Tlus pece of uoncanbe puicliasedatanyjunk stare, 
wheie vanous pieces are always sire wii about Apece about 2D in lang and 4 in m 
diameter IS about the I'^htsize The bend in the metal begins alD and is made 
accordir^ to the leqmiements Occasionally wheie shaip bends oi abrupl coiners are 
needed, the metal is lie ated previous tobendir^ 

Althai^h the workei may produce vaiious forms of slnp-metal wark, the bracket is, 
as a rule, Ihe moslpofitable to handle The plambiacketis shawii mF^ 3,aiidismade 
bybendir^ tlie stnpat the piopei ai^le on form A, aftei wluch the bmce is ad]usledby 
means of nvels A nve thole boni^ laol will be needed A small metal tiumi^ or 
drilling lathe can be purchased far a few dollars and ope rated by liand foi the boiu^, or 
a camiuon hand drill can be used Sameluues tlie brackel is improved in design by add- 
11^ a few curves to Ihe end pieces af Ihe brace, making Ihe effect as shawii inF^ 4 
After these bmckets are made they are coated with asphallum oi Japan, oi Ihe brackets 
maybe painted or stained any desiied shade 

In same of Ihe woik lequiied, it is necessaiy la sliape a cample te loapoi circle at Ihe 
eiidof Ihe piece This maybe wroi^hl outas mF^ 5 Tlie use of abar afuonor steel 
IS as shawii The bans usually about 2 m in diameter and seveial feet m length, sa Ihat 
it will rest firmly on abase of ivoadoi stone Then the beiuling is effected as at F, about 
tliebai E, by re pealed blows with Ihe liamnier Aflera htlle piaclice, ilis passible to 
describe aliuosi any kind of a circle with Ihe tools The barcanbebai^hlat an iron 
dealeis for about 40 cenls Fiom Ihe ]unk pile of junk sliop ane may gel a like bar fai a 
few cents 

A convenient form foi shaping strip metal into pieces required far bmckets, fences, 
gales, arclies, andgeneraltiimimi^s is iliustmtedat Fig if FirsI there ai^litto be abase 
block, G, of hand woad, sayabaiit2 ft squaie Wiiha louiid pouil or goi^ii^ clusel 
work oul Ihe groove to the sise of llie bar, fbmiing a seal, by sinking Ihe bar, H, one-lialf 
its depth inio Ihe wood as shown Inoidei to letaiii thebai secmelyui posilianmtlie 
giaov'e, there sliouldbe twa caps filled over it andsel-sciewedto Ihe woodenbase 
These caps maybe found mjmik dealeis' heaps, lia\ir^ been cast off fioiu 2-m shaft 
boxes Oi if caps are not available, Ihe caps can be canslrucledfiam sheet metal by 
bending to tlie faiinof Ihe bar, allowing side portions or hps forbaiii^, so that Ihe caps 
can be set screwed lo tlie wood Thus ive geta tool wluch can be used on the bench for 
tlie puipose of effecting series of bends mslnps af meTal 

liince Ihe intioduclionof the laivs requinng Ihat sigrts of cerlamsise and projection be 
removed fiani piibhc tlioroughfares in cities, Ihere lias been quite a call foi shoitsign 
bmckets, so lermed, of Ihe aider exhibited in Fig 1 Tliese s^n-suppaituig brackets do 
not extend more than 3 ft oulfiam the building A boy can take orders fai these s^ns m 
almoslanycityor large lawn with a Lille canvassing The s^n supporting brackel 
shown ismeielya si^gesbon Olhei desigiLS maybe wrought out m endless vane ty. A 
hook or eye is needed to suslain Ihe ni^ m Ihe sign 

Tlie yiiing man wha undertakes to construct any sorl of bracket, supports, frames ar 
tlie hke, will find that he will gel many orders foi lainp-suppoiting contrivances, such as 
shown afF^ S Itis liardly necessary la go inio delails 



^ 


^f" 




5* 




h 


': 


p' 


/ 






}. ■'^ 


kl 



'l* 1 





for makuig lliese slands, a^ e\'eiy peil isbenle^ described m coniiec Iron with Ihe 
bending faims, aiidtlie |Bi"tioiis aie sunplynveledatliie diiTerenljuiicluies Bolhuoii 
aiid copper irv'els Rre used Eis al I, ui Fig 9, a cross seclronal vrew 

Tliebest way IS to bore slraighttliioughbalh pieces anduisertliie nv'el In some cases 
tlie rrvel is lieadedup mtlie bore andagarri iffaslieis are used and the lieaduig effecled 
an llie ivasher Cop|Ki rrvels are soft and easilyhandled, butare costly as canipeied 
with lion rive Is 

Goad prices are oblauiedfor Ihe guards for apen fireplaces made inniEinyvEinelres in 
tliese da^ The return of Ihe apen fueplace m made rn houses hiis created a demand fai 
these guards Eind rnF^ 10 we sliow b design far one of them The pasis Eue made 




BufTicienlly Btiffby imilu^ two sides wilhm'els The eiids atlopaie looped as sliown, 
while llie ends orbults atlhe base aie opened duI Io make the feel Riiigs Eue shaped an 
foims aiidare Ihen nveled ta the bpise ciass-piece as illustrated Crosses aie made to de- 
sciibe Io ceiilial des^ii Euidthe plants worked out quite leadily withtlie different 
shapes 

The makiug of metal fire grale fronts Iirs proveu to be a 'h'eiy interesting Eind 
prafilable occupflliDn for boys m recent tunes Kotlong ago il wf\s sufficient fai llie 
ii^eniDus yDutli to turn out juvenile windmills, toy houses Find various httle kmckknacks 
foi Ennuseinent The mademlEid ivanlsmore than this He desiies to turnsome of lus 
piaducluilo cash Therefore we present some of llie patterns of fiie gidtes iflhichbo^ 
liave made andean make p^ain from scrap iroii^ with fei* tools and de\^ces, and find a 
leadymaiketfoi the same ns soon as tliey aie niEide F^ure LI is a sketch of a form of 
file giate bw orfiant tliatis constiucled with a senes of circles of strip metal The best 
way IS to go to the hpirdware store or iron dealer's and buy a quanbty of H4-in , l^i-in , 
and 3/4-m iioii, aboul i'S to 3116 in thict In fact l/16-m metal i^oiild do ui many 
cases wheie the pails Eire ifloiked out smallui size The IfS-m nielal is very strong. 
Thenaflei getbi^ llie supply of ship metal m stock, piacuie the usual type of metal 
woikefs liammei, a clieap anvil, a 9-lb vise, a cold chisel, a file or two, and a round 
piece of shaft uaii, aboul 3 m diameler and 3 to 3 ft lor^ This piece of uon is 
lepiesented at B, Fig 12 

The iron IS heldm position by means of tlie siraps of melal C, C, which are bent over 
tlie shaft t^hllyand grip llie boaidbase with set oi lag sciews as sliowii The wooden 
base sliouldbe about 1 in tluck and large enough to make a good siipporl for the iron 
shaft The process of bendii^ Ihe iii^s ui this way is as sliown The piece of sinpuanis 



^la^lKdatD Then with Ihe hamiiiei Ihe iidiil; giadiially worked cold aboul Ihe 
mandrel e^ elE iintl Ihe perfect foim is Bcqmied Aflei Ihe foim is fimislied, Ihe islnpal 
llie teniuiius of the ni^ is cul aff In aider Id gel a steady base Ihe wooden perl niRyhe 
boiled Id a bench InF^ 13 is sliown tlie melhod of clipping afflhe compleled iii^ 
The cold chisel Ls heldupi^ht, aiidby deliveiing se^'eml blows wilhtlie haminei upon 
tlie same, the pouilis caused to cluptluough Ihe metal and release the iiiig The sluifl ai 
mandrel is marked G The cold clusel is uulicELledatl and the position where the hand 
grasps the ship is bIH The fiiiRl opera lian m shiipi^ the iir^ isbydinng the 
pialruding cut, lip dawn, ta the camnian level of Ihe apposite pomt, llius givii^ us Ihe 
finished luig with Ihe hps closed an Ihe mandrel as at J, Fig 14 Tliese iings can be 
turned outm lliis way very speedily The ne:il opera lian involves Ihe process of imilii^ 
tlie rings m Ihe plon to shnpe Ihe design Tlie des^nwoib is often woikedoiilaheEid Find 
followed Some became sa proficient lliattliey cpin develap h design as Iheypoceed 

Figure II IS a des^nof giate front used for various purposes mconneclian wiihgmie 
flies Tlie series of rings are imiledbya nvet between each at tlie joinii^ pomi With 
Hull melaltlie hales can be punched withaniion punch andhammei on an anvil where 
llieie IS a liole to leceive the pomt af the punch aftei Ihe punch pe lie ti'ates the metal For 
tlie hepvier forms of melal h driL is necessary A nielal drill and brace can be piucliased 
very cheEL ply for Ihis woik Aflei diiUii^ tlie hales, the parts are erected and the rrv'els 
inserled and headed upas each addihanis made Thus tlie series of iii^s are umted and 
tlien the side pieces are similaily irveled The pomis at the tapaie then woikedoutand 
jouiedon These pomIs are filed down to Ihe necessary la per after Ihe iimon is effected 
The fimsliuig waik involves smootlm^ rough places wiiha file andpflmting Asphaltum 
makes a good blact finish lionie of Ihe bestdes^ns of giales are bionzed Some are 
siK'ered The differentdes^ns are finished as desiredby cuslameis 

Figure 15 is another des^n of giale in which llie process of sliaping llie rings is like 
Ihatm Ihe fiistdes^n There are some half circles inllus paltemand lliese are framed 
by shaping Ihe same about Ihe mandrel wilhtlie hammer In order la get Ihe slioulders 
close and Ihe circle complete it is necessary lo heal the melal A cake fire can be made 
ma liole mllie ground Then procure a bn blowpipe andblaw Ihe flame agauisl Ihe 
metal at tlie painl lobe beni This metal will became red hot very saon, and can be bent 
readily pianist the anvil and Ihe circular form Let Ihe metal cool off on Ihe giaund after 
lieating F^ Id is anolhei design 




PI 


t 


J 


rm 


y 








'"^'- • -11 



which can be wioughl aul The middle Eidjiishneiilis wiie scieen wort ivlucli maybe 
boughl al h liardwaie islore Euidisel uiId Ihe poisiliaiisliowii F^ 17 shaifi; a chipping dIT 
device useful iiicoiinecliaii wilhtlui; ^VDik Pvfelal clappers can be boughl al Emy IdoI 
:3lDre The chippeiisplEicedm Ihe jaitfi; of Ihe vise as Ell K, and seemed there The sinp 
af nsetal inpiacess af culling is luaiked M The liainmer head is caused la stale the 
ineliiljuslo^'eitlie cuthi^ edge of Ihe cluppei The quick, hard bloiffc puses llie cutlu^ 
edge Id peiieliale fareiiaugh la se\'erlhe pece Bending coldwilh a wooden faim is done 
asinF^ LE The woadenfoim is marked P pndu aboulS in wide and 7 in Ii^Il fonmi^ 
a one-sided oval shiipe There tj a pmRseluilo lliebpise bapirdof Ihe aval form and Ihe 
stap of melal farbendii^ is giaspedal ^ andtlie olliei eiidis uiseitedback af Ihe pm R By 
applying pessoie, tlie sinp of melal isbeiil la Ihe fonu 

F^uie 19 shows Ihe liom-glass waodbending fonu, made byselecling a piece af hand 
woodbbck, about 6 ui sqiiaie andboiiiig Ujoi^h with an inch bit Then the hole is shaped 
liam-glaus like The view lu a uectianal one Tlie block is placedui Bvise and Ihe stapfar 
beiidii^ IS mseited au al T 

The sinpaf melal IS grasped bI W and CEmbe bentio vaiiousfoinipbyeKeilu^ pressure 
Fig 20 IS Einolherlype of fireplace froni, canslrucledbyuiuting the uhapedmelal peces In 
faclanahiioul endless vpinely of des^ns can be wroughl out aflei Ihe slaitis once niEide A 
gaod WEiy la figuie the price ontlie grate is lo add up Ihe cosls af Ihe pflilsand chaige Eiboul 
1] CEulu per hour for Ihe work 

Uovi n Make 3 Water Wlittl [)74] 



Canpiderable power can be developed with an overshot wale i uiieel erected as m F^ 1. 
This wlieelis made wiUi blocks of wood cut oul msec tons as indicated by Ihe hnes, so as 



lo fonii the cucle [Hopsily Tlic uiieel CEinbe 




"1 

Onnhot BDd Uadrrihcl Wlhch 

CX-ershol and Uiideishol Wheels 



aboul If4in uidiamelertD podocc reaulls and aboul 10 in wide GetuDiiie luicaiis aiid 
attpicli Ihemaramid Ihe wheel as sliown Boie the wlie el center Dulandputon llie gniaved 
wood wheel, P. aiido rope fordiiMi^, R This rope mna to a wooden fimne intlie niEinnei 
illuptniled The wnleiis earned in a isluice afiau, N, lo Ihe fall, O, where the watei dippers 
aie strnctby the volume Pirdfrom 2 to 4hp will be produced with this siae of wheel if 
theie IE suiTicient flowof waler Tlup power cpin be usedfoi runimig two or lluee sewmg 
machines, fpins, fiel-SEiws, and tlie like Anolherfomi of water wheel is shown m F^ 2 
Tins IS dnvenbypin underflow of cuiieni Tins type af wlieel can be made on hiieu uinulai 
to tlie otiier, only tlul the paddles are of wood and e>:tend outward eis shown The wlieel is 
supported in a bearing an the piece IJ A belt, T, conmimuc Piles the pDwer lo the wheel V 
and from here tlie pDwei is earned to any desired point 

Htm To Build An ImilalHuSlTRi Cu Lint [J74] 

Anmiitalion slreetcai Ime may sound like a big uiiderlating,but, mfaci, it is one of Ihe 
episiesl llmigs aboycanconsliiict, does not take much time pndthe eKpsnse is nol great A 
bay who liveu ana fami CEm. find many fine plpices lo runsocha line, and one in lawn con 
liave a luiebelweenthe house and the bam, if they are same distimce apart 

Oflenall the boards andblocbi; requiied canbe had for helping a cpirpentei cleai away 
the rubbish around a new buildup Wheels and parts of aldbic^les, which CEm be used in 
so manyway^, canbe fauiid Pilajnnk shop Pi I 'h'ery law prices, wheel? mgood repair are not 
eKpensive Far the cai foi tlie street car hne tiyto fuidEi setof wheel? hEiMi^ a^les, butif 
^ucEinnatfind soch^ mate i^hafls of hpiid waod, abant 3 m by2-il2 m and by means af ei 
jackknife lum, aii^liave dawn tlie ends to lecei^'e Ihe hnbbeaiir^s of the wheels Fpistenthe 
wlieel hubs securely aver the end? of the wood wilhpmp oi Utile bolts, aiif Ihe wheel 
beaiing is of ijucha natme Ihnl itie'h'olves an its owii]oui]ial, the ]oiJinal CEinbe fastened 
to Ihe end of the wood piece EEich of Ihe wheels sliaiildbe provided with a spocket, 
any chEiinspiactet of a bicycle mEiybe used Fasten these upackela on Ihe outside of 
tlie wlieels as shown inF^ 1 They canbe set on o^'er Ihe beani^ end andsecuied with 
a uet screw, ai Ihe ordinal key canbe employed II is best meases hie tlu'S lo use the 
ordinal perfa ^lEite Ihe flooi of the cai of peces ofboaids plEicedon the a^les and 
iiaded, screwed or bolted, eis sliownat A To eiect tlie fmme, plEice upiights^ C C C C, in 
positianas sliown, fastenir^ tlie ends to tht base-boards and making 




tlie roof hue as Ell B, then put mtlie cross-pieces, G G Seats, E E, are smiplybo:ies The 
diive of Ihe car is effected by using tlie diivu^ sprockets, D D, fitted lo the crosspieces, 
G G, with Ihe or^uml beaiings Tlie parts are thereby secured to Ihe CEirand Ihe chain 
placed on 

Eey Ihe cmnks for tuinir^ to the upper spioc kefs shafland all is ready If lliere are 
sprockel gears Eiiid ciank? on either side, fourboy^ niEiy propel Ihe car at one time 
Cousidemble speed CEinbe made an smooth roads, bul ilis die best amusement to run a 



CM line an i«T)Ddeii Irecks mtli a brake coiisislir^ of a pece of wooden uliafl, pes^ing 
lluoughabaie in Ihe CEufToDi, and fitted wiiha lePLlbeicoveiedpeid eis bIH Aspml 
ijpnr^ holds up the brpike until pesauie is oppLedby foal poioei, when the brake 
contacts with the wooden tiack Eindcliecks the cai 

The tract plains lUustiEiled uiF^ 2 Getaome boaids and place Iheni end for end on 
alheipieces setas lies The mainbapinda or tracts, JJ, canbe aboutfl in wide.tolhe 
ei^es of wluch nail stnpe about 3/4 in wide Eind aboul the 




CaiisJiuclian of Cai 

same he^ht The lies, I I, can be Pilniosl any box boards Wire nails are the besllo use 
inpulting the hacks togelhei The spiocket connection with the cliam is sliownmFig 3 
This consists of Ihe sprockel geai on the propelling sliafl, and the crank The pedals may 
be removed and a chisel handle, or any tool handle, sobshtated. so as to affoid means 

fai tuximig the 



n Q 



S«[iiML al die Trirh 
^eclion of tlie Track 

cmiitby liand power Greol fan can be had with Ihe road, and, forthemiore, it can be 
made lemiinerative, as bo^ andguls cpinbe given iidea for a penny eoch 

CkuiBcfortPqintiiigtlTFl 

Apply a cool of raw starch waler to a dirty wait before peinlii^, Ihis, lohendry, may 

be brushed or wiped off 

Varnirhfor Eltclric TFmninals [J7B] 



A goodvamish for electric terminals is made of aealii^ wix dissah'ed ingpisoline To 
pievenlbntlLeness Eidd a little hiiseed oil 



Mvasuring the Height of a Tree P76] 




Method af Applying Ihc Tnai^l